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# TAKS 7th Math

### Vocabulary

integer one of the set of whole numbers and their opposites
rational number any number that can be expressed as a ration a/b where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0
percent ratio of a number to 100; per one hundred
circle graph a graph used to compare the relationship of the parts to the whole
binary number system a number system in which all numbers are expressed using only 2 digits, 0 and 1
square number a number that can be represented with a square array
figurate number a number that can be represented by a geometric figure
perfect square a number that has an integer as its square root
iteration a step in the process of repeating something over and over again
iteration diagram a picture showing the steps of an iterating process
algebraic operating system (AOS) a system used by scientific calculators which automatically follows the order of operations
reciprocal one of 2 numbers whose product is 1
numerical expression an expression that contains only numbers and operations.
algebraic expression an expression that is written using one or more variables.
variable a letter used to represent one or more numbers in an expression, equation, or inequality.
evaluate the process of putting an expression into its simplest numerical form, as a single number.
term an element or number in a sequence.
like terms 2 or more terms that have the same variable raised to the same power.
sequence an ordered list of numbers.
term an element or number in a sequence.
arithmetic sequence an ordered list of numbers in which the difference of any term and the one after it is always the same.
common difference the difference between any 2 successive terms in an arithmetic sequence.
equation a mathematical sentence that shows 2 expressions are equivalent.
solve to find the correct value of the variable in an equation.
solution the value that makes 2 sides of an equation equal.
proportion an equation which states that 2 ratios are equivalent.
inequality a mathematical sentence that shows the relationship between quantities that are not equivalent using <,>,<, >, or not equal.
quadrant one of the 4 regions of the coordinate plane.
elements the words, numbers, or objects in a set.
relation a set of ordered pairs.
domain the set of the first elements of a relation.
range the difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data.
function a relation in which each element in the domain is matched with only one element of the range.
vertical line test a test to determine whether or not a relation is a function.
linear equation an equation that can be represented by a line on the coordinate plane.
complementary angles 2 angles whose measures have a sum of 90 degrees.
supplementary angles 2 angles whose sum equals 180 degrees.
adjacent angles angles that share a common side, have the save vertex, and do not overlap.
vertical angles a pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines.
line symmetry a figure has line symmetry if a line can separate the figure into 2 congruent parts.
rotational symmetry when a figure can be rotated less than 360 degrees about a central point and be made to match or coincide with the original.
point of rotation the point about which a rotation is centered.
transformation a change in a figure that results in a different position, shape, size, and/or orientation.
translation a movement of a geometric figure to a new position without turning or flipping.
rotation a type of transformation, or movement, that results when a geometric figure is turned about a fixed point.
reflection the figure formed by flipping a geometric figure about a line to obtain a mirror image.
image the figure in a new position or location as the result of a transformation.
bisect to divide into 2 congruent parts.
midpoint the point that divides a line segment into 2 congruent line segments.
perpendicular bisector a line that intersects a line segment at its midpoint.
Side-Side-Side (SSS) a triangle congruence rule stating that 3 sides of one triangle match 3 side of another.
Side-Angle-Side (SAS) a triangle congruence rule stating that 2 sides and the included angle of one triangle match 2 sides and the included angle of another triangle.
Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) a triangle congruence rule stating that when2 angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to 2 angles and the included side of another triangle, the 2 triangles are congruent.
solid figures a 3-dimensional figure.
polyhedron a solid figure in which all the surfaces, or faces, are polygons.
net a connected arrangement of polygons in a plane that can be folded up to form a polyhedron.
lateral face in a prism or a pyramid, a face that is not a base.
tessellation a repeating pattern of congruent plane figures that completely cover a place with no gaps or overlapping.
basic unit in a tessellation, a figure that is repeated to make a pattern.
fractal a self-similar figure produced by the endless repetition of geometric steps.
rate a ratio that compares quantities of different units, such as miles per hour, price per pound, students per class.
unit rate a rate in which the second term is 1.
unit price a unit rate used to compare pries.
Golden Ratio a ratio that is approximately equal to 1.61.
Golden Cut the division of a sement into parts in the raito of l.61 to 1.
Golden Section see Golden Cut.
similar figures figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size.
proportional 2 ratios that are equivalent.
scale factor the common ratio for pairs of corresponding sides of similar figures.
dilation a transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure.
scale drawing a drawing that has its dimensions related by a scale factor to the dimensions of the object it represents.
Golden Rectangle any rectangle with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 1.61 to 1.
Golden Ratio a ratio that is approximately equal to 1.61.
triangular numbers a sequence of numbers, 1,3,6,10, 15..... that can be shown geometrically with triangular arrays.
Pascal's triangle a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each row starts and ends with 1 and each other number is the sum of the 2 numbers above it.
diverge to get larger without bound.
converge to approach some fixed value.
repeating decimal a decimal in which one or more digits repeat indefinitely.
Density Property the property which states that between any 2 rational numbers, there is always another rational number.
irrational number a number that cannot be expressed as a repeating or terminating decimal.
geometric sequence an ordered list of number that has a common ratio between consecutive terms.
common ratio the ratio used to multiply each term to produce the next term in a geometric sequence.
population the total or entire group to be studied.
sample a smaller group of people or objects chosen from a larger group or population.
random sample a population sample for which every individual in the population had an equal chance of being chosen.
systematic sample a sample of a population that has been selected using a pattern.
stratified sample a sample of a population that has been divided into subgroups.
biased sample a sample that does not fairly represent the population.
central tendency any of 3 measures (mean, median, mode) that represent a type of average of a set of data.
stacked bar graph a graph used to compare the parts to the whole.
sample space all possible outcomes in a given situation.
Fundamental Counting Principle the principle which states that all possible outcomes in a sample space can be found by multiplying the number of way each event can occur.
mathematical probability the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of all possible outcomes.
combination an arrangement of items or events in which order does not matter.
permutation an arrangement of items or events in which order is important.
experimental probability the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials or time the activity is performed.
simulation a model of an experiment that would be too difficult or too time-consuming to actually perform.
geometric probability a probability calculated by comparing the area of a specific part to that of a total region.
precision a property of measurement that is related to the unit of measure used; the smaller the unit of measure used, the more precise the measurement.
greatest possible error half of the unit used in the measurement.
network a figure made up of vertices and edges that show how objects are connected.
leg in a right triangle, either of the 2 sides that intersect to form the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, one of the 2 congruent sides.
hypotenuse in a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle.
surface area the sum of the areas of the faces, or surfaces, of a solid figure.
lateral surface in a cylinder, the curved surface connecting the circular bases.
volume the number of cubic units needed to occupy a given space.
discount the amount by which the original price is reduced.
sale price the price of a product after the discount has been subtracted from the original price.
wholesale price the price paid when large quantities of products are purchased.
retail price the sum of the wholesale price and markup.
markup the difference between the retail price and the wholesale price.
simple interest the amount obtained by multiplying the principal by the rate of the time; i=prt.
principal the amount of money borrowed or saved.
total amount in the formula A=p+i, A is the sum of the principal and the interest.
finance charge the interest charged when you pay a debt over time in payments.
scatterplot a graph with points plotted that attempt to show a relationship between 2 variables.
positive correlation when values of 2 sets of data increase or decrease together.
negative correlation in a scatterplot, a pattern formed from data points shows the values of one variable increase as the values of the other variable decrease.
no correlation in a scatterplot, data points are scattered, and no pattern can be formed from the points.
Created by: Promethean