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World Geography

Exam 1: Latin America

mountain range on east coast of Mexico Sierra Madre Oriental
mountain range on west coast of Mexico Sierra Madre Occidental
East orient
West occident
plateau in central Mexico Central Mesa
30" of precipitation Central Mesa
< 30 " rainfall will result in livestock ranching/grazing
mountain range in southern Mexico Sierra Madre del Sur
largest concentration of pure-blooded Native American descent Sierra Madre del Sur
1 of 31 Mexican states Chiapas
trade alliance between Mexico, United States, and Canada NAFTA
ability to govern themselves autonomy
mountains influence climate orographic effect
windward slope casts dry, arid shadow on leeward slope rain shadow
mountain range running through Central America Central American Mountains
mountain range running through South America/ Chile Andes
longest mountain range in the world Andes
tallest peak in Western hemisphere Mount Aconcagua
continents were once all together and are moving apart; Pangea theory of continental drift
all of Earth's features are moving, not just the continents plate tectonics
developed the theory of continental drift/plate tectonics Alfred Wegener
what the Andes were created by subduction
highlands in northern South America Guiana Highlands
ore to get aluminum; big income bauxite
white powder from bauxite alumina
energy expensive process electrolysis
shiny, metallic, metal aluminum
more efficient than to refine and make new aluminum aluminum recycling
orient, occident, cordillera Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra Madre Occidental
a mountain range that runs parallel to a coastline cordillera
livestock ranching/grazing, 30 inches of precipitation Central Mesa
autonomy, North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Chiapas Sierra Madre del Sur
orographic effect, rain shadow Central American Mountains
theory of continental drift/plate tectonics, Mount Aconcagua, Alfred Wegener Andes
bauxite, alumina, aluminum, electrolysis, recycling Guiana Highlands
lava flows, geographic factors associated with coffee production Brazilian Highlands
highlands located on the east coast of Brazil Brazilian Highlands
crack in crust -> _________ -> cools ad creates new land (very fertile soil) lava flows
Brazilian Highlands are perfect for; Brazil is world leader in production coffee
conditions necessary for coffee rich volcanic soils, tropical location, slightly higher elevation
physiographic boundary Rio Grande
river that is the boundary between Mexico and the United States Rio Grande
physical features used as political boundaries physiographic boundary
why rivers as boundary can be problematic can change course
drainage basin Amazon River
Andes in Peru -> Brazil -> Atlantic Ocean Amazon River
4,00 miles long Amazon River
2nd largest in the world, most massive Amazon River
area of land that rivers and their tributaries drain into drainage basin
huge freshwater resource in South America Amazon River
too big to use for hydroelectricity Amazon River
hydroelectricity, estuary, Itaipu Dam, Rio de la Plata Parana- Paraguay River System
one of the largest hydroelectric dams in the world, on the international boundaries of Paraguay, Brazil, Argentina, and Uruguay) Itaipu Dam
coastlines divets caused by water flows estuary
estuary formed by the Parana-Paraguay River System Rio de la Plata
Paraguay and Brazil -> Atlantic Parana-Paraguay River System
Maya civilization, Aztec civilization, urban geography, primate city, rural-to-urban migration, push factors, pull factors, remittances, PEMEX, Lake Texcoco, Tenochtitlan, Mexico City, Bay of Campeche Mexico
900 B.C.- 900 B.C.E. Mayans
natives located in the Yucatan peninsula Mayans
pyramid bigger than any in Egypt Uxmal
natives that studied the concept of zero, mathematics, architecture, astronomy, and the calendar Mayans
in decline when the Spaniards arrived Mayans
cactus growing out of rock with eagle on top holding rattlesnake Aztecs
where Aztec symbol was found Lake Texcoco
capital city of Aztecs Tenochtitlan
modern day Mexico City Tenochtitlan
one of the largest urban concentrations in the world; 22 million people; political capital; primate city Mexico City
disproportionately large in population and embodies the national character of a country primate city
most economically powerful; history tied to importance; only one in country primate city
study of geography of cities urban geography
leaving agriculture and moving to cities rural-to-urban migration
causes decision to leave a place push factors
causes decision to move to a place pull factors
control over oil revenue in Mexico PEMEX
money sent back to families by immigrants in other countries remittances
Mexico's economy oil, migration, tourism
British Empire, barrier reef Belize
_________ stole British Honduras from Guatemala British Empire
2nd largest ______ off coast of Belize barrier reef
language of Belize English
Monroe Doctrine, banana republic Guatemala
James Monroe's foreign policy;protection of Western hemisphere Monroe Doctrine
series of governments that were tied to United States interests; more interested in foreign business rather than native peoples banana republic
population density, pressure of overpopulation, demographic response El Salvador
one of most densely populated countries in the world El Salvador
1970s-1980s: civil war was a __________; people trying to find a way to correct things demographic response
land is scarce, a lot of people trying to live off the land pressure of overpopulation
plentiful natural resources: gold, oil, natural gas, gemstones Colombia
a wide variety of environments thanks to the Andes and the tropical lowlands in the southeast that allow wide varieties of crops to be grown, coupled with a pure location ideal for trade Colombia
rebel groups and the drug trade Colombia
the major drug here is cocaine, a stimulant extracted from the leaves of the coca plant Colombia
the major processing point for extracting the cocaine from the coca Colombia
most dangerous country in the world in the 1980s Colombia
cocaine is a big issue Colombia
possesses the 2nd largest proven reserves of oil in the Western Hemisphere Venezuela
