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CPC Study - Nervous System

The brain and spinal cord make up the: Central Nervous System
The cranial and spinal nerves make up the: Peripheral Nervous System
The PNS is divided into these two systems: Autonomic and Somatic Nervous Systems
The involuntary motor and sensory nerves of viscera make up the: Autonomic Nervous System
The motor and sensory nerves of skeletal muscles make up the: Somatic Nervous System
Primary cells of nervous system: neurons
Afferent Neurons sensory cells
Efferent Neurons motor cells
Interneurons associational cells
This part of a neuron receives signals: dendrites
This part of a neuron contains the nucleus: cell body
This part of a neuron carries signals from cell body: axon
This part of a neuron provides insulation around axon: myelin sheath
These are the secondary cells of the nervous system: glia
4 types of glia: astrocytes, microglia, oligodendrocytes, ependymal
These star-shaped glia transport water and salts between capillaries and neurons: astrocytes
These multiple-branching processes protect neurons from inflammation: microglia
These glia form the myelin sheath of a neuron: oligodendrocytes
These glia make up the lining membrane of brain and spinal cord where central spinal fluid circulates: Ependymal
The brain is made up of these 4 main parts: brainstem, diencephalon, cerebellum, cerebrum
The brainstem is made up of these 3 parts: medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain
This is the center of respiratory and cardiovascular systems: medulla oblongata
This contains the hypothalamus and thalamus: diencephalon
This controls the autonomic nervous system, body temperature, sleep, appetite and pituitary hypothalamus
This relays impulses to cerebral cortex for sensory system (pain) thalamus
This controls voluntary movement and balance: cerebellum
This is the largest part of the brain: cerebrum
This controls the mental processes, personality, sensory interpretation, movements and memory cerebrum
The lobes of the brain: frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, insular
How many vertebrae are there? 33
Name the 5 divisions of the vertebral column and the number of vertebrae in each: 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacrum (fused in adults), 4 coccygeal (fused in adults)
3 layers of meninges: dura mater (external), arachnoid mater, pia mater (internal)
What is the primary function of the meninges? to protect the central nervous system
Types of nerves in the PNS and pairs of nerves in each: 12 pairs of cranial nerves, 31 pairs of spinal nerves
Divisions of Autonomic Nervous System: sympathetic system, parasympathetic system
This system functions in fight or flight: sympathetic system
This system functions to restore and conserve energy: parasympathetic system
Craniectomy permanent, partial removal of skull
Craniotomy opening of the skull
Discectomy removal of vertebral disc
Laminectomy surgical excision of posterior arch of vertebra - includes spinal process
Electroencephalography recording of the electric currents of the brain by means of electrodes attached to the scalp
Shunt artificial passage
Sensory or motor nerve: somatic nerve
This type of nerve controls automatic body function: sympathetic nerve
Trephination surgical removal of a disk of bone (Burr hole)
This is the most common type of dementia: Alzheimer's Disease
Vascular dementia is a result of: brain infarctions (vascular occlusion resulting in loss of brain function)
What behavior is Nutritional Degenerative Disease associated with? alcoholism
What is the common name for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis? Lou Gehrig's Disease
This disease is a deterioration of neurons of spinal cord and brain, resulting in atrophy of muscles and loss of motor skills and is usually fatal in 2 to 5 years: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
This is an inherited progressive atrophy of cerebrum: Huntington's Disease (Chorea)
This disease is caused by a genetic defect of chromosome 4, is incurable and it's primary symptoms are restlessness, rapid, jerky movements in arm and face, rigidity: Huntington's Disease
A disorder of the brain caused by a decreased secretion of dopamine: Parkinson's Disease
This is the demyelination of CNS - replaced by sclerotic tissue: Multiple Sclerosis
Autoimmune neuromuscular condition where antibodies block neurotransmission to muscle cells causing muscle weakness: Myasthenia Gravis
