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A&PI - Ch 6

Bones & Skeletal Tissues

growth from outside; cartilage forming cells in perichondrium form new matrix; growth accomplished by addition of new layers onto those previously formed appositional
growth from within; chondrocytes inside cartilage divide & secrete new matrix, expanding cartilage from within interstitial
cartilage growth ends during adolescence
hyaline , elastic & fibrocartilage are all skeletal cartilages
bones that are longer than they are wide; has shaft plus 2 ends; long bones
all limb bones are long bones except carpal, tarsal bones & patellar
cube-shaped bones of wrist & ankle short bones
type of short bones that form within tendons (e.g. patella) sesamoid bones
thin, flattened bones; sternum, scapulae, ribs & most skull bones flat bones
bones w/complicated shapes; vertebrae & hip bones irregular bones
support, protect, movement, mineral storage, blood cell formation functions of bones
external surfaces of bones; show projections, depressions, openings, e.g. tubercle, spine, process, facet, foramen etc. bone markings
bone markings are for attachment for muscles, ligaments, & tendons
bone markings form __ __ joint surfaces
bone markings are for __ of blood vessels & nerves passage
dense outer layer, smooth & solid compact bone
internal layer made of needle-like trabeculae spongy/cancellous bone
shaft; composed of compact bone that surrounds medullary cavity which contains marrow diaphysis of long bones
expanded ends; compact bone on outside & spongy bone on inside epiphyses of long bones
joint surface of epiphyses, of long bones, covered w/__ cartilage hyaline
where epiphysial plate used to be; btwn diaphysis & epiphyses epiphyseal line of long bones
region where epiphysis & diaphysis meet (could be epiphyseal plate/line) metaphysis of long bones
double-layered membrane; covers outer surface of bone, richly supplied w/nerve fibers, blood vessels periosteum of long bones
periosteum, of long bones, have __ __ layer of connective tissue outer fibrous
periosteum, of long bones, have __ __ layer, composed of osteoblasts & osteoclasts inner osteogenic
originating in bone; development & formation of bone osteogenic
delicate membrane covering, internal surfaces of bone; has osteoblasts & osteoclasts endosteum of long bones
covered compact bone on outside w/endosteum covered spongy bone on inside periosteum of short, irregular, & flat bones
short, irregular, & flat bones __ __ diaphysis, epiphyses, or medullary cavity have no
short, irregular, & flat bones contain __ __ btwn trabeculae bone marrow
bone marrow at birth is __ __ red marrow
red marrow, in infants, is found in __ cavity of diaphysis medullary
red marrow, in infants, is found in __ __ of spongy bone all areas
red marrow, in adults, found in __ __ __ spongy bone cavities
red marrow, in adults, found in __ of femur & humerus head
medullary cavities, in adults, contain __ fat
sites for obtaining red marrow samples for diagnosis sternum & iliac crest
compact bone has __ system Haversian
structural unit made of hollow tubes of matrix osteon
one of bony concentric layers surrounding Haversian canals in bone lamella of compact bone
runs through each osteon; contains blood vessels & nerves central canal of compact bone
any of small channels in bone that transmit blood vessels from periosteum into bone; lie perpendicular to & communicate w/Haversian canals Volkmann's canal
Volkmann's canals connect blood & nerve supply of __ to that of __ __ periosteum; central canals
osteocytes lie in __ at __ of lamellae, in compact bone lacunae; junctions
one of hair-like channels ramifying a haversian system in bone & linking lacunae w/one another & w/Haversian, within compact bone canaliculi
spongy bone composed of __, needle-like pieces of bone, w/spaces in btwn trabeculae
trabeculae, of spongy bone, contain __ __ lamellae & osteocytes connected by canaliculi irregularly arranged
no osteons present in __ bone spongy
osteogenic cells are stem cells
osteoblasts are bone-forming cells
osteocytes are mature bone cells
osteoclasts are cells that resorb/break down bone
unmineralized bone matrix composed of ground substance & collagen fibers, organic cell osteoid
mineral salts are __ inorganic
65% of bone mass is mineral salts
mineral salts are mainly salts of calcium phosphate
processes of bone tissue formation osteogenesis & ossification
osteogenesis & ossification leads to formation of __ __ in embryos bony skeleton
osteogenesis & ossification leads to __ __ until early adulthood bone growth
osteogenesis & ossification leads to __ __ in adult life bone thickness
