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A&P 2404 Final

QuestionAnswer
What are the 2 classes of hormones? Amino acid based(amines) & Steroid based
What are the hormones in the Anterior Pituitary? GH,Prolactin,LH,FSH, ACTC,TSH
What does GH promote? Bone muscle growth
What does prolactin promote? Milk production & mammary glands
What does LH promote? Sex hormone release
What does FSH promote? Production of gamates
ACTC promotes what? adrenal cortex stimulation
What does TSH do? Stimulates Thyroid Hormone
What are the Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary? ADH & oxytocin
ADH is responsible for what? increasing amount of water retained
What does oxytocin promote? uterine contraction & milk ejection
What are the Hormones of the Thyroid? Thyroxin & Calcitonin
What does Thyroxin promote? stimulates almost Every cell, raises energy, heart rate, metabolic rate to consume energy.
What does Calcitonin do? Lowers calcium levels in blood
What are the Hormones of the Thymus? Thymosine & Thymopoietin
What do the Hormones of the Thymus do? help mature T-cells that grow until puberty then begin to shrink
What is the Hormone of the Parathyroid? Parathormone
What does the PTH do? Increase calcium levers in blood
What are the Hormones of the Pancreas? Insulin, Glucagon,Somatostatin
Insulin is responsible for? decreasing blood sugar
Glucagon is responsible for? increasing blood sugar
What is Somatostatin responsible for? inhibitory to both
What are the Hormones of the Gonads? in men:testosterone; in women:estrogen
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla? Nor epinephrine & epinephrine
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Cortex? Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Faciculata, Zona Reticularis
Zona Glomerulosa Aldosterone; increase sodium levels in blood
What are the 2 classes of hormones? Amino acid based(amines) & Steroid based
What are the hormones in the Anterior Pituitary? GH,Prolactin,LH,FSH, ACTC,TSH
What does GH promote? Bone muscle growth
What does prolactin promote? Milk production & mammary glands
What does LH promote? Sex hormone release
What does FSH promote? Production of gamates
ACTC promotes what? adrenal cortex stimulation
What does TSH do? Stimulates Thyroid Hormone
What are the Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary? ADH & oxytocin
ADH is responsible for what? increasing amount of water retained
What does oxytocin promote? uterine contraction & milk ejection
What are the Hormones of the Thyroid? Thyroxin & Calcitonin
What does Thyroxin promote? stimulates almost Every cell, raises energy, heart rate, metabolic rate to consume energy.
What does Calcitonin do? Lowers calcium levels in blood
What are the Hormones of the Thymus? Thymosine & Thymopoietin
What do the Hormones of the Thymus do? help mature T-cells that grow until puberty then begin to shrink
What is the Hormone of the Parathyroid? Parathormone
What does the PTH do? Increase calcium levers in blood
What are the Hormones of the Pancreas? Insulin, Glucagon,Somatostatin
Insulin is responsible for? decreasing blood sugar
Glucagon is responsible for? increasing blood sugar
What is Somatostatin responsible for? inhibitory to both
What are the Hormones of the Gonads? in men:testosterone; in women:estrogen
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Medulla? Nor epinephrine & epinephrine
What are the hormones of the Adrenal Cortex? Zona Glomerulosa, Zona Faciculata, Zona Reticularis
Zona Glomerulosa Aldosterone; increases sodium levels in blood
Zona Faciculata Glucocorticoids; Cortisol; responsible for enegry usage
Zona Reticularis Gonadocoricoids; Androgen; male sex hormones
What are the hormones of the Pineal Gland? Melatonin & Serotonin
What are the Hormones of the Pineal Gland responsible for? Sleep wake cycle and mood
What are 3 different types of blood cells? RBC, WBC & Platelets
Erythrocytes are.... Reb Blood Cells
What are Platelets responsible for? blood clotting
What are two types of Leukocytes? Granulocytes & Agranulocytes
Name the Granulocytes. Neutophil, Eosinophils, Basophil
Name the Agranulocytes. Lymphocytes & monocytes
What are Tropic Hormones? Hormones who target is another endocrine gland
