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FHS Med Term Midterm

Chapter 4-7 medical terminology

adhesion abnormal union of bodily tissues
anticholinergic drug AKA Antispasmodic, is an administered to control spasmodic activity of smooth muscles such as those intestine
ataxia Inability to coordinate muscle activity during voluntary movements, resulting in shaky/tremor-like movements
atonic lacking normal muscle tone
atrophy weakness; waste away
atropine antispasmodic drug that's administered pre-operation to relax smooth muscles
Becker muscular dystrophy Milder form of muscular dystrophy that doesn't appear until adolescence - adulthood
bradykinesia slow movement
cardioplegia paralysis of heart muscle (cardiac arrest)
carpal tunnel syndrome the tendons going through the carpal tunnel in the wrist become chronically swollen and inflamed
cervical radiculopathy nerve pain caused by pressure on the spinal nerve roots in the neck region
circumduction a circular movement of a limb or eye
claudication to limp; pain in leg caused by inadequate blood supple
contracture abnormal shortening of muscle tissues making the muscle resistant to stretching
dorsiflexion bending the toes and foot up at the ankle
Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy most severe form of MD, onset between 2-6 years of age
dyskinesia abnormality in performing voluntary muscle movements
dystaxia difficulty in controlling voluntary movement
electromyography recording of electrical nerve transmission in skeletal muscles
epicondylitis inflammation of the tissues around the elbow; golfer or tennis elbow
ergonomics the study of the human factors that affect the design and operation of tools and the work environment
fasciitis inflammation of the fascia
fascioplasty surgical repair of the fascia
fasciotomy a surgical incision through the fascia to relieve tension or pressure
fibromyalgia a chronic disorder characterized by widespread aching and stiffness of muscles and soft tissues and fatigue
hemiparesis partial paralysis of the right or left half of the body
hemiplegia paralysis of one side of the body
hyperkinesia also known as hyperactivity, is abnormally increased muscles function or activity.
hypokinesia abnormally decreased muscle function or activity
hypotonia a condition in which there is diminished tone of the skeletal muscles
impingement syndrome occurs when inflamed and swollen tendons are caught in the narrow space between the bones within the shoulder joint
kinesiology study of muscle motion
muscular dystrophy group of inherited muscle disorders that cause muscle weakness without affecting the nervous system
myalgia pain in a muscle or group of muscles
myasthenia muscle weakness from any cause
myasthenia gravis a chronic autoimmune disease that affects the neuromuscular junction and produces serious weakness of voluntary muscles
myectomy surgical removal of a portion of muscle
myocele protrusion of muscle tissue through surrounding tissue
myoclonus spasm or twitching of a muscle or group of muscles
myofascial pertaining to muscle tissue and fascia
myolysis degeneration of muscle tissue
myoparesis weakness or partial paralysis of a muscle
myotonia delayed relaxation of muscle tissues after a strong contaction
oblique a diagonally arranged abdominal muscle on either side of the torso
paraplegia paralysis of the lower half of the body (most often as a result of trauma)
quadriplegia paralysis of the trunk and all four extremities
polymyositis inflammation of many muscles
pronation rotating the arm or leg so that the palm or sole of the foot is turned downward or backward.
rectus straight alignment with the vertical axis of the body. Ex the rectus abdominus muscle has a straight alignment.
singultus myoclonus of the diaphragm that causes the characteristic hiccup sound with each spasm (hiccups)
spasmodic torticollis a stiff neck due to spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles that pull the head toward the affected side
sphincter a ring like muscle that tightly constricts the opening of a passageway.
supination rotating the arm or leg so the palm or sole of the foot, is turned forward or upward.
tardive dyskinesia late appearance of dyskinesia as a side effect of long-term treatment with certain antipsychotic drugs
tenodesis the surgical suturing of the end of a tendon to a bone
bi- two
-cele hernia, swelling
-desis binding or surgical fusion
fasci/o band, fascia (fibrous membrane supporting and separating muscle)
kinesi/o movement
my/o muscle
-plegia paralysis
tax/o arrangement
ton/o tone
ten/o tendon
angi/o blood vessel
aort/o aorta (largest artery)
arteri/o pertaining to the arteries
ather/o plaque, fatty substance
cardi/o pertaining to the heart
coron/o coronary, crown
-emia condition of the blood
hem/o, hemat/o blood
phleb/o Prefix meaning vein
brady- slow
tachy- fast, rapid
thromb/o blood clot
ven/o vein
aneurysm ballooning of a weakened portion of an arterial wall
aneurysmorrhaphy the surgical suturing of an aneurysm
angiitis inflammation of a blood vessel or lymph duct`
angiocardiography the process of recording the heart and vessels after an IV injection of a radiopaque solution
angionecrosis death of the walls of the blood vessels
angiostenosis narrowing of a blood vessel
antiarrhythmic a drug used to treat an abnormal heart rhythm
anticoagulant a drug that prevents clotting of the blood
antihypertensive a drug that reduces high blood pressure
aplastic anemia severe form of anemia that develops as a consquences of loss of functioning red bone marrow.
