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arrhythmias abnormal heart rhythms
dysrhythmias abnormal heart rhythms
heart block (aterioventricular block) failure of proper conduction of impulses
flutter rapid but regular contractions of atria or ventricles
fibrillation rapid, random, ineffectual, and irregular contractions
cardia pacemaker to overcome arrhythmias
defibrillator electrical devise to restor proper rhythm
cardioversion another name for shocking the heart
digozin drug that slows heart rate
implantable cardioverter/defibrillater (ICD) put in chest to sense arrhythmias and correct them
radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) nonsurgical treatment for arrhythmia
cardiac arrest sudden stoppage of heart movement
palpitations uncomfortable sensations in chest associated with arrhthmias
premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) cause palpitations
premature atrial contractions (PACs) cause palpitations
congenital heart disease abnormalities in heart at birth
coarctation of aorta (CoA) narrowing of aorta
patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) small duct between aorta and pulmonary artery normally closes soon after birth, remains open (patent)
septal defects small holes in septa between atria or ventricles
heart-lung machine relieves heart and lungs of pumping
trans-catheter closure clamshell devise into heart via cathator closes septal defects
minimally invasive heart surgery surgery through puncture holes in chest
tetralogy of Fallot congenital malformation of heart involving four (tetra) distinct defects
tetralogy of fallot defect 1 pulmonary artery stenosis blood is not adequately passed to lungs for oxygen
tetralogy of fallot defect 2 ventricular septal defect gap in septum lets deoxygenated blood through
tetralogy of fallot defect 3 shift of aorta to right aorta overrides inerventricular septum
tetralogy of fallot defect 4 hypertrophy of right ventricle myocardium has to work harder to pump blood
blue baby has tetralogy of fallot shich causes cyanosis
congestive heart failure (CHF) heart is unable to pump requied amount of blood
pulmonary adema fluid seeps out of capillaries into tiny air sacs of lung because of CHF
left ventricular assist device (LVAD) booster pump in abdomen for people waiting for heart transplant because of CHF
coronary artery disease (CAD) disease of arteries surrounding the heart
atherosclerosis deposite of fatty compounds on inner lining of coronary artery
thrombotic occlusion blocking of the coronary artery by a clot
ischemia descrease in blood flow
necrosis death
infarction dead mycardial tissue
acute coronary syndromes (ACS) consequences after plaque rupture coronary arteries
consequences of ruptured coronary artery unstalbe angina, myocardial infarction
angiography x ray imaging of coronary arteries
revascularization blood flow to heart muscle
nitroglycerin treats acute attacks of angina
nitrates drug is vasodilator increases blood flow and lowers blood pressure
aspirin prevent aggregation of platelets
beta-blockers reduce force and spee of heartbeat to lower blood pressure
ACE inhibitors reduce high blood pressure and risk of future heart attacks
calcium channel blockers relax muscles in blood vessels
statins lower cholesterol levels
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) replace clooged vessels
percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) catheterization with ballons and stents open clogged arteries
transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) laser makes holes in heart muscle to induce angiogenesis(growth of new blood vessels)
endocarditis inflammation of inner lining of heart causedd by bacteria
vegetations lesions caused by infection or trauma to heart valves
emboli lesions that break off into blood stream (vegatations)
petechiae pinpoint hemorrages
cure endocarditis antibiotics
hypertensive heart disease high blood pressure affecting the heart
ventricular hypertrophy left narrowing of arteriols causes to pump more from hypertensive heart disease
mitral valve prolapse(MVP) improper closure of mitral valve
murmur an extra heart sound, heard between beats
bruit (bru-long e) abnormal sound or murmur hear on ausculation
thrill vibration felt on palpation of chest, often accompanies a murmur
pericarditis inflammation of membrane (pericardium) surrounding the heart
cardiac tamponade compression of heart caused by collection of fluid