osteogenesis & ossification leads to __ & __ in adult life remodeling; repair
begins at 8th week embryonic development formation of bony skeleton
bone develops from a fibrous membranes; relating to, formed by, or being ossification of a membrane intramembranous ossification
bone forms by replacing hyaline cartilage; relating to, formed by, or being ossification that takes place from centers arising in cartilage endochondral ossification
ossification that involves deposition of lime salts in cartilage matrix, followed by 2ndary absorption & replacement by true bony tissue endochondral
__ ossification involved in formation of most of flat bones of skull, frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal & clavicles intramembranous
intramembranous ossification begins by 8th week of development
in intramembranous ossification, 1st spongy bone formed, then gets enclosed by compact bone
all other bones of skeleton formed by endochondral ossification of __ __ __ hyaline cartilage models
endochondral ossification begins by 8th week of development w/appearance of __ __ __ primary ossification centers
__ skeleton ossifies in predictable timetable embryonic
at birth, most long bones are well __, except for their __ which consists of cartilage ossified; epiphyses
shortly after birth __ ossification centers appear secondary
after birth, epiphyses __ ossify
when 2ndary ossification is complete, in long bones hyaline cartilage remains as articular cartilages & epiphyseal plates
cartilage on surface of epiphysis articular cartilage
located at junction of epiphysis & diaphysis; unites it with shaft, and is site of longitudinal growth of bone epiphyseal plate
during infancy & youth, long bones lengthen by interstitial growth of cartilage of epiphyseal plate, which is being replaced by bone
during infancy & youth, appositional growth of bones from osteoblasts beneath periosteum
as adolescence ends, growth of cartilage becomes __, less
as adolescence ends, __ __ become thin epiphyseal plates
as adolescence ends, epiphyseal plates & cartilage then replaced by bone
when bones of epiphysis & diaphysis fuse; bone lengthening stops (18y in f & 21y in m) epiphyseal plate closure
by age 25, nearly all bones are __ __ completely ossified
in childhood, bone formation exceeds __ resorption
in youth, bone formation & resorption are __ balanced
after 40 years bone mass __ w/age decreases
in old age, bone resorption __ predominates
depends on gender, race, & genetics bone mass
stimulates epiphyseal plate activity during infancy & childhood growth hormone
initially promote growth spurts during puberty; cause masculinization & feminization of specific parts of skeleton; later induce epiphyseal plate closure, ending longitudinal bone growth testosterone & estrogens
bone remodeling includes bone __ & __ deposition; resorption
hormonal mechanism maintains calcium homeostasis in blood; mechanical & gravitational forces acting on skeleton control of remodeling
fall in blood Ca levels signal parathyroid glands to release parathyroid hormone (PTH)
signals osteoclasts to resorb bone matrix & release Ca into blood PTH
once __ __ levels rise, PTH secretion will decrease blood Ca
rise in blood Ca2+ levels triggers release of calcitonin
stimulates calcium salt deposit in bone, reducing blood Ca levels calcitonin
effects of calcitonin are __ __ in adults less important
bone grows/remodels in response to forces/demands placed upon it; bones become stronger where stresses are acting Wolff’s law
reflects stresses bone is under bone anatomy
long bones are thickest __ along shaft, where bending stress is greatest midway
are thickest where they are most likely to buckle curved bones
large, bony projections occur where heavy, active muscles attach
position of bone ends after fracture nondisplaced/ displaced
completeness of break complete/incomplete
orientation of bone to long axis linear/ transverse
whether or not bones ends penetrate skin compound (open)/ simple (closed)
bone fragments into 3+ pieces; particularly common in aged, whose bones are more brittle comminuted
bone is crushed; common in porous bone (osteoporotic bones) subjected to extreme trauma, as in fall compression
ragged break occurs when excessive twisting forces are applied to bone; common sports fracture spiral
epiphysis separated from diaphysis along epiphyseal plate; tends to occur where cartilage cells are dying & calcification of matrix is occurring epiphyseal fracture
broken bone portion is pressed inward; typical of skull fracture depressed
bone breaks incompletely; only one side of shaft breaks, other side bends; common in children, whose bones have relatively organic matrix & are more flexible than adult's greenstick fracture
