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Dr. Alegre

A&P1 Lec Exam 1

1.Every organism has a characteristic pattern of ___________, which differs from that of inanimate objects. 1.Organization
2.Responsiveness, also called _____________, refers to the idea that organisms respond to changes in their immediate environment. 2.Irritability
3.What is “Surface Anatomy?” 3. The study of general form & superficial markings
4.Focuses on superficial and internal features like the eye, ear, nose, etc. Is the anatomical organization of specific areas of the body, such as the head, neck, or trunk. 4.Regional anatomy
5.Deals with structures that cannot be seen without magnification. 5.Microscopic anatomy
6.The analysis of the structure of individual cells, the simplest units of life. 6.Cytology
7.The examination of tissues – groups of specialized cells and cell products that work together to perform specific functions. Tissues combine to form organs, such as the heart, kidney, liver, or brain. 7.Histology
8.The study of early developmental processes. 8.Embryology
9.Includes all aspects of the functioning of specific organ systems. Cardiovascular physiology, respiratory physiology, and reproductive physiology are examples. 9.Systemic physiology
10.Deals with changes in function resulting from disease. Is the study of the effects of diseases on an organ or system functions. 10.Pathological physiology
11.Name the 6 levels or organization, in order. 11.Organelle (ex. Actin), Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism
12.Name the major organs of the Integument System. 12.Skin, hair, sweat glands, and nails
13.Name the major organs of the skeletal system and state the functions. 13.Bones, cartilages, associated ligaments, and bone marrow. They provide support and protection for other tissues.
14.Name the major organs of the endocrine system. 14.Pituitary gland, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands
15.Name the major organs of the muscular system and state the functions. 15.Skeletal muscles, associated tendons, aponeuroses. Provides movement and generates heat that maintains body temperature
16.Name the major organs of the cardiovascular system and state the functions. 16.Heart, blood vessels, and blood. Distribute blood cells, water and dissolved materials including nutrients, waste products, oxygen, and carbon dioxide.
17.What is the function of the lymphatic system? 17.Defends against infection and disease
18.What are the major organs of the urinary system? 18.Kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
19.Refers to the existence of a stable internal environment. To survive, every organism needs to maintain _______________. 19.Homeostasis
20.A variation outside the desired range triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation. Think Thermostat. An effector activated by the control center opposes, or negates, the original stimulus. Send signals to stop to achieve homeostasis. 20.Negative Feedback
21.An initial stimulus produces a response that exaggerates or enhances the change in the original conditions rather than opposing it. This kind of escalating cycle is often called _________ _________ loop. An example is blood clotting. Another example 21.Positive Feedback
22.When the body is in this position, the hands are at the sides with the palms facing forward. 22.Anatomical position
23.Passes along the midline and divides the body into left and right halves. 23.Midsagittal section
24.Body cavity that includes the cranial cavity, which contains the brain and the spinal cavity, which contains the spinal cord. 24.Dorsal body cavity
25.Which quadrant includes the Right lobe of the liver, gall bladder, right kidney, stomach, and small / large intestines? 25.RUQ
26.Which quadrant includes the left love of the liver, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, spleen, and portions of the large intestine? 26.LUQ
27.Which quadrant includes the cecum, appendix, portions of the small intestine, reproductive organs, and right ureter? 27.RLQ
28.Which quadrant includes most of the small intestine, portions of the large intestine, left ureter, and reproductive organs? 28.LLQ
29.What does “Anterior” or “Ventral” mean? 29.The front, before, belly side
30.What term means: Above, at a higher level (in human body, toward the head)? 30.Superior
31.What term means: Away from the body’s longitudinal axis; away from the midsagittal plane? 31.Lateral
32.What term means: Away from an attached base? 32.Distal
33.Flat muscular sheet, divides the ventral body cavity into a superior thoracic cavity and an inferior abdominopelvic cavity? (i.e. separates thoracic from abdominopelvic cavity) 33.Diaphragm
34.Cavity that includes superior thoracic and inferior abdominopelvic cavities. 34.Ventral body cavity
35.Cavity that contains the lungs and heart. 35.Thoracic cavity