What is the Connection between the Endocrine & Nervous System? how? The Hypothalamus; it releases regulatory chemicals to pituitary& the pituitary affects a lot of endocrine glands
List Leukocytes in order from most abundant to least. Neutrophil, Lymphocytes, Monocytes, Eosinophil, Basophil
Neutrophils phagocytes
Lymphocytes T&B cells (IMMUNE RESPONSE)
Monocytes Phagocytes
Eosinophil parasitic worms
Basophil inflammation; allergies
What are two pathways for clotting? Intrinsic & Extrinsic
Which Pathway for clotting is initiated by factors entirely within blood? Intrinsic
Which pathway for clotting is a shortcut that involves input from injured tissues? Extrinsic
What makes clotting happen a lot faster? Tissue Factor
A possible change in physiological Activity Changes in membrane permeability or membrane potential
A posssible change in physiological Activity Increase or decrease protein sythesis (making of protein)
A possible change in physiological Activity Enzyme activation or deactivation
A possible change in physiological Activity Mitotic stimulation
A possible change in physiological Activity Induction of secretion
What are the General Activities of Hormones? hormones circulate in bloodstream to all tissues, each hormone influences only certain tissues which are called targets.
What are 2 major mechanisms of hormone action? 2nd Messanger system & Gene Activation
Steroids and thyroxine are based on which major mechanism of hormone action? Gene activation
In Gene activation, what goes INTO cell and binds to receptor and THEN into the nucleus(steroid or thyroxine)? Steroid
In Gene Activation, What enters the nucleus FIRST then binds to a receptor in the nucleus (Steroid/thyroxine)? Thyroxine
What is required for a hormone to activate change? A receptor
Which Mechanism of Hormone Action is used by amino acid based hormones? 2nd messanger system
In the 2nd Messanger system what is the 2nd Messanger? cAMP
What are alternate second messangers? diacyglycerol and IP3
What are diacyglycerol and IP3 derived from? PIP2
What causes release of calcium, that can also act as a 3rd messanger? IP3
In 2nd messanger system,A hormone comes together with a G protein and what? adenylate cyclase
In 2nd messanger system, a G protein and adenylate cyclase split what? GTP
In 2nd messanger system, what does GTP activate? Adenylate cyclase
In 2nd messanger system, adenylate cyclase turns ATP into? cAMP
These cells carry oxygen. RBC
These cells are Hemoglobin packed. RBC
RBC's are broken down and recycled by what? Spleen
These cells are biconcave discs RBC
These are the most Numberous types of blood cell RBC
What are the 3 phases of the Cardiac cycle? Ventricular Filling, Ventricular Systole, and Isovolumetri relaxation
Systole means the same as contract, excitation, depolarization
Diastole means the same as relaxation, repolarization
During what part of the Cardiac cycle is blood volume in ventricles are lower than in atria, Ventricular filling
During what part of the Cardia cycle are the folling true Atria contraction, 70% passive, & pressure is highest in atria? Ventricular filling
What is the period where pressure in ventricles rise quickly to above that in the aorta and S-L valves open? Ejection period
In which phase of the Cardiac cycle are all of these true; Isovolumetric contraction, ejection period, Ventricular pressure highest, Atria have 2nd highest pressure, AV valves closed & SL valves open. Ventricular Systole
What phase is occuring when the pressure in the aorta is the highest, pressure in ventricles the 2nd highest and pressure in atria the lowest, SL& AV valve closed Isovolumetric relaxation
Non contactile cardiac cells that initiate and conduct electrical impulses through the heart Intrinsic conduction system AKA nodal system
What cells make the heart pump? Autorhythmic cells
These cells have unstable resting potential(slowly drift toward threshold & depolarization) Autorhythmic cells
In the Intrinsic conduction system, What does Ca++ influx cause? Action potential
In the Pathway of conduction what is known as the pacemaker and is the strongest? SA node
Complete the Pathway. SA Node, AV Node, ______, Bundle branches, & Purkinje fibers AV bundle
Complete the pathway. _____, AV Node, AV Bundle(bundle of his), Bundle branches, purkinje fibers. SA Node
