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# TAKS 7th Math

### Vocabulary

Question | Answer |
---|---|

integer | one of the set of whole numbers and their opposites |

rational number | any number that can be expressed as a ration a/b where a and b are integers and b is not equal to 0 |

percent | ratio of a number to 100; per one hundred |

circle graph | a graph used to compare the relationship of the parts to the whole |

binary number system | a number system in which all numbers are expressed using only 2 digits, 0 and 1 |

square number | a number that can be represented with a square array |

figurate number | a number that can be represented by a geometric figure |

perfect square | a number that has an integer as its square root |

iteration | a step in the process of repeating something over and over again |

iteration diagram | a picture showing the steps of an iterating process |

algebraic operating system (AOS) | a system used by scientific calculators which automatically follows the order of operations |

reciprocal | one of 2 numbers whose product is 1 |

numerical expression | an expression that contains only numbers and operations. |

algebraic expression | an expression that is written using one or more variables. |

variable | a letter used to represent one or more numbers in an expression, equation, or inequality. |

evaluate | the process of putting an expression into its simplest numerical form, as a single number. |

term | an element or number in a sequence. |

like terms | 2 or more terms that have the same variable raised to the same power. |

sequence | an ordered list of numbers. |

term | an element or number in a sequence. |

arithmetic sequence | an ordered list of numbers in which the difference of any term and the one after it is always the same. |

common difference | the difference between any 2 successive terms in an arithmetic sequence. |

equation | a mathematical sentence that shows 2 expressions are equivalent. |

solve | to find the correct value of the variable in an equation. |

solution | the value that makes 2 sides of an equation equal. |

proportion | an equation which states that 2 ratios are equivalent. |

inequality | a mathematical sentence that shows the relationship between quantities that are not equivalent using <,>,<, >, or not equal. |

quadrant | one of the 4 regions of the coordinate plane. |

elements | the words, numbers, or objects in a set. |

relation | a set of ordered pairs. |

domain | the set of the first elements of a relation. |

range | the difference between the greatest number and the least number in a set of data. |

function | a relation in which each element in the domain is matched with only one element of the range. |

vertical line test | a test to determine whether or not a relation is a function. |

linear equation | an equation that can be represented by a line on the coordinate plane. |

complementary angles | 2 angles whose measures have a sum of 90 degrees. |

supplementary angles | 2 angles whose sum equals 180 degrees. |

adjacent angles | angles that share a common side, have the save vertex, and do not overlap. |

vertical angles | a pair of opposite congruent angles formed by intersecting lines. |

line symmetry | a figure has line symmetry if a line can separate the figure into 2 congruent parts. |

rotational symmetry | when a figure can be rotated less than 360 degrees about a central point and be made to match or coincide with the original. |

point of rotation | the point about which a rotation is centered. |

transformation | a change in a figure that results in a different position, shape, size, and/or orientation. |

translation | a movement of a geometric figure to a new position without turning or flipping. |

rotation | a type of transformation, or movement, that results when a geometric figure is turned about a fixed point. |

reflection | the figure formed by flipping a geometric figure about a line to obtain a mirror image. |

image | the figure in a new position or location as the result of a transformation. |

bisect | to divide into 2 congruent parts. |

midpoint | the point that divides a line segment into 2 congruent line segments. |

perpendicular bisector | a line that intersects a line segment at its midpoint. |

Side-Side-Side (SSS) | a triangle congruence rule stating that 3 sides of one triangle match 3 side of another. |

Side-Angle-Side (SAS) | a triangle congruence rule stating that 2 sides and the included angle of one triangle match 2 sides and the included angle of another triangle. |

Angle-Side-Angle (ASA) | a triangle congruence rule stating that when2 angles and the included side of one triangle are congruent to 2 angles and the included side of another triangle, the 2 triangles are congruent. |

solid figures | a 3-dimensional figure. |

polyhedron | a solid figure in which all the surfaces, or faces, are polygons. |

net | a connected arrangement of polygons in a plane that can be folded up to form a polyhedron. |

lateral face | in a prism or a pyramid, a face that is not a base. |

tessellation | a repeating pattern of congruent plane figures that completely cover a place with no gaps or overlapping. |

basic unit | in a tessellation, a figure that is repeated to make a pattern. |

fractal | a self-similar figure produced by the endless repetition of geometric steps. |