stage in healing of bone fracture when torn blood vessels hemorrhage, mass of clotted blood forms at fracture site; site become swollen, painful, & inflamed hematoma formation
few days after hematoma formation, __ __ forms fibrocartilaginous callus
when fibrocartilaginous callus forms, __ __ appears which is a soft callus granulation tissue
during fibrocartilaginous callus formation, __ __ begin cleaning debris phagocytic cells
during fibrocartilaginous callus formation, __ & __ grow forming collagen & some cartilage matrix produced capillaries; fibroblasts
new bone trabeculae appear in fibrocartilaginous callus, which converts into a bony (hard) callus & begins week after injury, continues until firm union is formed 2 months later - all during bone callus formation
excess material on bone shaft exterior & in medullary canal removed & compact bone laid down to reconstruct shaft walls during bone remodeling
bones of adults are inadequately mineralized causing softened, weakened bones; main symptom is pain when weight is put on the affected bone; caused by insufficient calcium in diet, or by vitamin D deficiency osteomalacia
bones of children are inadequately mineralized causing soft weakened bones; bowed legs & deformities of pelvis, skull, & rib cage are common; caused by insufficient calcium in diet, or by vitamin D deficiency; has been essentially eliminated in US rickets
group of diseases in which bone resorption out-paces bone deposition; occurs most often in postmenopausal women osteoporosis
in osteoporosis, spongy bone of spine is __ __ most vulnerable
in osteoporosis, bones become so fragile that can __ __ easily fracture
includes, calcium & vitamin D supplements, increased weight-bearing exercise, hormone (estrogen) replacement therapy (HRT) slows bone loss osteoporosis treatment
skeletal cartilage is made of some variety of cartilage tissue, which consists primarily of water
accounts for cartilage's resilience, or ability to spring back to original shape after being compressed high water content
cartilage containing no nerves/blood vessels, surrounded by layer of dense irregular connective tissue called perichondrium
articular, costal, respiratory, & nasal cartilages are made up of __ cartilage hyaline
support external nose nasal cartilage
for skeleton on larynx & reinforce respiratory passageways respiratory cartilages
connect ribs to sternum costal cartilages
cover ends of most bones at movable joints articular cartilages
more flexible than hyaline cartilage; better able to stand up to repeated bending; found only in epiglottis & external ear elastic cartilages
consist of roughly parallel rows of chondrocytes alternating w/thick collagen fibers; most compressible; resistant to stretch; forms vertebral discs & knee joint (menisci) cartilages fibrocartilages
bones are named for their __ shape, not __ size elongated; overall
some sesamoid bones alter __ of pull of a tendon direction
because they contain various types of __ bones are __ tissue; organs
blood cell formation hematopoiesis
mature bone cells osteocytes
location of red bone marrow spongy bone
cartilage cells chondrocytes
bone-forming cells osteoblasts
shaft of a long bone diaphysis
hollow space in the shaft medullary cavity
expanded portion of the long bone at its ends epiphysis
fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outer surface of long bone periosteum
thin connective tissue membrane that lines the medullary cavity endosteum
process of bone formation osteogensis
replacement of connective tissue membranes with bony tissue intramembranous ossification
replacement of hyaline cartilage with bony tissue endochondral ossification
growth region (in length) of the long bone epiphyseal plate
growth of bone in diameter appositional growth
narrow passageways that contain cytoplasmic extensions of osteocytes canaliculi
basic functional unit of compact bone osteon
tiny plates of bone material found in spongy bone trabeculae
concentric rings that surround the Haversian canal lamellae
perforating canals that carry interconnected blood vessels to the Haversian canal Volkmann canals
structures contained in the central canal of an osteon blood vessels
substance contained in the medullary cavity of bones in an adult yellow bone marrow
substance contained in the spaces of the spongy bone red bone marrow
The inorganic minerals contained in the intercellular matrix of bone calcium phosphate (hydroxyapatite)
hormone that functions to decrease the level of calcium in the blood calcitonin
hormone that raises the level of calcium ions in the blood parathyroid hormone