Complete the pathway. SA Node, ______, AV Bundle(bundle of his), Bundle branches, Purkinje fibers AV Node
Complete the pathway. SA Node, AV Node, AV bundle, Bundle branches, ___________ Purkinje Fibers
Complete the pathway. SA Node, AV Node, AV Bundle, _________, Purkinje Fibers Bundle branches
What is the formula for Cardiac Output CO= SVx HR
In an EKG, the P wave represents... Atrial Systole;Depolarization of the atria
In an EKG, the QRS complex represents... Ventricular Depolarization
In an EKG, the T wave represents... Ventricular Repolarization or ventricular relaxation
In an EKG, Atrial Systole or Depolarization of the atria occurs at what point? The P-wave
In an EKG, Ventricular depolarization occurs at what point? QRS complex
In an EKG, Ventricular repolarization or relaxation of the ventricles occurs at what point? T wave
What are 2 Intervals of an EKG? PR interval & QT interval
In an EKG, which interval starts at the beginning of atrial systole to the start of ventricular systole PR interval
In an EKG, which interval goes from ventricular depolarization(contraction) to ventricular repolarization QT interval
The amount of blood pumped out by a ventricle in 1 minute Cardiac output
The volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle in a single beat Stroke volume
With High PO2, would hemoglobin have a strong or weak attraction to O2? Hb would have a strong affinity for O2
If temperature increase, would the affinity for oxygen increase or decrease? Hb's affinity for O2 would decrease
A decrease of pH would strengthen or weaken Hb's affinity for O2? It would weaken the bond between O2 and Hb
With high PCO2, would Hb have a strong or weak affinity for O2? High PCO2 Weakens the affinity of Hb for O2
Hormones that increase metabolism, raise or lower affinty? Lower
What are 3 method of CO2 transport in blood? dissolved in plasma, bound to Hb, and as a bicarbonate in plasma
What are the main structures if the Respiratory System? Nose, Pharynx(throat), trachea, bronchi and lungs
What does surfactant do? Reduces surface tension of H2O
Name 3 phases of Gastric secretion Cephalic phase, Gastric phase, and intestinal phase
Which phase of gastric secretion is food before it enters the stomach (sight, smell, sound, taste food) & stimulates gastric secretion; Conditioned response (dampened if food is interesting) Cephalic phase
What are the 3 stimuli of the gastric phase of gastric secretion? distension, increased pH, high protein
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion,What is distension? stretch receptors that decrease impulse to medulla back to the stomach
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion,What is the stimulating to secretion? Ach
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion what happens when there is an increase in pH? gastrin release is stimulated & increase of HCL output
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion, when do proteins tie up H+ when there is high protein
In the gastric phase of gastric secretion, what things bind to parietal cells & stimulate HCL output? Ach, gastrin, histamine
What phase of gastric secretion is occuring when hormones from the small intesting that regulate stomach emptying? Intestinal phase
In gastric secretion._______ _____ is Stimulatory to gastric secretion if the first part of small intestine is too ful, or the chyme is acidic ot too fatty Intestinal gastrin
The Intestinal phase of gastric secretion triggers ___________; which inhibits gasrtic secretion-food time in stomach is extended? Enterogastric reflex
What is the PCT responsible for as a renal component? Removal of Ions,amino acids, glucose; H2O flows out(causes volume decrease) & is reabsorbed before reaching the loop
What is the significance of the Descending limb as a renal component? is freely permeable to H2O
What is the ascending arm responsible for as a renal component? IMpermeable to H2O, Na+, and Cl- actively transported out
What is the DCT responsible for as a renal component? generally impermeable to solutes, ALDOSTERONE acts here to mediate Na+, area also RESPONDS TO ADH
What is the collecting duct responsible for as a renal component? SITE for FACULTATIVE WATER REABSORPTION(dependent on ADH)
Created by: a_palacios3 on 2010-12-13



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