36.Separates the left and right pleural cavities. 36.Mediastinum
37.Serous membrane lining a pleural cavity is called a ________________. 37.Pleura
38.Uses computers to reconstruct sectional views. A single X-ray source rotates around the body, and the X-ray beam strikes a sensor monitored by the computer. 38.Computerized tomography (CT)
1. The smallest simplest stable units of matter are called __________. Atoms
2. Have a positive charge Protons
3. Have no charge Neutrons
4. Have a negative charge Electrons
5. The number of protons in an atom is known as its _________ _________. Atomic Number
6. Atoms can be classified on the basis of their atomic number into groups called _________. Elements
7. Atoms whose nuclei contain the same number of protons, but different numbers of neutrons are called ____________. Isotopes
8. The total number of protons plus neutrons in the nucleus is used to designate a particular isotope. The mass number
9. Elements that do not readily participate in chemical processes are said to be _______. Inert
10. The term ________ refers to any chemical structure consisting of atoms held together by covalent bonds. This is also greater than an Atom. Molecule
11. A _______ is any chemical substance made up of atoms of two or more elements, regardless of the type of bonding joining them. A ________ is greater than an atom. Compound
12. What are the three types of chemical bonds? Ionic, Covalent (polar/non polar), Hydrogen
13. Attraction between positive cations (+ charge) and negative anions (- charge) are _________ bonds. Ionic
14. An unequal sharing of electrons creates a _____ _____ ______. Polar covalent bond
15. ________ ________ are too weak to create molecules, but they can change molecular shapes or pull molecules together. It is the weakest type of bond. Hydrogen bonds.
16. ________ is a reaction that breaks a molecule into smaller fragments. AB  A+B Decomposition
17. _________ is the opposite of decomposition. The reaction assembles larger molecules from smaller components. A + B  AB Synthesis
18. In an ____ ____, parts of the reacting molecules are shuffled around: AB + CD  AD + CB Exchange reaction
19. Chemical Reactions are _______. A+B  AB; A+B  AB Reversible
20. _______ promote chemical reactions by lowering the activation energy requirements. Enzymes
21. _______ belong to a class of substances called ________. Enzymes, Catalysts
22. Compounds that accelerate chemical reactions without themselves being permanently changed or consumed. Catalysts
23. Reactions that release energy are said to be ________. Exergonic
24. If more energy is required to being the reaction than is released as it precedes, the reaction as a whole will absorb energy. Such reactions are called _________. Endergonic
25. Are not primarily carbon and hydrogen. Matter that doesn’t break down. Inorganic compounds
26. _________ include all the molecules synthesized or broken down by chemical reactions inside our bodies. Metabolites
27. Carbon, Oxygen and hydrogen are primary structural components of _____ ______. Organic compounds
28. A pH above 7 is basic or _________, meaning it has more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions. Alkaline
29. A ______ is an organic molecule that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio near 1:2:1. Carbohydrate
30. Soluble inorganic molecules whose ions will conduct an electrical current in solution. Electrolytes
31. The _______ glucose is the most important metabolic “fuel” in the body. Carbohydrate
32. Molecules that have the same molecular formula but different structures. Isomers
33. Liver tissues and muscle tissues make and store ________. Glycogen
34. The ____________ glycogen, or animal starch, has many side branches, all consisting of chains of glucose molecules. Polysaccharide
35. A _______ fatty acid has a single unsaturated bond in the hydrocarbon tail. Mono-unsaturated
36. A _______ fatty acid contains multiple unsaturated (double) bonds. Poly-unsaturated
37. What three structural lipids help form and maintain intracellular structures called membranes? Cholesterol, phospholipids, and glycolipids
38. The process creates a covalent bond between the carboxylic acid group of one amino acid and the amino group of another. This bond is known as ____________. Peptide Bond
39. Molecules consisting of amino acids held together by peptide bonds are called _____. Peptides
40. __________ _________ results from bonds that develop between atoms at different parts of the polypeptide chain. Secondary structure
41. Hydrogen bonding, for example, may create simple spiral known as a ___________. Alpha-helix or flat pleated sheet
42. _______ and _____ are combinations of protein and carbohydrate molecules. Glycoproteins & Proteoglycans
43. _____ ____ store and process information at the molecular level, inside cells. Nucleic acids
