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ch6 digestive system

medical terminology

anorexia lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix, usually due to obstruction or infection
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
bilirubin orange colored or yellowish pigment in bile
bolus mass of masticated food ready to be swallowed
borborygmus rumbling or grumbling noises that are audible at a distance and caused by passage of gas through the liquid contents of the intestine
cachexia physical wasting that includes loss of weight and muscle mass; commonly associated with AIDS and cancer
chloelithiasis presence or formation of gallstones in the gallbladder or common blie duct
cirrhosis scarring and dysfunction of the liver caused by chronic liver disease
colic spasm in any hollow or tubular soft organ especially in the colon, accompanied by pain
chron disease chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, but possibly affecting and portion of the intestinal tract; also called regional enteritis
deglutition act of swallowing
dysentary inflammation of the intestine, especially the colon, that may be caused by ingesting water or food containing chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites, which results in bloody diarrhea
dyspepsia epigastric discomfort felt after eating; also called indigestion
dysphagia inability or difficulty in swallowing, also called aphagia
eructation producing gas from the stomach, usually with a charateristic sound (burping)
fecalith fecal concretion
flatus gas in the GI tract, expelling of air from a body orifice, especially the anus
gastroesophageal refulx disease (GERD) backflow of gastric contents into the esophagus due to a malfunction of the sphincter muscle at the inferior portion of the esophagus
halitosis offensive or bad breath
hematemesis vomiting of blood from bleeding in the stomach or esophagus
irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptom complex marked by abdominal pain and altered bowel function
malabsorption syndrome symptom complex of the small intestine characterized byt the impaired passage of nutrients, minerals, or fluids through intestinal villi into the blood lymph
melena passage of dark colored, tarry stools, due to the presence of blood altered by intestinal juices
obesity excessive accumulation of fat the exceeds the body's skeletal and physical standards, usually an increase of 20% or more above ideal body weight
morbid obesity BMI of 40 or greater, which is generally 100 or more pounds over ideal body weight
obstipation severe constipation; may be caused by an intestinal obstruction
oral leukoplakia formation of white spots or patches on the mucous membrane of the tongue, lips, or cheek caused primarily by irritation
peristalsis progressive, wavelike movement that occurs involuntarily in hollow tubes of the body, especially the GI tracts
pyloric stenosis stricture or narrowing of the pyloric sphincter (circular muscle of the pylorus) at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine
regurgitation backward flowing, as in the return of solids or fluids to the mouth from the stomach
steatorrhea passage of fat in large amounts in the feces due to failure to digest and absorb it
endoscopy visual examination of a cavity or canal using a flexible fiberoptic instrument called an endoscope
hepatits panel panel of blood tests that identify the specific virus-HAV, HBV, HCV- causing hepatits by testing serum using antibodies to each of these antigens
liver fuction tests (LFTs) group of blood tests that evaluate liver injury, liver funtion, and conditions associated with the biliary tract
serum bilirubin measurement of the level of the bilirubin in the blood
stool guaiac applying a substance called guaiac to a stool sample to detect presence occult (hidden) blood in the feces
stool culture test to identify microorganisms or parasites present in feces
barium enema (BE) radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following enema administration of barium sulfate (contrast medium) into the rectum
barium swallow radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium slufate
cholecystography radiographic images taken of the gallbladder after administration of of a contrast material containing iodine, usually in the form of a tablet
computed tomography (CT) imaging technique achieved by rotating an xray emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays from different angles
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) edoscopic procedure that provides radiographic visualization of the bile and pancreatic ducts to identify partial of total obsrtuctions, as well as stones, cysts, and tumors
percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTCP) radiographic examination of bile duct structures
sialography radiologic examination of the salivary glands and ducts
ultrasonography test that uses high-frequency sound waves to analyzr the reflected echos from anatomical structures and convert them into an image on a video monitor
biopsy (bx) representative tissue sample removed from a body site for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis
nasogastric intubation procedure that involves insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relive gastric distention by removing gas, food, or gastric secretions; to instill medication, food or fluids; or to obtain a a specimen for lab analysis
anastomosis surgical joining of 2 ducts, vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another
bariatric surgery group of procedures that treat morbid obesity
colostomy creation of an opening of a portion of the colon through the abdominal wall to its surface in order to divert fecal flow to a colostomy bag
lithotripsy procedure for crushing a stone and eliminating its fragments either surgically or using ultrasonic shock waves
polypectomy excision of a polyp
pyloromyotomy incision of the longitudinal and circular muscles of the pylorus; used to treat hypertrophic pylorc stenosis
Created by: lexirochelle