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Functional Areas

AICP Functional Areas of Practice

QuestionAnswer
This method of sewage treatment involves screening, skimming, and settling. Primary treatment
This method of sewage treatment involves involves settling and at least one biological process (e.g. activated sludge, stabilization ponds, or trickling filters). Secondary treatment
This method of sewage treatment focuses on the removal of pollutants, specific organic compounds, and/or specific inorganic ions (namely phosphates and nitrates). Tertiary treatment
This person published the 1864 “Man and Nature” which presented an argument for environmental land use planning. George Marsh
This author wrote the 1878 book “Arid Region of the United States” which put Marsh’s ideas of environmental land use planning into practice, while introducing the concept of “land capacity.” John Powell
This1917 book by Thomas Adams argued for agricultural preservation, subdivision ordinances, and land suitability analyses in Canada. Rural Planning and Development
This person established ecologically-based rural land classifications and developed the relationship between environmentalism and land use planning in the 1944 book “Natural Principles of Land Use” Edward Graham
This 1969 book by Ian McHarg established an influential model for env. land use planning using overlays, enhanced the idea of land suitability analysis, created an ecological-based design process, and foreshadowed modern environmental policy. Design with Nature
This land use instrument (1) divides a muni. into zoning districts and (2) imposes different land use controls on each district, specifying the allowed uses of land and buildings, the acceptable intensities and densities, and the allowable building bulks. Zoning ordinance
In zoning ordinance terminology, ___ refer to building heights, setbacks, etc. Building bulks
A _______ zoning ordinance simply lists the land uses permitted in each zoning district. Euclidean
A ________ zoning ordinance sets “performance standards” for zoning districts, defining either minimum requirements or maximum limits for use characteristics (e.g., allowable levels of smoke, odor, noise, vibration, glare, traffic, and visual impacts). performance zoning
__________ zoning precisely defines what the involved community wants as an end result. However, it leaves developers with a choice in the means to that end. It automatically allows mixed use districts, and instead focuses on the impacts of development. Performance
This person wrote the 1980 book called “Performance Zoning,” considered to be the bible of performance zoning. Lane Kendig
True or false? A pure performance zoning ordinance requires a minimal amount of technical skills and equipment for enforcement, and is easily within the means of most municipalities. False
Which refers to the a "system of sewers and treatment facilities?" Sewage or Sewerage? Sewarage
These sewerage connections are sometimes referred to as house laterals. House connections
These sewerage components receive sewage from House Connections. Laterals
These sewerage components connect laterals to trunks. Mains
These sewerage components connect mains to interceptors. Trunks
These sewerage components connect trunks to wastewater treatment plants. Interceptors
These structures transport the treated wastewater to the final receiving body of water. Sewer outfalls
The Federal-Aid Highway Act (1962) fostered regional planning in urban areas by requiring the use of the “3-Cs.” Which does/do not belong? I. Coordinated II. Cooperative III. Continuing IV.Comprehensive a.) II and IV only b.) I only c.) II only c.
Which of the following is NOT used in estimating a region's traffic demands? I. Trip Generation II. Gini Coefficient III. Modal Split IV. LESA V. Supply Analysis VI. Traffic Assignment Models a.) II only b.)II and IV only c.)II and III only b.
Which Act created MPOs, TIPs, and Transportation System Management (TSM)? I. Federal Highway Act of 1973 II. Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 III. Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1916 IV. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 (ISTEA) I.
First national coast-to-coast highway. Lincoln Highway
Which law "required" states to use 1.5% of a highway project’s federal construction funds for planning? I. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1962 II. The Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1934 III. The Federal Highway Act of 1973 I.
_______ attempts to match an area’s travel demands to its transportation infrastructure by getting more efficiency/effectiveness from existing highway & transit systems. It measures HOV lanes, park and ride facilities, and metered lights on freeway ramps. Transportation System Management (TSM)
ISTEA stands for: I. Interstate Surface Transportation Effectiveness Act of 1976 II. Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 III. Intrastate Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1954 II.
In a non-attainment area, you want to ensure max transportation funding. Which would help best achieve this goal? I. Submit a TIP that included measures to reduce auto emissions. II. Include Congestion Mitigation and Air quality (CMAQ) projects. Both!
To tap into the $24 billion in “flexible funds” provided by ISTEA under Surface Transportation Program you'll select which types of projects? I. Highways II. Transit III. Bikeways IV. HOV V. Zoning changes a. All of the above b. II,III,V c. I b.
This city built the nation’s first subway in 1897. Boston
This was the first limited-access high-speed roadway. Pennsylvania Turnpike, Built in 1940.