44. What are the three components of a nucleotide? 1) a sugar 2) a phosphate group 3) a nitrogenous base
45. Name the corresponding DNA bases: C goes with _____; A goes with _____. G; T
46. Name the corresponding RNA bases: C goes with _____; A goes with _____. G; U
1. The extracellular fluid in most tissues is called _________. Interstitial fluid
2. The outer boundary of the cell is the cell membrane, which is also called the _______. It’s three functions include: 1) ________2) ________3)_________. Plasma membrane or plasmalemma; 1) Physical isolation, 2) Regulation & exchange with the environment 3) Sensitivity
3. The cell membrane is called a _____ _____, because the phospholipid molecules in it form two layers. Phospholipid bilayer
4. Ions and other small water-soluble materials can cross the membrane only by passing through __________. Channels
5. _________ organelles are not completely enclosed by membranes, and all of their components are in direct contact with the cytoplasm. Nonmembranous
6. ______organelles are isolated from the cytosol by phospholipid membranes, just as the cell membrane isolates the cytosol from the extracellular fluid. Membranous
7. The cell’s nonmembranous organelles include the _______, ________, ______, ______, ______, and _________. Cytoskeleton, microvilli, centrioles, cilia, ribsosmes, and proteasomes
8. Name the 6 membranous organelles of a cell. Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, peroxisomes, and mitochondria (also nucleus).
9. The _______ of all cells includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules. Cytoskeleton
10. Typical microfilaments are composed of the protein ________. Actin
11. _______ anchor the cytoskeleton to the integral proteins of the cell membrane. Microfilaments
12. All our cells contain microtubules, hollow tubes built from the globular protein ______. Tubulin
13. During cell division, microtubules for the _____ _____ ,which distributes the duplicated chromosomes to opposite ends of the dividing cell. Spindle apparatus
14. All animal cells capable of undergoing cell division contain a pair of _______, cylindrical structures composed of short _______. Centrioles, microtubules
15. Organelles that are responsible for protein synthesis. Components are formed in the _________. Ribosomes; nucleoli
16. The _____ _____ _____ has a variety of functions all associated with the synthesis of lipids and carbohydrates. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
17. Functions as a combination workshop and shipping depot. It is where many newly synthesized proteins undergo chemical modification and where they are packaged for export to their next destination, the golgi apparatus. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
18. What are the three major functions of the golgi apparatus? 1)Modifies and packages secretion, such as hormones or enzymes for release through exocytosis. 2) It renews or modifies the cell membrane. 3) It packages special enzymes within vesicles for use in the cytosol.
19. Functions in the defense against disease. Have the capacity of total cell destruction if ruptured. Lysosomes
20. Produces 95% of ATP production through aerobic respiration, which is required for cell activity and called the powerhouse of the cell. Mitochondria
21. Detoxify alcohol, hydrogen peroxide & other harmful substances. Peroxisomes
22. The ______ has 46 chromosomes – made of DNA molecules (23 pairs) and contains nucleolus & chromatin, nucleoplasm. Nucleus
23. The ______ contains ions, enzymes, RNA, and DNA nucleotides, small amounts of RNA & DNA. Neuleoplasm
24. _____ in the nucleus stroes the instructions for protein synthesis, and this DNA is organized into structured called ________. DNA; Chromosomes
25. A ______ is the functional unit of heredity; it contains all the DNA triplets needed to produce specific proteins. Gene
26. ______ picks up the coded message; RNA leaves the nucleolus, starts in the nucleus. The RNA picks up the chemical coded message from the DNA. Transcription
27.The process of interpreting the message is called:_______. Translation
28. Located in the nucleus. Produces RNA. A dark staining area within the nucleus. Nucleolus
29. _____ ______ is the assembling of functional polypeptides in the cytoplasm. Occurs through translation, the formation of a linear chain of amino acids, using the information provided by an mRNA strand. Protein synthesis
30. The ______ _____ are provided by transfer RNA (tRNA) a relatively small and mobile type of RNA. Amino acids
31. Name three characteristics of osmosis. 1)Is the diffusion of water molecules across membrane 2) Occurs across selectively permeable membrane thats freely permeable to water but not to solutes 3) Water will flow across member towards solution that has higher concentration of solutes.