arrhythmia an abnormal rate of muscle contractions in the heart
arteriectomy Surgical removal of part of an artery
atheroma fatty tissue tumor inside a large vessel
atherosclerosis a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls
basophils a type of WBC that promotes inflammation and participates in allergic responses.
bradycardia abnormally slow heartbeat
cardiac catheterization A thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery
cholesterol a fatty substance in the blood
defibrillation application of an electric shock to the myocardium through the chest wall to restore normal cardiac rhythm
diastolic the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the hearts venticles are relaxing
dyscrasia abnormal or pathologic condition of the blood
echocardiography recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion
embolism An obstruction or plugging up of an artery or other blood-vessel.
endarterectomy Surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
eosinophils white blood cell that are responsible for combating infection by parasites in vertebrates
erythrocytes red blood cells
fibrilation rapid,random,ineffective contractions of the heart
hemangioma Benign tumor of dilated blood vessels
hemochromatosis a genetic disorder in which the intestines absorb too much iron
hemoglobin iron-containing protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen for delivery to cells
hemolytic anemia an anemia caused by destruction of red blood cells (RBCs) at a rate that exceeds production.
hemostasis control of bleeding
homocysteine an amino acid normally found in the blood and used by the body to build and maintain tissues
hypoperfusion a deficiency of blood passing through an organ or body part
ischemia Condition in which there is a lack of blood supply to a part of the body caused by constriction or obstruction of a blood vessel
leukemia cancer characterized by an increase in abnormal white blood cells
leukocytes White blood cells
leukopenia an abnormally low WBC count
megaloblastic anemia a blood disorder characterized by anemia in which the red blood cells are larger than normal
monocytes A type of white blood cell that is a phagocyte.
myocardial infarction destruction of heart tissue resulting from obstruction of the blood supply to the heart muscle (heart attack)
myocarditis Inflammation of the heart muscle
neutrophils WBCs that fight against invading agents or injury.
palpitation a rapid and irregular heart beat
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart
pernicious anemia auto-immune disease; lack of mature erythrocytes caused by inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
phlebography X-ray of the veins after injecting a contrast medium
plaque A deposit of fatty material on the inner lining of an arterial wall
polyarteritis inflammation of several arteries
Raynaud's phenomenon intermittent attacks of pallor (paleness), cyanosis (blue color), and redness of the fingers and toes
septicemia Blood poisoning or a systemic disease caused by the spread of microorganisms in the blood
systolic the blood pressure during that part of the heartbeat when the heart's ventricles are contracted and the blood is being pushed out into the arteries.
tachycardia Abnormally rapid heartbeat
thrombocytes platelets; cell fragments that are formed in the bone marrow; clot blood
thrombocytopenia a blood disease characterized by an abnormally small number of platelets in the blood
thrombolytic medication adminstired to slow blood cloting and to prevent new clots from forming
thrombosis the formation or presence of a thrombus in a blood vessel
thrombus a blood clot attached to the interior wall of an artery or vein
triglycerides Fats composed of three fatty acid chains linked to a glycerol molecule
valvoplasty the surgical repair or replacement of a heart valve (valvuloplasty)
valvulitis inflammation of a heart valve
varicose veins Abnormally swollen and twisted veins, usually occuring in the legs
vasculitis inflammation of a blood vessel
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome the advanced stage of HIV infection
Allergen an overreaction by the body to a particular antigen; also known as hypersensitivity
Anaphylaxis a severe response to a foreign substance such as a drug, food, insect venom, or chemical
Antibody (Ab) a disease fighting protein caused by the immune system in response to the presence of a specific antigen
Antigen (Ag) any substance such as a virus, bacterium, or toxin that the body regards as foreign
Antiviral medication used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity
Aspergillosis an infection caused by a fungus of the genus Aspergillus
Autoimmune disorder disorder of the immune system in which the body attacks itself
Immunosuppressant Medication that prevents or reduces the body's normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues.