To remedy Peak Hours, which make various transportation modes inefficient, you can: I. Reduce peak demands II. Redirect peak demands III. Expand capacities IV. Increase vehicle occupancy rates a. II only b. I and IV only c. all of the above c.
The Level of Service (LOS) of a highway link or a transit line is a “letter grade” assigned according to: a. the amount of peak traffic a facility can handle b. roadway age c. the numerical ratio of volume over capacity.
The Level of Service (LOS) of a highway link or a transit line is a “letter grade” assigned according to: a. the amount of peak traffic a facility can handle b. roadway age c. the numerical ratio of volume over capacity. c.
The Level of Service (LOS) of a highway link or a transit line is a “letter grade” assigned according to: a. the amount of peak traffic a facility can handle b. roadway age c. the numerical ratio of volume over capacity c.
A roadway is determined to have free flow. It's Level of Service (LOS) is: LOS A
A roadway is determined to have stable flow. It's Level of Service (LOS) is: LOS C
A roadway is determined to have unstable flow with long delays,It's Level of Service (LOS) is: LOS D
A roadway link is nearing its capacity, its LOS is: LOS E
A roadway link is over its capacity, its LOS is: LOS F
True or False? LOS measurements for pedestrian traffic are the same as for vehicles, and the results are interpreted identically. That is, the more “feet on the sidewalk” the worse the system is functioning. False
In a recreational plan Needs Assessment the __ Approach looks at existing phys./nat. resources to determine types/amounts of needed rec. opportunities. a. Economic b. Activity c. Resource d. Behavioral c.
In a recreational plan Needs Assessment the ___ Approach, past participation in selected activities is used to determine the recreational opportunities that should be provided in the future. a. Economic b. Activity c. Resource d. Behavioral b.
In a recreational plan “Needs Assessment” The ___ Approach, the community’s fiscal resources are used to determine the amount, type, and location of needed recreational opportunities. a. Economic b. Activity c. Resource d. Behavioral a.
In a recreational plan Needs Assessment, the ___ Approach, surveys and other public outreach determines “time budgets” of individuals and groups to identify needed recreational opportunities. a. Economic b. Activity c. Resource d. Behavioral d.
Which program is indented to meet one of these national objectives: o Benefit low and moderate-income persons o Prevent or eliminate slums and blight o Address urgent community needs from a serious and immediate threat a. HOPE b. HOME c. CDBG c.
If you receive HOME grant money, what't the latest you can spent the funds? 5 years
Which housing/urban development program requires recipients to match every $1 received with 25¢ from nonfederal sources? a. HOPE b. HOME c. CDBG b.
Which program is intended to eradicate severely distressed housing by focusing on 1) physical improvements, 2) management improvements, and 3)social and community services to address resident needs. a. HOPE b. HOME c. CDBG a.
Which was created to help minority/low income first-time homebuyers with down payment/closing costs. a. Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) b. American Dream Downpayment Initiative (ADDI) c. Youthbuild Program b.
Which provides basic shelter/support services to homeless by providing assistance to the shelter operators. a. American Dream Downpayment Initiative (ADDI) b. Youthbuild Program c. Emergency Shelter Grant (ESG) c.
True or false, the Brownfields Economic Development Initiative (BEDI) is a competitive grant to stimulate economic development in brownfields where there is absolutely no environmental contamination. False. It's for sites with "actual" or potential" environmental contamination.
Who administers the National Register of Historic Places? a. State Historic Preservation Office b. National Park Service c. Bureau of Land Management b.
CAPER most closely relates to: a. National Register of Historic Places b. Consolidated Planning c. Euclidean Zoning d. Recreation Planning b.
Which level of historic designation grants the greatest level of protection under law? a. National b. Local c. State The local district grants the greatest level of protection under the law over any federal or state b. Because of the grassroots nature of the designation.
True or False. Designations under the National Natural Landmark program must have landowner concurrence; there is no law protecting the sites. True
True or False. National "Natural" Landmark status is inherited by the new owner after transfer of property. False. The landmark status automatically extinguishes if property transfers ownership.
What's the difference between 'National Historic Landmark' and 'National Natural Landmark?' a. They are the same b. One designates natural history significance and one historical significance. c. None of the above b.
Which of the following is most closely related to the Garden City? a. Alexander Jackson Davis b. Ebenezer Howard c. Frederick Law Olmstead b. Davis and Olmstead designed Garden Suburbs
Radburn, NJ, which was designed in 1926 used cul-de-sacs and greenways to separate automobile and pedestrian traffic. What two persons are responsible for Radburn? Clarence Stein and Henry Wright
Which is an example of neo-traditionalism or new urbanism? a. Riverside, IL b. Radburn, NJ c. Seaside, Florida c. Seaside was designed by Andrés Duany and Elizabeth Plater-Zyberk (husband and wife team).
