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GCSE C21 P2 Radiation and Life revision

emit give out (radiation) - a TV remote emits infra-red; anything that emits radiation is called a source
transmit lets radiation pass through - a window transmits visible light; radiation is transmitted for most of its journey from source to detector
absorb stops radiation, doesn't let it through - sunscreen absorbs ultraviolet radiation; many things that absorb radiation also detect the radiation (e.g. your eye, any camera)
reflect bounce off - a mirror reflects visible light; everything that we see reflects some visible light too
electromagnetic spectrum all the waves that are similar to light: radio, microwave, infra-red, visible, ultra-violet, X-ray, gamma
greenhouse gases (name 3) carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane
ionising means high energy photons; can break molecules (to form ions)
health risks from ionising radiation can damage DNA; can cause cancer
four effects of radiation (when it's absorbed) HEATING ( microwaves, infra-red) CHEMICAL (photosynthesis) ELECTRICAL (radio and microwaves) IONISING (breaking molecules)
four non-ionising radiations radio, microwave, infra-red, visible light
most energetic photons gamma rays
lowest energy photons radio waves
three ionising radiations (in the electromagnetic spectrum) ultra-violet, X-ray, gamma rays
packet or lump of radiation energy photon
mobile phones emit microwaves
TV remote controls emit infra-red
all warm objects emit infra-red
TV signals are broadcast using radio waves
cancers can be treated with (which radiation) gamma or X-ray
three radiations that can cause cancer u-v, X-ray, gamma ray
ozone molecules ABSORB / TRANSMIT / EMIT ultra-violet absorb
CFCs destroy molecules of ozone
benefits of exposure to ultra-violet body produces vitamin D; produces ‘feel good’ hormones
risks of sunbathing increased chance of skin cancer and cataracts
process that removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere photosynthesis
chemical that damages ozone layer CFCs
the ozone hole increases … the chances of skin cancer (for people living under it)
3 radiations used to transmit information RADIO (TV and radio signals, remote control cars); MICROWAVE (mobile phone signals, wi-fi), INFRA-RED (TV remote control) (or visible)
actual risk based on statistics rather than on someone’s ‘gut feeling’
perceived risk how someone ‘thinks’ about the risk – this might be more or less than the actual risk
precautionary principle ‘better safe than sorry’ – if the risks are unknown and the benefit is zero, don’t do it.
cause when one factor has an effect on an outcome; or where a known mechanism / process will increase the likelihood of that outcome
correlation a statistical link – it does NOT mean that one factor causes the other
mechanism a causal mechanism explains how a factor affects the outcome (e.g. carbon dioxide causes global warming)
climate average weather for a region over a many years
Three likely consequences of global warming SEA LEVEL RISE and FLOODING of low-lying land (loss of life, damage to property, loss of farmland); MORE FREQUENT EXTREME WEATHER (hurricanes and tornadoes); CHANGED WEATHER PATTERNS (eg UK could become much colder)
Explain why sea levels will rise because of global warming Water in the oceans will EXPAND; ICE in GLACIERS will MELT adding more water to the oceans
INTENSITY of beam of radiation depends on Number of photons per second; energy of each photon
health risks from exposure to uv radiation skin cancer and cataracts
Created by: allydavies on 2010-12-10

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