32. If a blood cell is in a ____ _____, water will flow into the cell, causing is to swell up like balloon. Hypotonic solution
33. If a cell ruptures releasing its contents, the event is ______. Hemolysis
34. A cell in a _____ ____ will lose water by osmosis. As it does, the cell shrivels and dehydrates. The shrinking of red blood cells is called _________. Hypertonic solution, crenation
35. Many essential nutrients, such as glucose and amino acids, are insoluble in lipids and too large to fit through membrane channels. These substances can be passively transported across the membrane by carrier proteins in a process called ____ _____. Facilitated diffusion
36. In _____ ______, a high-energy bond provides the energy needed to move ions or molecules across the membrane. Active transport
37. Homeostasis within the cell depends on the ejection of sodium ions and the recapture of lost potassium. This exchange is accomplished through the activity of a _______-________ ________ __________. Sodium-Potassium Exchange Pump
38. Movement into the cell. Involves relatively large volumes of extra cellular material and requires energy in the form of ATP. Endocytosis
39. List the three major types of endocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytosis, pinocytosis & phagocytosis
42. During this phase, a cell performs all its normal functions and if necessary, prepares for cell division. Longest phase. Interphase
40.Cell eating, produces phagosomes containing solid objects that may be as large as the cell itself.# Phagocytosis
43. Part of Interphase. The cell duplicates its chromosomes. This involves DNA replication and the synthesis of histones and other proteins in the nucleus. The goal of DNA replication is to copy the genetic information in the nucleus. The S Phase
41.Ejection of materials from the cell Exocytosis
44. The stage of cell reproduction is called _________. Mitosis
45. List 1st 2 of the 4 stages of Mitosis and describe what happens in each stage. 1)Prophase:paired chromatids, cell duplicating.Chromosomes coil tightly 2)Metaphase: Chromatids move to central zone called metaphase plate.
45. List last 2 of the 4 stages of Mitosis and describe what happens in each stage. 3)Anaphase:Paired chromatids separates and 2 daughter chromosomes are pulled to opposite ends of cell 4)Telephase:Nuclear region pinches inhalf. Each new cell start to return to interphase state.Nuclear membranes form, nuclei enlarge and chromosom uncoil.
46. Cell “pinches” at membrane to form two cells. Also Division of cytoplasmic mass. Cell is duplicating & begins the Telephase. Two daughter cells exist. Cytokinesis
47. Paired cylindrical bodies lie at 90 degree angles from each other, close to the nucleus. Direct formation of the mitotic spindle during cell division. Centrioles
48. A dispersion of malignant cells that may travel to distant tissues and organs and establish secondary tumors. Metastasis
A specialization process that occurs when a gene is functionally eliminated and cell loses the ability to create certain protein and to perform functions involving protein.Each time gene switches off,the cell’s functional abilities become more restricted. Differentation
1) The study of tissues. Histology
2) Covers exposed surfaces, lines internal passageways and chambers and forms glands. Epithelial tissue
3) List the functions of epithelial tissue. 1) provides physical protection 2) control permeability and absorption 3) provides sensation 4) produce specialized secretions
4) _______ are especially abundant on epithelial surfaces where absorption and secretion take place, such as along portions of the digestive and urinary tracts. Microvilli
5) A _______ ________ is formed by the fusion of the outer layers of two cell membranes. Bands of this encircle the apical portion of many epithelial cells, preventing the diffusion of fluids and solutes between the cells. Tight Junction
6) ________ are abundant between cells in the superficial layers of the skin. As a result, damaged skin cells are usually lost in sheets rather than as individual cells. It gives the epithelium its strength. Desmosomes
7) What are the three cell shapes? Squamous, cuboidal and columnar