Can CDBG funding be used for regular municipal operations? No. They must be used for community development activities.
Section 8 of the Housing & Community Development Act of 1974 provides: I. rent-free low-income housing II. rent supplements for low-income housing III. rent subsidies for new, rehabilitated, or existing units a. I and III b. II and III c. I only b.
True or False? Under the National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act of 1974, manufactured housing units may b excluded from a community. False
As a member of the P&Z Commission, you need to change requirements for satellite dishes city-wide. You should change the: a. Zoning Map b. Zoning Ordinance b.
A developer wishes to apply for a change in zoning from an agricultural district to a single-family district. Changes need to be made to: a. The Zoning Map b. The Zoning Ordinance a.
Which of the following typically has the final say in zoning issues? a. P&Z Commission b. City Council (or County Commission) c. Board of Zoning Appeals d. Staff b.
Which of the following are different types of zoning? I. Euclidean II. Progressive III. Modified cumulative a. II and III only b. II. only c. I and III only d. I only c. Although there is one more type - Cumulative
Which zoning method places the most protective restrictions on residential land uses, less on commercial, and almost none on industrial? a. Modified Cumulative b. Cumulative c. Euclidean Zoning c.
In Modified Cumulative Zoning Ordinance, a retail zoning district lists barber shops as a permitted use. Would a person need to ask the city for permission to open a barber shop? No.
A bar owner is issued a Conditional Use Permit that was issued as "Run with the land." If he closes shop, does a new user need to comply with the same conditions? a. Yes, definitely b. Absolutely not c. Only if he uses the property as a bar a.
Which option offers the community a chance to review circumstances of a Conditional Use Permit and to modify the conditions should a new Conditional Use Permit be requested (i.e. owner leaves)? a. Run with the Land b. Run with the Ownership c. both b.
Which of the following can be considered "grandfathered?" a. Conditional Use Permit b. Non-Conforming Use c. Planned Unit Development b. Some communities allow indefinitely until use ceases and some "amortize" the use over a period of time.
Dr. Gray has owned a veterinary clinic since the 1960s. Urban Sprawl has led to his rural lot being annexed and surrounding uses are now zoned residential. Is he in zoning conformance? Yes, until he stops operating as a vet clinic. Optionally, his city may amortize the use, setting a definite point at which he must come into conformance. If he decides to convert his place to a hotel, he is in nonconformance.
A business is in nonconformance. Natural or manmade event destroys a certain percentage of the use. A clause in the zoning ordinance will likely result in which outcome? a. The nonconforming use will be extended. b. The nonconforming privileges will e b.
Anytown, USA recently passes a new sign ordinance. What tool do you have as a planner to force non-conforming signs into conformance? a. Provided an amortization schedule for free-standing signs b. Cease-and-desist order c. Require immediate removal a.
A developer wants more flexibility in a mixed-use proposal. He would like increased density and reduced street width, and is offering more more community amenities and open space. What's the best zoning tool for him? a. PUD b. PERT c. CAPER a. Planned Unit Development. These are planned in their entirety, up front, with careful attention to a site plan. They can allow for more innovative development design.
Which of the following is most closely assicoated with the City Beautiful Movement? a. Sir Ebenezer Howard b. Daniel Burnham c. Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. b.
Which of the following is most closely assicoated with the Garden City Movement? a. Sir Ebenezer Howard b. Daniel Burnham c. Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. a.
Which is considered to be the father of American landscape architecture? a. Sir Ebenezer Howard b. Daniel Burnham c. Frederick Law Olmsted c.
Frederick Law Olmsted Jr. is best known for: a. New Urbanism b. Garden City c. His Wildlife Conservation Efforts d. City Beautiful c.
Which of the following would likely have a 5-year planning horizon? I. Transportation Plan II. Parks & Recreation Plan III. Comprehensive Plan a. I and II b. II only c. I and III d. I only b.
In 1898 Ebenezer Howard published “Tomorrow, a Peaceful Path to Reform,” where he developed the Garden City idea. Which best describes it? I. TOD II. Greenbelts III. Careful balance of res., industry, agriculture a. I and III b. II and III c. II b.
A barometer of future economic activity is measured by which of the following? a. Stock Market. b. Twelve leading indicators. c. Prime interest rate. d. Double-­digit unemployment. b.
When would the public becomes involved? a. Beginning, before alts. are developed b. After a reduced set of options has been defined c. End, when a preferred choice has been selected. d. When appropriate, based on a # of criteria, not by a set routin d.
