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Estates Groups French society was divided into during the Old Regime
Fundamental Type of cause that has deep roots in the past
Immediate Type of cause that leads directly to some kind of action
Cahiers Notebooks of criticisms of the French monarchy
Tennis court oath The Third Estates's action to withhold money from Louis XVI until France had a constitution
Bastille Paris prison attacked on July 14, 1789, marking the beginning of the French Revolution
Bourgeiosie The middle class
Marie-Antoinette French queen during the Revolution
Robespierre Leader during the Reign of Terror
Napoleon Army general who rose to become emperor of France
Waterloo Place of Napoloen's last defeat, in Belgium
Estates General French law-making body during the Old Regime
Duke Of Welsh British Duke who finally defeated Napoleon(also present at the Congress of Vienna)
Hundred Days Napoleon's drive to regain control after his escape from Elba
Materials-oriented Production(where it is located) -near the source of raw material
Materials-oriented Production(why it is located there) either the raw material may be fragile or perishable or the raw material may lose bulk or weight during production
Market-oriented Production(where it is located) -located where a market exists for the product
Market-oriented Production(why it is located there) -either the raw material may gain weight or bulk during production or the end product may be fragile or perisable or some industries need to be in consant touch with their markets
Transport-oriented Production(where it is located) -not at the resource point nor at the market, but at some intermediate location
Corvee The requirement of the peasants of an area to do serveral day's work each year without pay
Taille A tax on land and its produce levied by the nobility
Capitaineries Reserves/Districts granted by the king to princes of royal blood. The princes owned all the game in these reserves, even on lands not belonging to them.
Tithe Church tax, usually one-tenth of one's income
Estates(CNR) Clergy, Nobility, Rest of the population
First estate Clergy:collected tithe, controlled 1/5 of the land
Second estate Nobility:owned the rest of the land, didn't pay taxes
Third estate Rest of the population:96% of the population, not privledged
Fundamental cause of the French Revolution Futile laws and taxes
Immediate cause of the French Revolution France became bankrupt
Declaration of the Rights of Man Death certificate of the Old Regime
Slogan of the French Revolution Liberty, Equality, Fraternity
Why was LouisXVI executed Charged with treason, found guilty by one vote
When did the Congress of Vienna meet After the Battle of Nations at Leizig
Quadruple Allience Great Britain, Prussia, Russia, Austria
Liberty Reform, Constitution
Fraternity Working together as a nation
Equality No special privliges
Nationalist Felt people with common language, history, and culture should unite
Socialists Worked for the betterment of the proletariat(workers)
Conservatives Believed society would change gradually for the better as long as power remained in their hands(nobility)
Liberals Believed in constitutional government rather than divine rights of kings
Absolutism The complete rule of a monarch against their subjects
Divine Rights of Kings A claim that the monarch was selected by God
LouisXIV "I am the state", cared more about wars then peace, left a heavy financial debt to his successor
Voltaire Freedom of thought and religon, wrote "Letters on English" about the French Government
Adam Smith Laissa-Faire Economics
Allies(WWI) France, Great Britain, Russia, United States
Central Powers(WWI) Italy, Germany, Austria, Turkey
Militarism Preparing for war, preparing people to fight
Alliances Aggrements with nations of common goals
Triple Alliance Italy, Germany, Austria(central powers)
Triple Entente France, Great Britain, Russia(Allies)
Imperialism Process of building imperial power(race for colonies)
International Lawlessness Absence of machinery for peaceful aggrement
order of battles(WWI) First battle of Marne, Battle of Ypres, Battle of Tannenburg, Battle of Gallipoli, Battle of Verdun, Battle of Jutland
Why the United States joined WWI Sinking of the ship Lusitania that had a 100 Americans on it, The Zimmerman telegram
Armistice A temporary agreement to stop hostilites
Treaty Agreement made by negotiation or diplomacy
November 11, 1918 Allies and Germany signed a Armistice
John Kay Flying shuttle:increased speed of weaving
James Hargreaves Spinning jenny:increased speed of spinning yarn
Richard Arkwright Water frame:used water to spin yarn faster, resulted in the factory system
Samuel Crompton Spinning mule:combined the spinning jenny and the water frame
Edmund Cartwright Power loom:weaved thead into cloth faster than before
Eli Whitney Cotton gin:separated raw cotton from its pods
James Watt Steam engine:improved the steam engine
Sir Humphrey Davy Saftey lamp:enclosed a open-flame into a container
Henry Bessemer Bessemer Converter: process that changed iron to steel
George Stephenson Steam locomotive:improved transportation
Samuel F.B. Morse Telegraph:improved communications
Alexander Graham Bell Telephone:improved communications further than the telegraph
Jethro Tull Seeding drill:planted seeds in straight rows
Viscount Townshend Crop rotation:helped soil retain valuable minerals and stay fertile longer
Robert Bakewell Animal husbandry:breeding improvements
Cyrus McCormick Reaper:cut grain more rapidly
John McAdam Ashpalt:improved travel during rainy weather
Adam Smith Wrote The Wealth Of Nations(laissa-faire(hands off) economics)
Primary industry Direct use of natural products ex.Forestry, Agriculture, Fishing, Trapping, Mining
Secondary industry All types of manufacturing industry ex.Construction, Manufacturing
Tertiary industry Performance of services ex.Transportation, Utilities, Trade, Finance
Quaternary industry Research and development of technology
Capitalism Economic system based on private ownership, profit, competition
Enclosure movement Consolidation of fields into one large ownership
Corporation Business organization in which shares are sold
Robert Fulton Steamboat
Dividend Shares in the profit of a corporation
Stocks Certificates of ownership in a corporation
Order of napoleons titles General, First Consul, Emperor
Birth Rate Total live births/Total population x 1000
Death Rate Total deaths/Total population x 1000
Net migration Immigrants-Emigrants
Natural Increase Total live births-Total deaths
Rate of natural increase Birth rate-Death rate
Popuplation Doubled 70/(move rate of natural increases number 1 decimal place to the left)
Total population change natural increase+net migration
Developing nations have had many troubles in their attempt to become industrialized, Why? Type of spending, Mulitinationals(corporations), Lack of finances, Lack of resources, Lack of skilled workers, Lack of Infrastructure
Defeats of Napoleon Waterloo, Leipzig, Trafalgar
Why Napoleon's rapid rise to power? Military leader, Popularity, Advantage of Opportunities, Josephine'sconnections to royalties
Order of French Revolution groups Old Regime, National Assembly, Legislative Assembly, National Convention, Directory
White man's burden Belived it was their duty to bring knowledge of medicine, science, technology, and sanitation to those they believed to be uncivilized.
Kowtowing Bowing low to the Chinese Emperor to show respect
Why has the hunger cycle been also described as "The vicious cycle of poverty" Poor and malnourished people may have neither the energy nor the education to improve their own circomstances
Four main factors involved in the problem of world food supply Population numbers, Population growth rate, The amount and quality of arable land, Yields of food per hectre
Arable land Ploughed to grow crops
Grazing land Used to feed animals
Brunswick Manifesto Issued by Austria and Prussia, threated Paris with total destruction if harm befell the royal family
Push factors which resulted in migration to cities Poverty level, Natural disasters, Land is scarce
Pull factors which cause migration Employment, Medical facilities, Education facilities, Government assistance
Created by: violetbear2001