8) Most delicate type of epithelium. Ex. Respiratory exchange surfaces (alveoli), the lungs, the lining of the ventral body cavities and the lining of the heart and blood vessels. Simple Squamous epithelium
9) The simple squamous epithelium that lines the ventral body cavities is called ______. The pleura, peritoneum and pericardium each contain a superficial layer of this. Mesothelium (or parietal layer)
10) The simple squamous epithelium lining the inner surface of the heart and all blood vessels is an _______. Endothelium
11) This epithelium is generally located where mechanical stresses are severe. The cells form a series of layers. Ex. Surface of skin, esophagus, and anus. Stratified squamous epithelium
12) The thyroid gland contains chambers called _______ ______, that are lined by a cuboidal secretory epithelium. Thyroid follicles
13) Are relatively rare and are located along the ducts of sweat glands and in the larger ducts of the mammary glands. Stratified cuboidal epithelia
14) Typically posses cilia. Epithelia of this type line most of the nasal cavity, the trachea, the bronchi and portions of the male reproductive tract. Pseudostratified columnar epithelial cells
15) Flat in appearance; found lining the skin and first line of defense. Which type of epithelial tissue is this? Squamous
16) Which epithelial tissue is shaped like little squares/hexes and found in the lining of the urinary tubes? It also secrets and absorbs material. Cuboidal
17) Which epithelial tissue is shaped like columns, secretes and absorbs material and is found lining the trachea? Columnar
18) Which epithelial tissue is of the urinary bladder? Transitional
19) A gland that secretes hormones into the bloodstream for distribution throughout the body. Hormones that are released directly into the surrounding interstitial fluid. Ductless Endocrine Gland
20) Glands that secrete onto an epithelial surface. Exocrine
21) Involves the loss of cytoplasm as well as the secretory product. Mammary gland. Apocrine
22) Destroys the gland cell. Ex. Sebaceous gland. Holocrine
23 The product is released from the secretory vesicles by exocytosis. Merocrine
24 Are also known as adipose cells, or fat cells. Contains a single, enormous lipid droplet. Adipocytes
25 Most of the volume of _______ ________ _______ is occupied by fibers. Dense connective tissues
26 Dense connective tissues are often called __________. Collagenous
27 Form an interwoven meshwork in no consistent pattern. These tissues strengthen and support areas subjected to stresses from many directions. Dense irregular connective tissue
28 A single cell type accounts for almost half the volume of blood and is the reason we associate the color red with blood. Red blood cell or erythrocyte
29 A ________ is generally set apart from surrounding tissues by a fibrous __________. Cartilage, perichondrium
30 Cartilage cells or _______ are the only cells in the cartilage matrix. Chondrocytes
31 Is the most common type of cartilage. Hyaline cartilage
32 ________ in the matrix contain osteocytes, or bone cells. Lacunae, osteocytes
33 Lines passageways and chambers, including the digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts that communicates with the exterior. Mucous membranes
34 Movement is produced by a _______ ______, which is specialized for contraction. Muscle tissue
35 Smooth muscle tissue has no _________. Striations
36 Known as nervous tissue, is specialized for the conduction of electrical impulses from one region of the body to another. Neural tissue
37 The first abnormality to be observed is _______ , a change in the normal shape, size and organization of tissue cells. Dysplasia
38 _______ is a structural change that dramatically alters the character of the tissue. Metaplasia
39 In _______ tissue organization breaks down. Anaplasia
40 Body membrane-squamous epithelial cells. Cutaneous Membrane
41 Membrane that produce mucus- line the cavities that open to the outside of the body digestive, respiratory, reproductive and urinary tracts. Mucous Membrane
42 Body membrane that produces serous fluid, epi cells supported by connective tissue, line internal cavities that are not open to outside: pleural (lungs), pericardial (heart), peritoneal (organs). Serous Membrane
43 Body membrane that produce synovial fluid- line the joints of the body. Synovial Membrane
Created by: shresthasun