What does Tourette Syndrome begin with? twitching eyelids and facial muscles
This contagious viral disease causes paralysis and respiratory failure: Poliomyelitis
PPS is also known as Postpolio Syndrome and also: Postpoliomyelitis neuromuscular atrophy
3 other names for Guillain-Barre Syndrome: idiopathic polyneuritis, acute inflammatory polyneuropathy, Landry's ascending paralysis
List 12 Dementias: Alzheimer's Disease, vascular dementia, nutritional degenerative disease, ALS, Huntington's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, MS, MG, Tourette Syndrome, Poliomyelitis, PPS, Guillain-Barre Syndrome
List 2 Congenital Neurologic Disorders: Hydrocephalus, Spina Bifida
This is excessive amounts of cerebrospinal fluid circulating in ventricles of brain: Hydrocephalus
Birth defect which causes incomplete development of spinal cord and its coverings: Spina Bifida
2 Types of Spina Bifida: Spina Bifida Occulta (no protrusion through defect), Spina Bifida Manifesta (includes myelomeningocele and meningocele)
What is Myelomeningocele? meninges and spinal cord protrude through defect (spina bifida cystica)
What is Meningocele? meninges herniated through defect
symptoms of this mental disorder include delusions of persecution or grandeur, disorganized thought, repetitive behaviors, loss of emotions, hallucinations: Schizophrenia
Name 6 Vascular Disorders of the CNS: transient ischemic attack, cerebrovascular accident, aneurysm, encephalitis, Reye's Syndrome, brain abscess
A temporary reduction of blood flow to brain producing strokelike symptoms but no lasting damage: transient ischemic attack
This is an infarction of brain due to lack of blood/oxygen flow: CVA (Stroke)
3 causes of a stroke: atherosclerotic disease (thrombus), embolus, hemorrhage (arterial aneurysm)
A stroke resulting in high ICP, widespread damage and possibly death is caused by: hemorrhage
3 underlying conditions treated after a stroke: hypertension, atherosclerosis, thrombus
What is a cerebral aneurysm? dilation of an artery
This is an (often viral) infection of parenchymal tissue of brain or spinal cord: encephalitis
4 types of encephalitis Herpes simplex, Lyme disease, West Nile fever, Western equine
This disease causes fatty liver and severe encephalopathy: Reye's Syndrome
What is a brain abscess? localized infection or necrosis of brain tissue
Another name for partial seizures? focal seizures
Another name for absence seizures? petit mal
This type of general seizure is also known as a gran mal seizure or an ictal event: tonic-clonic
4 locations of hematomas associated with head injury: epidural, subdural, subarachnoid, intracerebral
5 classifications of vertebra injuries: simple, compression, comminuted, dislocation, flexion
4 types of gliomas: glioblastoma, oligodendrocytoma, ependymoma, astrocytoma
Glioblastoma malignant tumor located deep in the white matter of cerebral hemispheres
Oligodendrocytoma malignant tumor located in frontal lobes of brain
Ependymoma malignant tumor located in ventricles and is most common in children
Astrocytoma invasive but slow-growing malignant tumor in brain and spinal cord
4 types of pineal tumors: germ cell tumor, pineocytoma, teratoma, germinoma
Where is an angioma usually located? posterior cerebral hemispheres
Where is a hemangioblastoma located? cerebellum
Where is a medulloblastoma located? posterior cerebellar vermis (fourth ventricle roof)
Where does a meningioma originate? arachnoid
What type of tumor is a macroadenoma? pituitary tumor
Neurilemmomas are most commonly found on this cranial nerve: VIII
Where does an intramedullary spinal cord tumor originate? neural tissue
Where does an extramedullary spinal cord tumor originate? outside the spinal cord
The 2 most common types of primary extramedullary tumors: meningioma, neurofibroma
This gland is located at the base of the brain in a depression in the the skull: pituitary gland
Left side of the body is controlled by: right cerebrum
Right side of the body is controlled by: left cerebrum
Cranial Nerve I controls: smell
Cranial Nerve II controls: sight
Cranial Nerves III, IV, VI control: eye movement
Cranial Nerve V controls: chewing
Cranial Nerve VII controls: facial expression
Cranial Nerve VIII controls: hearing
Cranial Nerve IX, (with help from X) controls: taste
Cranial Nerve X controls: voice
Cranial Nerve XI controls: head movement
Cranial Nerve XII controls: tongue
Created by: dropgallow