In urban planning, a main purpose of forecasting economic growth is to: a. Establish a base to estimate market demand for commercial space. b. Determine tax structures c. Provide a basis for land use and zoning decisions d. Allocate current resource c.
The industry classification system that replaced the U.S. Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system is: a. NAFTA b. North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) c. New Standard Industrial Classification system (NSIC) d. None of the ab b.
The pattern of unchecked urban expansion; typically low-­density development that occurs beyond the current boundary of settlement, is termed: a. SOI b. MSA c. Urban sprawl d. Concentric growth c.
Director is approached by a staff member citing sexual harassment. What to do 1st? a. Contact Personnel Department to ask for direction. b. Review Manager’s Procedures Manual, Sexual Harassment Section, and follow instructions b.
Which of the following is the most important element in every contract for consulting work? a. Schedule of payments. b. Name of principal consultant. c. Insurance coverage and indemnification clause. d. List of milestones. d.
Which economic development program would have most success? a. Attract a >300 employee business b. Work w/ existing businesses to expand c. Facilite location of state and/or federal government office in your CBD d. Work to develop a research/tech. p b.
When writing a planning report, which of the following is the most important consideration? a. Audience. b. Graphics. c. Budget. d. Politics. a.
The single largest factor influencing the size and content of the fiscal budget is: a. Political leadership. b. The community power structure. c. Per capita municipal income. d. Last year's budget. d.
A planner working in county government has been asked to complete a housing study. Which of the following data would he use to initiate the study? a. Most recent Census b. Building permit records c. Assessment information d. Ten year old housing sur a.
Advocacy Planning (assoc. w/ Paul Davidoff and Saul Alinsky) did this: a. Helped women w/ children find jobs b. Brought social planning from back room negotiations into the public forum c. Created economic stability b.
In 1969 Ian McHarg published: a. The Yosemite b. Site Planning c. The History of the City d. Design with Nature d.
1860-1870 saw the beginning of U.S. suburbanization, with creation of small settlements beyond larger cities. Which of the following cities exemplifies this early U.S. suburbanization? a. Radburn, NJ b. Riverside, IL c. Lake Forest, IL d. Elk Grove, b.
An intensive, interactive problem solving process with meetings convened around the development of specific topics is described as: a. Alinsky's Organizations. b. Advocacy Planning. c. A Charrette. d. Citizen Referendum. c.
George Pullman designed and built the Town of Pullman in 1880. Pullman was a model industrial town. In which state was it built? a. New Jersey b. Maryland c. Illinois d. Missouri c.
In the 1964 book "Man and Nature" this person presented an argument for environmental land use planning. a. Ian McHarg b. Ebenezer Howard c. Jane Jacobs d. George Marsh d. George Marsh
In the 1878 book "Arid Region of the United States" this person puts George Marsh’s environmental land use planning ideas into practice and introduces the concept of “land capacity.” a. Ian McHarg b. John Powell c. Thomas Adams d. George Marsh b. John Powell
In the 1917 book "Rural Planning and Development" this person argues for agricultural preservation, subdivision ordinances, and land suitability analyses in Canada. a. Ian McHarg b. John Powell c. Thomas Adams d. George Marsh c. Thomas Adams
In the 1944 book "Natural Principles of Land Use" this person establishes ecologically-based rural land classifications and develops the relationship between environmentalism and land use planning. a. Edward Graham b. John Powell c. George Marsh a. Edward Graham
"Design with Nature" influenced environmental land use planning using overlays, and further developed the concept of land suitability analysis, creating an ecologically-based design process, and foreshadowing modern environmental policy. Who wrote it? Ian McHarg
The concept of _______involves social equity, economic prosperity, and environmental integrity. It favors minimization of resource use over the maximization of consumption. Sustainability
Which of the following books most closely relate to Sustainability? a. The Limits of Growth b. The Population Bomb c. Steady State Economics d. all of the above d.
What is the putpose of wellhead ordinances? I. Define three zones around a wellhead II. Regulate activities within wellhead zones to minimize the threat of aquifer contamination III. Keep wellheads from being damaged a. I only b. I and II c. I a b.
In well head protection ordinances, which of the following describes the area where water flows directly into the well’s aquifer? a. Primary Recharge Area b. Secondary Recharge Area c. Tertiary Recharge Area a. Primary Recharge Area
In well head protection ordinances, which of the following describes the area where water flows directly into the well’s primary recharge area? a. Primary Recharge Area b. Secondary Recharge Area c. Tertiary Recharge Area b. Secondary Recharge Area
In well head protection ordinances, which of the following describes the area where water flows directly into the well’s primary recharge area over a longer period of time? a. Primary Recharge Area b. Secondary Recharge Area c. Tertiary Recharge Area c. Tertiary Recharge Area
Which is usually the most vulnerable part of a wellhead protection ordinance? a. Well depth b. Geographic location of the protection zone b. Geographic location of the protection zone is typically most vulnerable part of a wellhead protection ordinance?