Immunosuppression Treatment used to interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to antigen stimulation.
Immunotherapy Treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response.
Infectious mononucleosis An infection caused by Epstein-Barr virus (one of the herpes viruses) that is characterized by fever, a sore throat, and enlarged lymph nodes.
Ductal carcinoma in situ breast cancer at its earliest stage (stage 0) before the cancer has broken through the wall of the duct.
Invasive lobular carcinoma cancer that starts in the milk glands (lobules), breaks through the wall of the gland and invades the fatty tissue of the breast.
Inguinal lymph nodes are located in the inguinal (groin) area of the lower abdomen.
Interferon produced by the T cells and is a family of proteins released by cells when invaded by a virus. Also causes noninfected cells to form an antiviral protein that slows or stops viral multiplication.
Kaposi's sarcoma form of sarcoma that is frequently associated with HIV and may affect the skin, mucous membranes, lymph nodes and internal organs
Lumpectomy surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and a margin of normal tissue.
Lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes: also known as swollen glands.
lymphadenopathy any disease process usually involving enlargement of the lymph nodes.
lymphangiogram a radiographic study of the lymphatic vessels and nodes with the use of a contrast medium to make these structures visible.
lymphangioma a benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass.
lymphedema an abnormal accumulation of fluid primarily in the legs and ankles that occurs when veins or lymph vessels do not drain properly
lymphocytes small white blood cells that bear the major responsibility for carrying out the activities of the immune system.
ELISA also referred to as enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assay; it is a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies
Herpes zoster An acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow by underlying route of the inflamed nerve; also known as shingles
Hodgkin's disease is distinguished by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. These are large cancerous lymphocytes that are identified by microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen taken from an enlarged lymph node
Human immunodeficiency virus A blood borne pathogen that invades and then progressively impairs or kills cells of the immune system
Immunodeficiency disorder A condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing
Immunoglobulin A type of antibody produced naturally by the body; synthetic immunoglobulis are administered as a post exposure preventative measure against certain viruses such as rabies and some types of hepatitis
Immunologist A specialist in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the immune system
Lymphokines produced by the T-cells; direct the immune response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
Lymphoma a general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system.
Macrophage a type of phagocycte that protects the body by ingesting invading cells and by interacting with other cells of the immune system.
Metastasis the new cancer site that results from the spreading process
Metastasize the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.
Neuroblastoma a sarcoma of nervous system origin.
Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma the term used to describe all lymphomas other than Hodgkin's lymphoma.
Oncologist a specialist in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer.
Oncology the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer.
Opportunistic infection an infection that attacks a person with a weakened immune system
Osteosarcoma a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee.
Neoplasm new tumor growth that can be benign or malignant
axillary lymph nodes Drain the breast and upper arm.
bacilli Rod shaped bacteria ex: tetanus & tuberculosis
bacteria single-celled organisms that lack a nucleus; prokaryotes
bactericide any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth
bacteriostatic agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria
brachytherapy therapy using radioactive sources that are placed inside the body
carcinoma any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue
cervical lymph nodes located in the neck; drain the head and neck
complement one of a series of enzymes in the blood serum that are part of the immune response
cytomegalovirus a herpes-type virus that usually causes disease when the immune system is compromised
cytotoxic drugs used for chemotherapy, are destructive to cells, stops reproduction of cancer cells.
parasite an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
pathogen An organism that causes disease
phagocyte a cell that engulfs and digests debris and invading microorganisms
phagocytosis the process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
rabies an acute viral infection that is most commonly transmitted to humans by the bite or saliva of an infected animal.
retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of the retina that occurs predominantly in young children
rikettsia small bacteria that live in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites that are transmitted to humans ex: Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever
rubella German measles; a mild viral infection marked by a pink rash and fever in children
sarcoma malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue
spirochetes spiral shaped bacteria ex: lyme disease
splenomegaly an abnormal enlargement of the spleen
splenorrhagia hemorrhage of the spleen
staphylococci bacteria growing in bunches (like grapes) ex: pneumonia & skin infections
streptococci bacteria that form a chain ex: pharyngitis
teletherapy radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body
thymus a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity
western blot test to confirm a positive result of the ELISA test (HIV)This blood test that has more accurate results than the ELISA test.