pericardiocentesis drains excess fluid in the pericardium
rheumatic heart disease heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
rheumatic fever follows after streptococcal infection
rheumatic heart disease can cause mitral stenosis, atrial fibrillation and congestive heart faluire
aneurysm local widening (dialation) of an arterial wall
berry aneurysms aneurysms of small vessels in brain
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
exxential hypertension most high blood pressure with no identifiable cause
secondary hypertension caused by another associated lesion
peripheral vascular disease (PVD) blockage of blood vessels outside of the heart
carotid neck artery
femoral thigh artery
popliteal back of knee artery
intermittent claudication absence of pain or discomfort in a leg at rest but pain, tension, weakness after walking has begun
raynaud disease short episodes of pallor and cyanosis in fingers and toes
vericose veins abnormally swollen and twisted veins usually in legs
hemorrhoids (piles) varicose veins near the anus
angina (pectoris) chest pain resulting from temporary difference between supply and demand of oxygen to heart muscl
ausculation listening with a stethoscope
beta-blockers durgs used to treat angina, hypertension and arrhythmias, block action of epinephrine at recepter sites, ,slowing the heartbeat
calcium channel blockers treat angina, hypertension, dialate blood vessels by blocking influx of calcium to muscles cells lining vessels
cardiac tamponade pressure on heart caused by fluid in pericardial space
claudiction pain,tension and weakness in leg after walking has begun
digoxin drug treats arrhythmias and strengthens heartbeat
emboli (sing embolus) colecctions of materials travel to and suddenly block a blood vessel
ingarction area of dead tissue
nitrates treat angina, dilate blood vessels
occlusion closure of a blood vessel
patent open
statins dugs used to lower cholesterol in bloodstream
LAB TEST:lipid tests measure cholesterol and triglycerides in blood sample
saturated fats animal origin
polyundaturated fats vegetable origin
LAB TEST:liprotein electrophoresis lipoproteins (combo of fat and protein) are physically separated in a blood sample
LAB TEST:serum enzyme tests chemicals measured in blood as evidence of heart attack
serum enzyme tests for creatine kinase (CK), troponin-I (cTnI), troponin-T (cTnT)
DIAGNOSTIC: angiography x-ray imaging of blood vessels after injecting contrast material
DIAG: arteriography x-ray of imaging of arteries after injecting contract into aorta or artery
DIAG: digital subtraction angiography (DSA) video equipment and computer produce x ray images of blood vessels
ULTRASOUND: doppler ultrasound sound waves measure movement of blood flow
ULTRASOUND: echocardiography (ECHO) high-frequency sound waves and echoes produce images of heart
NUCLEAR: positron emission tomography (PET) scan images showing blood flow and function of myocardium following uptake of radioactive substances
NUCLEAR:technetium (Tc) 99m Sestamibi scan Technetium 99m sestamibi injected IV and taken up in area of an MI
NUCLEAR:thallium 201 scan concentration of a radioactive substance measured in mycardium
MAGNETIC: carciac MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) images of cardiac tissue produce with magnetic waves
PROC: cardiac catheterization thin flexible tube guided into heart via vein or artery
PROC: electrocardiography (ECG, EKG) recording of electricity flowing through heart
PROC: Holter monitoring An ECG device worn during 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias
PROC: stress test exercise tolerance test (ETT) determine heart's response to physical exertion
TREAT: cardioversion (defibrillation) very brief discharges of electricity, applied across chest to stop arrhythmias
PROC: endarterectomy surgical removal of diseased inner layers of artery
PROC:extracorporeal circulation heart-lung machine diverts blood from heart and lungs while heart is being stopped
TREAT: heart transplantation a donor heart is transferred to a recipient
TREAT: percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) balloon-tipped catheter inserted into coronary artery to open artery; stents are put in place
TREAT: thrombolytic therapy drugs to dissolve clots are injected into blood stream of patients with coronary thrombosis
streptokinase drug to restore blood flow to heart
Created by: vldarrow