Which does a zoning ordinance accomplish? a. divides municipality into zoning districts b. imposes land use controls on zoning districts c. specifies permitted land/building uses, acceptable intensities and densities, and allowable building bulks a, b, and c
A zoning ordinance may delegate certain roles to: I. the municipality’s governing body II. planning commission III. zoning hearing board IV. Zoning enforcement officer V. staff a. II only b. I and III c. I and IV. d. all of the above d. all of the above
Which city enacted the first ordinance in the United States that could be classified as zoning (This ordinance merely addressed the location of obnoxious uses)? a. New York City b. New Jersey c. Chicago d. San Francisco d. San Francisco
Which city became the first municipality to apply zoning to undeveloped land in 1909? a. New York City b. Los Angeles c. Chicago d. San Francisco b. Los Angeles
In 1916, which city enacted the first modern, “comprehensive” zoning ordinance (the first zoning ordinance to contain land use, density, and building bulk controls)? a. New York City b. Los Angeles c. Chicago d. San Francisco a. New York City
Who are key members of a fiscal impact analysis team? I. communities clerk II. finance officer III. mayor IV. tax assessor a. II and IV b. I, II, and IV c. II only b. Because a fiscal impact analysis is primarily based on an analysis of local government revenues and expenditures,
A ____ ____ _____ estimates the impact of a development or a land use change on the costs and revenues of governmental units serving the development. Fiscal Impact Analysis
A ____ ____ ____ enables local governments to estimate the difference between the costs of providing services to a new development and the revenues—taxes and user fees, for example—that will be generated by the development. Fiscal Impact Analysis
A _____ seeks to improve a city's methods for determining fair and defensible rates for its services with the goal of linking costs involved in serving each category of customer (e.g., residential, multifamily, commercial, etc.) with the amount each pays. Cost-of-Service Study
The goal of _______ is to project the distribution and intensity of trip-generating activities in an urban area. Land Use Forecasting
Which of the following measures earthquakes? a. Richter scale b. Saffir-Simpson scale c. Fujita scale a.
Which of the following measures tornadoes? a. Richter scale b. Saffir-Simpson scale c. Fujita scale c.
Which of the following measures hurricanes? a. Richter scale b. Saffir-Simpson scale c. Fujita scale b.
According to FEMA, _____ _______ is a process of “defining and describing a hazard, including its physical characteristics, magnitude and severity, probability and frequency, causative factors, and loca- tions/areas affected.” hazard identification
In hazard identification and risk assessment, a _____ _______ is Assessing the process of taking stock of the degree to which human life and property are exposed to damage from a hazard (i.e. how much damage and loss of life the community could suffer. vulnerability assessment
A ____ ______ focuses on probabilities and is described by FEMA as a process for “evaluating risk associated with a specific hazard and defined in terms of probability and frequency of occurrence, magnitude and severity, exposure, and consequences.” risk assessment
What is the 1st step in The first step in hazard identification and risk assessment? Mapping the known natural hazards.
What is the second step in hazard identification and risk assessment? Develop an inventory, to the extent possible, of the built environment that potentially would be affected by hazards identified in the 1st step (hazard identification).
The ___ ___ was a series of economic programs in the US between 1933-1936, passed by the U.S. Congress during the first term of FDR (1933-1937). The programs were responses to the Great Depression, and focused on the 3 Rs: relief, recovery, and reform. New Deal. It provided "relief" for the unemployed & poor; "recovery" of the economy to normal levels; & "reform" of the financial system to prevent a repeat depression. It marked a turning point for urban planning and linked planning and economic develop.
Which US economic program (1930s) created the Civilian Conservation Corps and the Tennessee Valley Authority as new forms of nationally supported, large-scale, comprehensive, and integrated physical and socioeconomic planning?? The New Deal
The ___ ___ created the following programs, which are still in existence today: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), Federal Crop Insurance Corporation, FHA, TN Valley Authority, Social Security System, & Securities & Exchange Commission (SEC). The New Deal
The __ __ __ is a federally-owned corporation created by Congress in 1933 to provide navigation, flood control, electricity generation, fertilizer manufacturing, & economic dev. in the TN Valley, a region particularly affected by the Great Depression. Tennessee Valley Authority
The __ __ __ was the first large regional planning agency of the federal government and remains the largest. Tennessee Valley Authority
Today, the ___ ___ ___ is the nation's largest public power company, providing electric power to over nine million customers in the Tennessee Valley. Tennessee Valley Authority
In the 1936 case 'Ashwander v. TVA,' the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the ___ ___ ____ was constitutional. Tennessee Valley Authority
Does the APA prefer to view redevelopment as: a. An economic development program or b. A catalyst for community revitalization that is a component of the jurisdiction's larger plan for growth and development. b.