hormone that is used in hormone therapy to reduce osteoporosis estrogen
elevated levels of a hormone that could cause premature closure of the epiphyseal plates testosterone
hormone that is necessary for proper bone formation thyroid hormone
painful infection of the bone often caused by bacteria osteomyelitis
condition occurs with aging that causes a gradual reduction in bone mass osteopenia
hypersecretion of parathyroid hormone would produce changes in the bone similar to those associated with this disorder osteomalacia
condition causing bow legs in a child rickets
painful condition that occurs when the bones become weak and thin and tend to fracture easily osteoporosis
fracture in which the bone breaks cleanly and does not penetrate the skin simple fracture
fracture that has broken ends of the bone protrude through the soft tissues and the skin compound fracture
fracture in which the bone is crushed compression fracture
fracture in which bone fragments into many pieces comminuted fracture
long bone femur of the leg
short bone carpals of wrist
flat bone sternum of breastbone
irregular bone vertebrae of spinal column and hip bones
sesamoid bone patella of knee
large, rough, rounded projections tuberosity
crest narrow ridge of bone
trochanter very large, blunt, irregularly-shaped process
tubercle small rounded projection or process
spine sharp, slender, often pointed projection
bony expansion carried on a narrow neck head
smooth, nearly flat articular surface facet
rounded articular projection condyle
arm-like bar of bone ramus
meatus canal-like passageway
sinus cavity within a bone
fossa shallow, basin-like depression in a bone, often serving as an articular surface
groove furrow
fissure narrow, slit-like opening
foramen round or oval opening through a bone
formation of compact bone plates and red marrow stage 4 of intramembranous ossification
formation of bone matrix within the fibrous membrane stage 2 of intramembranous ossification
formation of an ossification center in the fibrous membrane stage 1 of intramembranous ossification
formation of woven bone and the periosteum stage 3 of intramembranous ossification
calcification of cartilage in the center of the diaphysis stage 2 of endochondral ossification
formation of bone collar around the diaphysis of the hyaline model stage 1 of endochondral ossification
ossification of the epiphysis stage 5 of endochondral ossification
formation of the medullary cavity as ossification continues stage 4 of endochondral ossification
invasion of internal cavities by the periosteal bud and spongy bone formation stage 3 of endochondral ossification
cartilage cells undergo mitosis stage 1 in growth of a long bone
dead cartilage cells appear; matrix begins deteriorating stage 3 in growth of a long bone
ossification occurs on the epiphyseal plate next to the medullary cavity stage 4 in growth of a long bone
cartilage cells undergo hypertrophy followed by calcification of the matrix stage 2 in growth of a long bone
hyaline most abundant skeletal cartilage
fibrocartilage able to withstand large amounts of compression
elastic cartilage located in the external ear and epiglottis
protection function of the skeletal system that encloses brain and other soft organs
movement function of the skeletal system that provides site of attachment for skeletal muscles
mineral storage function of the skeletal system that provides calcium phosphate repository
hematopoiesis function of the skeletal system that provides blood cell production
osteoblast bone-building cell
osteoclast bone-destroying cell
osteocyte mature bone cell
bone stem cell osteoprogenitor cell
diaphysis primary ossification center
epiphysis secondary ossification center
epiphyseal plate site of length increase in long bones
endochondral ossification process of long bone development
hematoma formation caused by tearing of blood vessels in and around fracture site
fibrocartilage callus activity of fibroblasts and osteoblasts creates an overgrown splint around the fracture site
bony callus formation trabeculae invade callus and begin to replace fibrous tissue
bone remodeling excess bony material is removed from the external and internal surfaces of the diaphysis
lamellae layers of bone
lacunae cavities in bone where bone cells live
collagen major organic fiber of bone
calcium phosphate major inorganic component of bone
long bone has length greater than width
short bone equal length and width
irregular bone bone with complex shape
flat bone thin bone
sesamoid bone ovoid bone found in tendon
osteoporosis condition that produces a reduction in bone mass sufficient to compromise normal function