rate | a ratio that compares quantities of different units, such as miles per hour, price per pound, students per class. |

unit rate | a rate in which the second term is 1. |

unit price | a unit rate used to compare pries. |

Golden Ratio | a ratio that is approximately equal to 1.61. |

Golden Cut | the division of a sement into parts in the raito of l.61 to 1. |

Golden Section | see Golden Cut. |

similar figures | figures with the same shape but not necessarily the same size. |

proportional | 2 ratios that are equivalent. |

scale factor | the common ratio for pairs of corresponding sides of similar figures. |

dilation | a transformation that enlarges or reduces a figure. |

scale drawing | a drawing that has its dimensions related by a scale factor to the dimensions of the object it represents. |

Golden Rectangle | any rectangle with a length-to-width ratio of approximately 1.61 to 1. |

Golden Ratio | a ratio that is approximately equal to 1.61. |

triangular numbers | a sequence of numbers, 1,3,6,10, 15..... that can be shown geometrically with triangular arrays. |

Pascal's triangle | a triangular arrangement of numbers in which each row starts and ends with 1 and each other number is the sum of the 2 numbers above it. |

diverge | to get larger without bound. |

converge | to approach some fixed value. |

repeating decimal | a decimal in which one or more digits repeat indefinitely. |

Density Property | the property which states that between any 2 rational numbers, there is always another rational number. |

irrational number | a number that cannot be expressed as a repeating or terminating decimal. |

geometric sequence | an ordered list of number that has a common ratio between consecutive terms. |

common ratio | the ratio used to multiply each term to produce the next term in a geometric sequence. |

population | the total or entire group to be studied. |

sample | a smaller group of people or objects chosen from a larger group or population. |

random sample | a population sample for which every individual in the population had an equal chance of being chosen. |

systematic sample | a sample of a population that has been selected using a pattern. |

stratified sample | a sample of a population that has been divided into subgroups. |

biased sample | a sample that does not fairly represent the population. |

central tendency | any of 3 measures (mean, median, mode) that represent a type of average of a set of data. |

stacked bar graph | a graph used to compare the parts to the whole. |

sample space | all possible outcomes in a given situation. |

Fundamental Counting Principle | the principle which states that all possible outcomes in a sample space can be found by multiplying the number of way each event can occur. |

mathematical probability | the ratio of the number of favorable outcomes to the number of all possible outcomes. |

combination | an arrangement of items or events in which order does not matter. |

permutation | an arrangement of items or events in which order is important. |

experimental probability | the ratio of the number of times the event occurs to the total number of trials or time the activity is performed. |

simulation | a model of an experiment that would be too difficult or too time-consuming to actually perform. |

geometric probability | a probability calculated by comparing the area of a specific part to that of a total region. |

precision | a property of measurement that is related to the unit of measure used; the smaller the unit of measure used, the more precise the measurement. |

greatest possible error | half of the unit used in the measurement. |

network | a figure made up of vertices and edges that show how objects are connected. |

leg | in a right triangle, either of the 2 sides that intersect to form the right angle; in an isosceles triangle, one of the 2 congruent sides. |

hypotenuse | in a right triangle, the side opposite the right angle. |

surface area | the sum of the areas of the faces, or surfaces, of a solid figure. |

lateral surface | in a cylinder, the curved surface connecting the circular bases. |

volume | the number of cubic units needed to occupy a given space. |

discount | the amount by which the original price is reduced. |

sale price | the price of a product after the discount has been subtracted from the original price. |

wholesale price | the price paid when large quantities of products are purchased. |

retail price | the sum of the wholesale price and markup. |

markup | the difference between the retail price and the wholesale price. |

simple interest | the amount obtained by multiplying the principal by the rate of the time; i=prt. |

principal | the amount of money borrowed or saved. |

total amount | in the formula A=p+i, A is the sum of the principal and the interest. |

finance charge | the interest charged when you pay a debt over time in payments. |

scatterplot | a graph with points plotted that attempt to show a relationship between 2 variables. |

positive correlation | when values of 2 sets of data increase or decrease together. |

negative correlation | in a scatterplot, a pattern formed from data points shows the values of one variable increase as the values of the other variable decrease. |

no correlation | in a scatterplot, data points are scattered, and no pattern can be formed from the points. |

Created by:
Promethean