According to the Green Bible, ___ ___ is the the process by which general agreement is reached over a period of time by people with diverging interests. Consensus Building
According to the CPC Manual, the two most important development regulations are ___ and _____. The two most important development regulations are zoning and subdivision controls.
According to the CPC Manual, what's the difference between zoning ordinances and subdivision regulations? Traditionally, zoning ordinances regulate the use of land and subdivision regulations control the division of land into building lots and the provision of infrastructure.
T/F? Zoning and subdivision regulations must always be represented by separate ordinances. False. Some local govt's have adopted a unitary land use ordinance or unified land development code that consolidates the authority, standards, and procedures of both zoning & subdivision regulations into a single ordinance.
Which is more common: (a.) Separate zoning and subdivision ordinances or (b.) a unitary land use ordinance or unified land development code consolidating the authority, standards, and procedures of both into a single ordinance. Separate zoning and subdivision ordinances continues to be the more common method in most communities.
Contemporary zoning has its philosophical roots in which two events of the 1920s: a. Standard State Zoning Enabling Act b. The end of World War II c. The Great Depression d. Supreme Court decision in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co. a. and b.Contemporary zoning has its philosophical roots in two events of the 1920s: Publication and state adoption of the Standard State Zoning Enabling Act and the Supreme Court decision in Village of Euclid v. Ambler Realty Co.
Which of the following were criticisms of Euclidian Zoning? a. It was inflexibile b. It was unresponsive to changing markets c. It facilitated monotonous development d. All of the above d. Zoning now often involves a complex & site specific collection of discretionary controls for managing development, reflecting diverse and sometimes conflicting public policies.
Which reflect(s) the current state of Euclidian-based codes? I. They are difficult to implement II. They remains the dominant form in the US III. They are relatively easily administered and understood a. I and III b. II and III c. III only b. Despite the growing complexity of zoning, Euclidean based codes remain the dominant form in the US. While they have shortcomings, they also possess relative ease of administration and understanding.
In traditional zoning, ____ districts emphasize a particular land use and corresponding density and bulk requirements. a. regulatory b. business c. zoning d. historic c.
Which of the following have been added by local govt's as variations to the original concept of homogeneous zoning districts? a. Performance zoning b. PUD c. Mixed use development d. Incentive zoning e. TDR f. Overlay zones g. all of the above g.
A ___ ___ depicts the districts enumerated and described in a zoning ordinance. Zoning Map
In zoning, 3 typical categories of allowed uses include: Principle uses, Accessory uses, and Special (Conditional) uses. What's the difference? Principle uses are allowed by right. Accessory uses are permitted only as uses incidental to the principle use. Special uses are allowed by exception or special review.
Substantial expansion and prolonged interruption are commonly prohibited for properties with ____ _____. nonconforming uses
Which of the following refers to the common practice of having permitted uses automatically accumulate from one district to each successive one? a. Progressive Zoning b. Cumulative (i.e. Pyramid) Zoning c. Euclidean Zoning d. Performance Zoning In cumulative zoning, permitted uses automatically accumulate from one district to each "less-objectionable" one. R1 only allows single family. A heavy industrial district would allow everything from res. to industrial uses.
What's the difference between a Comprehensive Plan and Strategic Plan? Unlike Comprehensive Plans, Strategic Plans are more focused and directed towards a purpose. They implements Comprehensive Plans. Their focus is on Implementation, Measurement, and Monitoring. A SWOT analysis is often used. They're often short-term.
A System Plan: I. Is used specifically for industrial parks II. Is a plan for creating zoning ordinances within a municipality III. Sets Policies and Programs for a Specific Network of Community facilities, such as a Sewerage System III.
A ___ ___ (a.k.a. Area Plan) is more detailed than a Comprehensive Plan, limited geographic scope, can include lot-specific plans and alternatives, and involves detailed support studies, such as Economic and Market Analyses. District Plan
In a planning process lingo, ____ are value-based and not measurable, while ____ are more specific and measurable. goals; objectives
In a planning process lingo, ____ are rules and courses of action, while ___ are mission-oriented activities created to carry out policy. policies; programs
In a planning process, ____ is used to develop Goals and Objectives. It results in a number of "themes" and results in a "Vision Statement." This represents the beginning of the planning process. Visioning
Which are involved in the Transportation Forecasting process? I. Trip Generation II. Trip Distribution III. Mode Choice IV. Transit Oriented Development V. Route Assignment a. I and II only b. III only c. I, II, III, and V only c. Transportation Forecasting involves Trip Generation (Step 1), Trip Distribution (Step 2), Mode Choice (Step 3), and Route Assignment (Step 4).
