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L2 Mech Of Disease

Characteristics, classification and nomenclature of disease

QuestionShort answerLong answer
Aetiology the cause(s) of a disease the initiator of the subsequent events resulting in the patient's illness
Natural history of a disease its usual course from beginning to end without treatment (blank)
Lesions structural alterations that occur in tissues. May be recognisable by gross or microscopic examination
2 types of clinical manifestations of a disease symptoms, physical signs the obvious effects of the disease
Symptoms subjective abnormalities the patient experiences eg nausea, chest pain (blank)
Physical signs Objective findings eg heart murmur, swelling of feet. Sometimes noted by the patient but which can be confirmed by the physician
Complications and sequelae the secondary, systemic or remote consequences of a disease. Complications = complicates what you are suffering from eg bacterial infection due to virus -> pneumonia...Sequelae = after pneumonia you may get scar tissue laid down in lungs then 20 yrs later get difficulty in breathing
Prognosis the anticipated course of the disease in terms of cure, remission or fate of the patient
Pathogenicity Ability (high, low, etc) of a microorganism to cause disease Capacity to cause disease. It is a quality of the organism.eg bacteria vary greatly in their pathogenicity (high, low etc)
Pathogen any disease-causing microorganism or substance (blank)
Virulence measure of the pathogenicity of an organism by the ability to invade host tissues and cause disease, or by case fatality rates (blank)
Health a state of harmony between the organism and its environment. it signifies an internal harmony amongst the individual's cells, fluids, tissues and organs
Mortality the probability that death will be the end result of the disease. Usually expressed as a percentage a disease with high mortality will kill a larger proportion of the population
Epidemiology the study of the incidence and distribution of a disease within populations epidemiologists find out associations
Idiopathic no known cause (blank)
Congenital diseases present at birth (blank)
Aquired diseases develop after birth most aquired diseases are due to environmental causes and can be classified according to aetiology or pathogenesis
Pathogenesis the mechanism causing the disease Describes the sequence of events, from beginning to conclusion, including the mechanisms involved in that process
diseases due to a combination of causes are said to have a : multifactorial aetiology (blank)
risk factors giving a permisive effect in facilitating the development of a disease in an individual: nutritional status, genetic influences, pre-existing immunity, certain constitutional traits, occupations, habits, habitats etc (blank)
in the absence of any known cause a disease is classified aetiologically as: primary, idiopathic, essential, spontaneous or cryptogenic all these terms have the same meaning, but are used in their own special contexts eg essential hypotention, spontaneous pneumothorax, cryptogenic cirrhosis.
Causal association a marker for the risk of developing a disease, but it is not necesarily the actual cause of the disease. the stronger the causal association, the more likely it is to be the aetiology of the disease.
Toxic diseases caused by poisons or toxins (blank)
Infectious diseases result from invasion of the body by living pathogenic agents such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa or helminths (worms) (blank)
Physical injury includes trauma, injury produced by heat, cold, electricity and radiation trauma = mechanical injury
Allergic diseases result from unusual sensitivity to some specific antigen which promotes an excessive immunological response eg asthma, hayfever. aberrant immune response. Reaction to harmless antigen. Reacting to non-self.
Autoimmune diseases caused by an aberrant immune response directed against some component of the host reaction to self
Neoplastic diseases diseases characterised by the uncoordinated growth of cells (blank)
Nutritional disease usually result from a diet deficient in amount (starvation), or in some essential ingredients, or from an ecsessive intake of food (obesity). Occasionally it may be as a result of an abnormality of the digestive tract leading to malabsorption (blank)
Psychosomatic disease Brought on by psychological factors has it beginnings in emotions and is mediated largely through the autonomic nervous system.
predisposing or secondary causes conditioning factors that permit the primary cause to act eg wetting, chilling of the body in the case of pneumonia
Topography where it is (blank)
Morphology how it is described (blank)
Syndrome a disease characterised by multiple abnormalities a combination of signs and symptoms or a combination of lesions characteristic of a particular disease, without which the disease cannot be recognised or diagnosed. No one feature alone being diagnostic. eg Cushing's syndrome
morbid entities illnesses (blank)
Pathological and clinical manifestations the structural and functional features of the disease (blank)
The characteristics of any disease are: aetiology, pathogenesis, manifestations, compications and sequelae, prognosis, epidemiology (blank)
multifactorial aetiology disease due to a combination of causes such as genetic factors and infective agents (blank)
premalignant conditions diseases associated with an increased risk of cancer eg hepatic cirrhosis predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma. Ulerative colitis predisposes to carcinoma of the large intestine
Premalignant lesion the histologically identifiable antecedent lesion from which a cancer directly develops (blank)
Inflammation a response to many microorganisms and other harmful agents causing tissue injury (blank)
Degeneration a deterioration of cells or tissues in response to, or failure of adaptation to, a variety of agents (blank)
Carcinogenesis the mechanism by which cancer-causing agents result in the development of tumours (blank)
Immune reactions undesirable effects of the body's immune system (blank)
Pathognomonic pathological feature characteristic of a particular disease eg Reed-Sternberg cells are pathognomonic of Hodgkin's disease: they are exceptionally rare in any other condition
ana- absence eg anaphylaxis
dys- disordered eg dysplasia
meta- change from one state to another eg metaplasia
-itis an inflammatory process eg appendicitis
-oma a tumour eg carcinoma
-osis state or condition, not necessariliy pathological eg osteoarthrosis
-penia lack eg thrombocytopenia
-cytosis increased number of cells, usually in the blood eg leukocytosis
-ectasis dilatation eg bronchiectasis
-plasia disordered growth eg hyperplasia
-opathy abnormal state lacking in specific characteristics eg lymphadenopathy
Created by: skiwi