Anoxia the absence or almost complete absence of oxygen from inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissues
Anthracosis a form of pneumoconiosis caused by coal dust in the lungs; also called black lung disease
Aphonia loss of the ability to produce normal speech sounds
Apnea the absence of spontaneous respiration
Asbestosis a form of pneumoconiosis caused by the asbestos particles found in the lungs of workers from the ship building and construction trades
Asphyxia pathological changes caused by a lack of oxygen in air that is inhaled
Asphyxiation any interruption of breathing that results in the loss of consciousness or death; also known as suffocation
Asthma a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
Atelectasis a condition in which the lung fails to expand because air cannot pass beyond the bronchioles; also known as a collapsed lung
Bradypnea an abnormally slow rate of respiration, usually less than 10 breaths per minute
Bronchiectasis chronic dilation of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from an earlier lung infection that was not cured
Bronchoconstrictor medication that narrows the opening of the passages into the lungs
Croup an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by the obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough.
Bronchodilator medication that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
Bronchopneumonia form of pneumonia that begins in bronchioles
Bronchorrhagia bleeding from the bronchi
Bronchorrhea excessive discharge of mucus from the bronchi
Bronchoscopy visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
Cheyne -Stokes respiration pattern of alternating periods of hyperpnea (rapid breathing), hypopnea (slow breathing) and apnea (absence of breathing)
Cystic fibrosis a genetic disorder in which the lungs are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus and the digestive system is impaired by thick mucus and the digestive system is impaired by thick gluelike mucus that interferes with digestive juices.
Diphtheria an acute infectious disease of the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the presence of diphtheria bacteria.
Dysphonia any voice impairment including hoarseness, weakness, or loss of voice.
Dyspnea difficult or labored breathing also known as shortness of breath.
Emphysema the progressive loss of lung function due to a decrease on the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and then the progressive destruction of their walls.
Empyema an accumulation of pus in the pleural; also known as pyothorax.
Endotracheal intubation the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish an airway.
Epiglottis inflammation of the epiglottis.
Epistaxis bleeding from the nose; also known as a nosebleed.
Hemoptysis spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs of bronchial tubes as the result of pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage.
Hemothorax an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity.
Hyperpnea An abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
Hyperventilation Abnormally rapid deep breathing, resulting in decreased levels of carbon dioxide at the cellular level
Hypopnea Shallow or slow respiration
Hypoxia Subnormal oxygen levels in the cells that is less severe than anoxia
Influenza An acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection, that is spread by respiratory droplets and occurs most commonly during the colder months
Inhalation The act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward
Laryngectomy surgical removal of the larynx
Laryngitis inflammation of the larynx
Laryngoplasty surgical repair of the larynx
Laryngoplegia paralysis of the larynx
Laryngoscopy visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope
Laryngospasm a sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx
Pharyngitis inflammation of the pharynx, also known as sore throat
Pharyngoplasty surgical repair of the pharynx
Pharyngorrhagia bleeding from the pharynx
Pharyngorrhea an abnormal discharge from the pharynx
Pleuralgia pain in the pleura or in the side
Pleurectomy surgical removal of part of the pleura
Pleurisy inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura in the thoracic cavity.
Pneumoconiosis an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact.
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia a form of pneumonia caused by an infection with the parasite P carinii.
Pneumonectomy surgical removal of all or part of a lung.
Pneumorrhagia bleeding from the lungs.
Pneumothorax An accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse.
Pyothorax an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity; also known as empyema
Rhinorrhea an excessive flow of mucus from the nose; also known as a runny nose
Sinusitis inflammation of the sinuses
Sinusotomy a surgical incision into a sinus
Spirometry a testing method to record the volume of air inhaled or exhaled and the length of time each breath takes
Tracheoplasty surgical repair of the trachea
Tracheostomy creating an opening into the trachea and inserting a tube to facilitate the passage of air or the removal of secretions
Tracheotomy an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
Tuberculosis an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that usually attacks the lungs
Pharyng/o throat, pharynx
Phon/o sound or voice
Pleur/o pleura;
-pnea breathing
Pneum/o, pneumon/o, pneu lungs
Trache/o trachea, windpipe
Epiglott/o Epiglottis
Bronch/o, Bronchi/o bronchi
-ectasis stretching, dilation, enlargement
atel/o incomplete, imperfect
Mediastinum also called interpleural space, located between the lungs this space contains the thoracic viscera.
Mycoplasma Pneumonia A milder, but longer lasting form of pneumonia caused by the fungi, Mycoplasma
Nasopharyngitis The common cold.
Otolaryngologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the ears, and throat.
Otorhinolaryngologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat.
Pertussis Also known as whooping cough, is a contagious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by a paroxysmal cough.
Created by: FHS_MsLandry