1) it is known to exist; and 2) it is economically feasible to extract, meaning we have the technology to get to it AND we will make a profit from it proven reserve
Venezuela is too dependent on oil
90% of Venezuela's income oil
“putting all your eggs in one basket” monoeconomic state
Venezuela is a member of; a group of 12 countries that hold a significant percentage of the world’s oil reserves, and try to control the price by controlling the supply available on the market OPEC
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC
has the highest percentage of people of pure-blooded European descent in all of Latin America, with nearly 88% of the population having European ancestry. Uruguay
cornerstone of Uruguay's economy agriculture
Uruguay has very rich _________ soils
a major producer of beef and wheat Argentina
northern grasslands in Argentina where beef and wheat are produced Pampas
group of islands Argentina has a dispute with the United Kingdom over Falkland Islands
type of government in Argentina today democracy
what is thought the Falkland Islands possess oil and natural gas
study of shapes of political units like countries territorial morphology
Chile is classified as; length roughly 6 x's their width elongated state
more border to defend, communication and transportation more costly disadvantages of elongated state
access to resources that would not be in the territory w/ other shapes and increased chance of different environments w/ different potential advantages of elongated state
what Chile's northern third is dominated by Atacama desert
one of the driest places on the planet Atacama Desert
Chile's possession of world's largest reserves of two mineral sources, which are copper and nitrates
considered for membership for NAFTA Chile
Hurricane Mitch, natural hazard, risk, vulnerability Honduras
study of natural disasters natural hazard
statistical probability that a particular natural disaster will occur in a particular place risk
how natural hazards are affecting human beings vulnerability
in 1998, 1/3 of Honduras' population became homeless and set the economy back 50 years Hurricane Mitch
Cold War, socialism,Sandinistas, Contras, Iran-Contra Scandal, Anastasio Somoza, Ronald Reagan. Oliver North Nicaragua
United States had military occupancy of Nicaragua
father-son ruling duo of Nicaragua Somoza
son that was corrupt when ruling ; had U.S. support Anastasio Somoza
overthrew Somoza Sandinistas
Nicaragua's national guard Contras
Sandinistas got support from Soviet Union
under the table help to Contras when illegalized Iran-Contra Scandal
middle man in Iran-Contra Scandal Oliver North
biodiversity, ecotourism Costa Rica
Switzerland of Central America Costa Rica
protects their wildlife and vegetation Costa Rica
tourists go to see biodiversity ecotourism
cheap to maintain, generates a lot of revenue, tourists will help maintain landscapes ecotourism
one of most politically stable countries in Latin America Costa Rica
president abolished military; small police force and defense agreements Costa Rica
transoceanic canal, Ferdinand de Lesseps, Jimmy Carter, Manuel Noriega Panama
originally part of Colombia; got independence w/ help of U.S. Panama
shortcut from Atlantic to the Pacific transoceanic canal
tried to build canal first but failed Ferdinand de Lesseps
gave canal to Panama to help repair relationship w/ Latin America Jimmy Carter
got independence from U.S. winning Spanish-American War Cuba
led a successful rebellion against U.s. Fidel Castro
Fidel Castro allied himself with Soviet Union
U.S. flights over Cuba; sites equipped with nuclear missiles thought to be aimed at the United States. The United States imposed a naval blockade until the Soviet Union agreed to remove the missiles Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuba's major benefactor Soviet Union
former British colony, sugar and bauxite Jamaica
reggae music, Bob Marley Jamaica
former French colony; poorest country in western hemisphere Haiti
overpopulation, environmental degradation, high HIV/AIDS infection rates, political instability, corruption Haiti
Haiti's neighbor Dominican Republic
birthplace of more foreign-born baseball players than any other country Dominican Republic
resource lottery, sugarcane, ethyl alcohol (ethanol), alcohol, Petrobras, forward capital, tropical, deforestation, favelas, plural society, soccer (futbol), Carnival, Brasilia, Amazon Basin, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo Brazil
Portuguese Brazil
more land in possession means better chances of having resources resource lottery
Brazil produces coffee, citrus, sugarcane
process into ethanol for oil sugarcane
Brazil's energy company Petrobras
moving capital forward to encourage growth forward capital
the forward capital city in Brazil Brasilia
shantytowns in Brazil favelas
capital of Brazil Rio de Janeiro
largest city in Brazil Sao Paulo
where tropical deforestation takes place Amazon Basin
rainforest chopped down to make room for agriculture and ranches tropical deforestation
a lot of diversity (ethnic group), very little interaction amongst them plural society
unifying factors of Brazil soccer and Carnival
former British colony previously known as British Guiana Guyana
Guyana is a major producer of bauxite
former colony of the Netherlands previously known as Dutch Guiana Suriname
Suriname has large populations of South and Southeast Asians
still a possession of France today French Guiana
European Space Agency’s main launching pad for satellites into outer space French Guiana
Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana The Guianas
War of the Triple Alliance Paraguay
South America's bloodiest war War of the Triple Alliance
Paraguay v. Brazil, Uruguay, and Argentina War of the Triple Alliance
has the highest % of pure-blooded Native Americans Bolivia
La Paz and Sucre; two capital cities Bolivia
dominant center for Spanish colonial administration in Bolivia Sucre
eclipsed its importance post-independence for Bolivia La Paz
Incan civilization located in Peru
ruled and overthrown similar to Aztecs Incans
highest lake in the world Lake Titicaca
downward-faulted block of the Earth's crust graben
Ecuador does not have primate city
islands Ecuador owns Galapagos Islands
where Charles Darwin did his studies of finches Galapagos Islands
Created by: sm1696