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About Polybius Greek; experienced politician; former general of the Achaean League;
Polybius's accomplishments wrote a book of history on Rome’s rise to power in 40 volumes because he thought that the Greeks would be dealing with the Romans for a while; included Rome's political strength, aka why they were so victorious and powerful
Polybius's beliefs Believed true historians should have been politically involved and once have commanded troops; thought Rome gained its strength from its logical and well-written constitution
Rome's government Rome took the best of Monarchies (Roman Consuls) , Aristocracies (Roman Senate) and Democracies (Public Participation) and molded them together - This system worked because each branch worked in balance with one another, no branch overcame the other.
Rome's political structure Senate was made up of all living former public office holders; Function was to constantly give advice to the peoples assembly and the council of the elders; Senate chooses the agenda and then people vote
People's Assembly elected public officials and passed laws
Referendum system way that the people voted
Consuls 2 officials elected annually; heads of state with the general task to protect the state; most important office of the 44 – any Roman citizen could run for the consulship who had the highest tax rating; office was run by few families w/ political heritage
Monarchial function commanded Roman armies and could call upon the senate and people assembly to discuss issues that he deemed significant
The cycle of Constitutions Monarchy (power) > Kingship (power and customs) > tyranny (kingship’s evil twin) > Aristocracy (resulted from rebellion of tyranny by upper class, could be good but power usually gets corrupt) > Mixed Constitution (could happen anytime) >
The cycle of Constitutions continued Oligarchy (aristocracy’s evil twin) > Democracy (results from rebellion of oligarchy by population. Is good if they respect traditions, customs, and law) > Mod Rule Ochlocracy (democracy’s evil twin) > Monarchy (only way out of mod rule)
Polybius's thoughts on monarchy Polybius is opposed to monarchy and in favor of some sort of republican or democratic structure; he made “the cycle of constitutions”, which is a pessimistic view of repetitious history
Polybius's thoughts on Rome's type of government Polybius thought Rome was a social aristocracy – social and economic power or the roman social aristocracy - families dominated the state through their wealth, tradition, etc.
Roman political system • Roman political system worked well b/c aristocratic families were relatively united, resulted in the families creating a set of informal rules. Not laws, but guidelines of what is acceptable in society – imposed limits on power of public officials
Nobiles “famous ones” – ppl who hold the highest office of consul repeatedly; 6 out of 7 officials were from a family who had held office before.
Nobiles continued every 4 yrs. 1 out of 7 would be from a family that hadn’t held that office before, but who had usually been elected a public official before (made up senatorial aristocracy); 1 or 2 out of every 100 elections there would be a random rich person elected
Fides good faith; poor ppl would ask wealthy aristocrats for help – rich ppl would help the poor but they expected a favor/help in return whenever they needed it in the future.
Godfathers in Rome Patrons, all had networks of clients. These clients came to the godfathers during election time to ask them how they should vote. Many candidates were related to the godfathers.
limites to Godfather's power on behavior, no physical violence w/ fellow politicians, on political ambition, could only rule one for one year. If you wanted to run a second or third time, you had to wait ten yrs. between terms
Mod Rule assemblies of ppl, vote, but immediate desires and impulses are guiding their decisions, not what’s good for society. Ex: Corcyra
Roman constitution and its relation to Roman culture honor, fear of the gods, morality, tradition; you can revise written laws easier than revising tradition. Tradition and morality are self-governing, ppl follow it b/c of their belief in it.
Funerals noble person who died is put on display, cast made of their faces and actors act out their great acts. This sets an example for the younger generations, shows respect, unites the community, constructs an identity, etc.
women and children in Rome women were more powerful/influential in Rome than in Athens; • children of aristocrats were very pressured to follow in their ancestors footsteps; had very high expectations
Rome = "a very tough neighborhood" gave them willpower in war; located in central Italy btw. 500 and 300 BC; challenges of their location made them into strong ppl; they were a target bc of location and fertile soil; surrounded by enemies
Results of their location Pros: Large population, lots of soldiers, fertile soil, lots of resources; Obsession w/ social discipline, military, lack of interest in theory, hardworking toughness, cooperation, compromise;BEST diplomats; diverse population allows them to accept every1
Roman conquest of Italy 700 BC city comes into existence; Rome was a monarchy ruled by Kings who took over Rome; • monarchy was overthrown, and the Romans established a republic that was limited b/c of hereditary aristocracy called “patricians”
Plebeians everyone who wasnt a patrician = a plebeian; Eventually, patricians gave power up to plebeians and had no special rights; by 250/300 BC, majority of Senate = plebeians
500-250 BC: special characteristics of Rome 2 times in Roman history at this period, Rome was taken over completely by surprise; 1st time = 380 BC, by Celtics (Kelts), never recovered; 2nd time = 270s BC – Macedonians/Greeks
Roman allies Italian ppl. throughout the peninsula who Rome had already conquered; required to provide soldiers in the same # as Romans
Hannibal major player in the 3 Punic Wars - 1st lead by his father, then Hannibal leads in the 2nd, 3rd is the takeover of Carthage and the takeover of the city
Romans and Hannibal Romans on the warpath with Hannibal – before this, there was a buildup, battles occurred – Rome loses the battle of Cannae, lost around 65,000 troops – demonstrates their resilience.