__ ___ is the process of estimating the number of vehicles or people that will use a specific transportation facility in the future Transportation Forecasting
The Interstate System has been called the Greatest Public Works Project in History. It was created by which Act signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower? a.Federal-Aid Hwy Act of 1944 b. Urban Mass Transp. Act of 1964 c. Federal-Aid Hwy Act of 1956 c. The Federal-Aid Hwy Act of 1956 sparked the creation of an Interstate Highway System.
A Visitability Code would require homes to have which 3 primary features? 1. At least one zero-step entrance on an accessible route leading from a driveway or public sidewalk, 2. All interior doors providing at least 31 ¾ inches of unobstructed passage space (for wheelchairs), and 3. At least a half bathroom on the main floor.
What's the difference between the concepts of Visitability and Universal Design (UD)? Visitability is more focused in scope and more explicitly grounded in a social reform intent. UD refers to broad-spectrum architectural planning ideas for buildings, products, and environments that are accessible to able-bodied and disabled persons.
This program provides incentives for commercial development in low-income neighborhoods. Hint: Much funding is made available for low-income housing, but not so much for commercial establishments services these neighborhoods. New Markets Tax Credit Program
The term that describes how government utilizes information and communications technology to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness in the public sector. e-government
The __ model is an urban simulation system designed developed to support metropolitan land use, transportation, and environmental planning. It facilitates more deliberative civic engagement in what are often contentious debates. UrbanSim
___ is the name of a group of ArcGIS extensions used for urban planning, land use planning, geodesign, transportation planning and resource management applications. It provides options for 3D visualization. It is produced in a partnership between the Orto CmmunityViz
___ ___ ___ is an XML schema for expressing geographic annotation & visualization within web-based, 2-D maps and 3-D Earth browsers. It specifies a set of features (place marks, images, polygons, 3D models, textual descriptions, etc.). Keyhole Markup Language
In 2000, which two US regions had the highest percentages of Hispanics? West and South
In 2000, which two states had the highest percentages of Hispanics (relative to their own state)? New Mexico (42.1%), California (32.4%), and Texas (32.0%)
In 2000, counties with the highest proportions of Hispanics were located where, geographically? Along the southwestern border of the US, most often in the counties of the South and West, especially in counties along the border with Mexico.
In 2000, which place had the highest percentage of Hispanics? Which place was 2nd highest percentage? Hispanics in "East Los Angeles" made up 96.8% (120,000) of the total population (124,283). Laredo, Texas was 2nd highest (94.1%) with 166,216 Hispanics relative to the total population of 176,576.
In the functional classification system, which type of facility emphasizes the land access function? A. Local B. Collector C. Arterial Local facilities emphasize the land access function. Arterials emphasize a high level of mobility for through movement. Collectors offer a compromise between both functions.
Which functional category would most likely serve a small town directly, connecting it to the arterial network, and collecting traffic from the bottom-level system of local roads that serve individual farms and other rural land uses? A Collector
In this process, streets & highways are grouped into classes, or systems, based on the type of service they would provide. It is understood that individual roads & streets don't serve travel independently. Instead, travel involves movement thru a network. Functional Classification
This step in the transportation forecasting process predicts the number of trips originating in or destined for a particular traffic analysis zone. Trip Generation (Step 1 in the transportation forecasting process)
This step in the transportation forecasting process matches tripmakers’ origins & destinations to develop a “trip table” a matrix that displays the number of trips going from each origin to each destination. Trip Distribution (Step 2 in the transportation forecasting process)
This step in the transportation forecasting process allows the modeler to determine what mode of transport will be used, and what "modal share" results. Mode Choice Analysis (Step 3 in the transportation forecasting process)
In transportation forecasting, what term describes the number of trips or (more common) percentage of travelers using a particular type of transportation? modal share
This step in the transportation forecasting process concerns the selection of routes (alternative called paths) between origins and destinations in transportation networks. Route Assignment (a.k.a. route choice, or traffic assignment) (Step 4 in the transportation forecasting process)
Alternative work schedules, flex time, Guaranteed Ride Home, Light Rail Transit, Carsharing, Public Bike Systems, Ridesharing, Park & Ride, Telecommuting, Traffic Calming, and Universal Design (Barrier-Free Planning) are jut some examples of what concept? Transportation Demand Management (TDM)