periosteum does not cover sesamoid bones or the articular surfaces of bones, and it does not extend around tendon and ligament insertions on bone
intramembranous ossification begins at approximately the eighth week of development; cells cluster within the mesenchymal membrane and become osteoblasts (bone-forming cells)
estrogen maintains normal bone mass by inhibiting the stimulatory effects of parathyroid hormone on osteoclast activity; in post menopausal women can cause osteoporosis
yellow bone marrow bones of the skeleton store energy reserves as lipids
osteocytes mature bone cells that are embedded in the matrix
osteocytes are contained in lacunae of bone
endochondral ossification process of bone growth at the epiphyseal plate is similar to
compact bone and spongy bone two types of osseous tissue
long bones have reached their adult length when the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone
intramembranous ossification begins within a connective tissue membrane
fracture in the shaft of a bone would occur in the diaphysis
interstitial growth growth of a cartilage in which the chondrocytes within the matrix become active and proliferate
through canaliculi, osteocytes maintain contact with the blood vessels of the central canal
spongy bone does not contain true osteons
bones in the long axis of the body make up axial skeleton
avascular and receives most of its nourishment from the perichondrium that surrounds it characteristic of skeletal cartilage that limits its thickness
menisci of the knee are made of fibrocartilage
chondrocytes divide and secrete new matrix from within the cartilage best describes interstitial growth of cartilage
__ bones act to alter the direction of tendon pull sesamoid
vitamin D is not stored in matrix of bones
anchors the periosteum to the underlying bone perforating/Sharpey's fibers
site where bone marrow is routinely sampled in an adult sternum
twisting of a long bone is prevented by circumferential lamella
hydroxyapatite in bone matrix that gives bone its hardness is primarily composed of calcium and phosphates
before eight weeks, the skeleton of the human embryo is composed of fibrous membrane
rickets can occur when breastfeeding mother becomes vitamin D deficient
collagen lends __ __ to bone matrix flexible strength
provides the template of the eventual mature bone cartilage model
excess __ __ prior to puberty would result in gigantism growth hormone
growth hormone stimulates skeletal and muscular growth and development
parathyroid hormone stimulates __ __ when the calcium level in the blood is low osteoclast activity
some skull bones, part of the mandible, and the diaphyses of the clavicles develop from membranes
secondary ossification centers occur in the epiphyses
osteocytes are located in the lacunae
calcitonin stimulates __ __ by drawing calcium ions from the blood and depositing them in the bone tissues osteoblast activity
calcium most abundant mineral in the human body
calcium is the __ __ that makes up the skeleton major mineral
bone growth __ when the epiphyseal plate is present continues
once the epiphyseal plate is replaced by the epiphyseal line bone growth ceases
vitamin D is necessary for absorption and transport of calcium and phosphate ions
osseous tissue is __ __ and heals readily very vascular
appositional growth adds __ to the cartilage girth
because their length is greater than width metacarpals are long bones
increase in parathyroid hormone can cause bones to become porous and brittle
PTH targets bone and liberates calcium into the blood
sesamoid bones are a special type of short bone that are usually found within tendons, which are made of dense connective tissue
spongy bone located in flat bones special name diploe
appendicular skeleton includes upper and lower limb bones
ribs belong to axial skeleton
bones serve as a(n) __ __ of calcium important reservoir
yellow marrow can revert to red marrow if more red blood cells are needed by the body
Haversian system structural unit of compact bone
spongy bone does not contain osteons
collagen fibers do not provide for bone hardness
endochondral ossification forms majority of bones below the base of the skull
intermembranous ossification leads to formation of cranial bones
hyaline cartilage can be found at epiphyseal plates at the end of secondary ossification
in adolescence, the "growth spurt" that is observed is mainly attributed to a(n) increase in sex hormones
when Ca2+ concentration in the blood becomes lower than normal parathyroid hormone is released
patient is brought to the emergency room with a broken bone. According to the x-ray, the bone is fragmented into three pieces would be considered comminuted fracture
Created by: lfrancois