Rome and Carthage By 200 B.C. Romans controlled Mediterranean; Carthage - Aristocratic Republic (founded 800 B.C. by Phoenicians); Wrote/spoke language similar to Hebrew, created “land empire” in North Africa, “sea empire” in Sardinia and Corsica
1st Punic War fight over Sicily; Romans conquered Carthage; lasted 24 yrs. (264-241 BC); Carthage had powerful Navy, Romans had none; Romans wore down Carthage bc of their #s
2nd Punic War fought over Seguntum; 218-202 BC) Between Carthage lead by Hannibal, and Rome; Hannibal won kinda
Hannibal saw himself as the successor to Alexander the Great; originally not interested in territorial expansion in Eastern Greece;
Rome and direct rule Rome was uninterested in direct rule for 50 yrs.; then decided to rule directly to prevent war; by 190 Rome was the sole-surviving superpower
Plutarch wrote around 100 AD; Greek but a Roman citizen; local aristocrat who is friendly toward Rome, so they rewarded him with Roman citizenship; wrote about CATO; wants his fellow Greeks to realize what they need to do to improve their country - 100 AD
Cato part of generation of roman aristocrats born in the 230s BC who saw Rome practically destroyed by Hannibal, but then became the officer corps that defeats Hannibal and Carthage in 2nd Punic War, then sees Rome as the ultimate ruler of the Mediterranean.
Cato continued came from rich family, ran for public office at Rome after serving in the army for 10 campaigns. On counsel - Cato’s job was to investigate senate and kick out anyone he felt was morally unfit to be in the Senate.
"Cato the Elder" his generation 230s BC-149 BC; like our baby boomers generation; judgmental, against drinking, hard work = beneficial, don't show off wealth, self-restraint is important
Cato's generation's views on Roman traidtions sense of duty and obligations, less about personal gain and self-interest, more about duty to the state; perserverance and hard work; discipline, especially w/ the army and family
Tiberius Gracchus 163-133 BC; quieter than his bro Gaius, eloquent speaker, helps "ordinary ppl instead of wealthy ppl, reformer; ppl left for war and their property got taken away-Tiberius wants to help; for justice; aristocrats kill him and his friends out of anger
Lucius Cornelius Sulla his political counterparts passed a bill against him - in 80s BC he was so desperate to avoide political defeat, he marched an army on Rome itself (civil war)
Sulla 83-80 BC full ruler in Rome; tried to re-establish the republic/aristocracy, which he himself destroyed; reconstituted the senate with his supporters; passed laws forbidding anyone to do as he did (march on Rome); eventually stepped down bc he was dying;
Sulla continued 80-50 BC: Sulla’s actions kept ppl in order bc no one wanted civil war; Sulla’s actions caused ppl to realize the public army could be used for the private political purpose of a great noble
aristocrats and armies of the republic desparate aristocrats used armies of the republic against one another, and destroyed the republics – aristocrats established by Sulla split into two factions – Julius Caesar and Pompeius Magnus (Pompey); each of these two men had many resources and wealth
Julia - important Julius Caesar's daughter who he loved very much; Caesar married her to Pompey, who also loved her; She died in childbirth and so did her baby boy; “when she died, so did the republic” bc there was now nothing holding Ceasar and Pompey together
Caesar was murdered by Marcus Julius Brutus
Tiberius Gracchus coninued gentle, composed, reasonable; married Antistia; served in Africa under Scipio Africanus the younger, who had married Tiberius's sister; elected quaestor after Carthaginian War; Settled a peace treaty w/ the Numantines bc he was the only Roman they trusted
Tiberius Gracchus continued • Tiberius wanted to help the poor since the wealthy had taken over their land, using slaves the complete the work, and left the poor homeless. Tiberius’s friend Octavius was persuaded to oppose the law Tiberius was trying to pass
Tiberius Gracchus continued • The rich got so mad they planned out an assassination of Tiberius. Tiberius soon became aware of this, and began carrying a dagger under his toga. Tiberius’s law was passed; Octavius was deprived of his tribuneship - Tiberius was assassinated by enemies
Created by: sinzalaco