An __ __ __ is a regional boundary, set in an attempt to control urban sprawl by mandating that the area inside the boundary be used for higher density urban development and the area outside be used for lower density development. Urban Growth Boundary (UGB). Also known as an Urban Service Boundary
What's the name of the index that predicts the direction of the economy's movements in the months to come? Hint: Published by The Conference Board. Changes in the index's economic components tend to precede changes in the overall economy. The Composite Index of Leading Indicators (CLI)
A _ _ _ is a statistic considered to signal the future direction of economic activity. These tend to reach cyclical highs/lows before corresponding peaks/troughs in the overall economy. Use for predicting economic downturns or recoveries. leading economic indicator
True or false. Disallowed specific uses are always prohibited within a zoning district, without exception. False. Nonconforming uses are the exception, since they were legally established under zoning regulations in effect at the time of their creation, and the nonconformance status results from changes to zoning ordinances. They're grandfathered to an extent
_____ standards have evolved as a tool for minimizing incompatibility and improving the quality of development. A zoning ordinance with such standards describes the allowable amount of smoke, odor, noise, heat, vibration, and glare. Performance
A __ __ __ merges zoning & subdivision procedures into a single development review process, allowing a diversity in use, & flexibility in density & dimensional requirements. Planned Unit Development (PUD)
___ ___ are superposed over zoning districts to establish additional requirements or permissions. A major roadway, for example, may have an urban corridor overlay that establishes special requirements for landscape, signs, and site plan review. Overlay Zones
__ __ typically includes add'l floor area & higher density as an inducement to developers. Cities with strong development mkts. often use this to encourage development exceeding minimum standards, in exchange for on/off site amenities from the developer. Incentive Zoning
__ __ __ are provided in some zoning ordinances to offer greater zoning privileges to property owners with limited development rights who purchase additional rights from other property owners. Transferable development rights (TDRs)
In a zoning district categorized for residential, the __ minimum lot size is usually for single family residential districts. Progressively __ minimum lot sizes increase the intensity (typ. for residential districts that allow townhouses, duplexes, etc.). largest; smaller
On the subject of intensity & bulk zoning requirements, large multifamily housing complexes, PUDs and mixed use zones usually specify residential intensity in what units? As a # of Dwelling Units per acre (DU/acre).
Many ordinances control commercial development intensity thru a combination of lot size, lot coverage, and height limit. With a lot size of 10,000 sf, impervious lot coverage of 50%, & height limit of 35 ft (3 stories), what's the largest bldg. allowed? 15,000 square feet. Total lot is 10,000. Only 50% (5,000sf) can be impervious, and the bldg. can be 3 stories high. 5,000sf X 3 stories = 15,000sf.
A __ __ __ (FAR) limits intensity of commercial development, and relates the area of built floor space to the site area. A FAR of 1 allows 1 sf of bldg. for each sf of land area. Floor Area Ratio (FAR). A bldg. in a district with an FAR of 1 may cover the whole lot with 1 story or 1/2 the lot with 2 stories. If the district has a 50% lot coverage limit, the bldg. may cover 1/2 the lot w/ 2 stories or 1/4 of the lot w/ 4 stories.
In 1968 the federal gov't abandoned Urban Renewal in exchange for a radically different approach to community development. What was this approach called and what was the difference? Model Cities. While Urban Renewal emphasized physical redevelopment, Model Cities emphasized rebuilding the social and economic structure of the existing community.
A __ __ __ is an area within which businesses pay an additional tax or fee in order to fund improvements within the district's boundaries. Business Improvement District (BID). These provide services (e.g. cleaning streets, providing security, making capital improvements, building pedestrian enhancements, & marketing the area). There are nearly 1,000 BIDs in the US. NYC has the most 64 BIDs).
Under __ __ __ (a type of special assessment), bonds used to finance improvements (e.g. services unique to an area, such water lines for a PUD) are paid back thru “incremental” increase in property values that occurs as a result of the improvements. Tax Increment Financing
__ __ provide low rents & shared facilities (e.g. copying services & meeting rooms). These are programs designed to accelerate the successful development of entrepreneurial companies by offering business support resources and services, Business Incubators. They differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to start-up & early-stage companies. Unlike BIs, R&T parks tend to be large-scale projects housing a myriad of tenants (corp., gov't, univ.).
In researching local auto industry representation as compared to the nation as a whole, the City of Cleveland has determined that the local auto industry's Location Quotient (LQ) is 1.6. Should it try to increase auto industry in the region? No. An industry with an LQ >1.0 is more prevalent in the local region than in the nation as a whole. An industry with an LQ less than 1.0 is under-represented in the local region compared to the nation as a whole.
Created by: samblnc