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Key terms 11-22

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&ch30=ZIMMERMAN NOTE German foreign secretary Arthur Zimmermann secretly proposed a German
FOURTEEN POINTS Wilson's plan for peace at the outset of war; called for an end to imperialism, secret alliances, and a league of nations
COMMITTEE ON PUBLIC INFORMATION created to rally public support for WWI; headed by George Creel; gave "four minute" speeches and propaganda speeches
ESPIONAGE AND SEDITION ACTS made it illegal to compromise the WWI effort and criticize the government; upheld by Schenck v. United States
NATIONAL WAR LABOR BOARD headed by Taft, mediated between owners and workers in order to avoid strikes and stoppages
IWW Industrial Workers of the World, or "wobblies"; sabotaged industries and the WWI effort from bitterness about their conditions
THE GREAT STEEL STRIKE thousands went on strike because inflation threatened to eliminate wage gains; blacks served as scabs; riots led to deaths in Chicago and East St. Louis
NATIONAL WOMEN'S PARTY led by Alice Paul; protested WWI, organized hunger strikes and marches, and protested "Kaiser Wilson"
FOOD ADMINISTRATION led by Herbert C. Hoover; rejected issuing ration cards and relied on donations; proclaimed "wheatless Wednesdays" and "meatless Tuesdays"
DOUGHBOYS nickname given to inexperienced American servicemen
JOHN J. PERSHING led American troop intervention in the Mexican Revolution and in WWI
HENRY CABOT LODGE congressional Republican who led the resistance of "irreconcilables" against the League of Nations as part of the Versailles Treaty
BIG FOUR leaders in the WWI peace process: Wilson, Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (Britain), and Orlando (Italy)
LEAGUE OF NATIONS proposed alliances of nations to prevent war; doomed to fail when the U.S. never joined
TREATY OF VERSAILLES OF 1919 ended WWI, severely punished and embarrassed Germany, angered Italy and Japan, and paved the way for WWII
&ch29=BULL MOOSE PARTY progressive party that ran TR for president in 1912
NEW FREEDOM Wilson's campaign slogan for 1912; shunned social
NEW NATIONALISM Roosevelt's 1912 campaign program; called for consolidation of trusts and unions, regulatory agencies, woman's suffrage, and social welfare
UNDERWOOD TARIFF significantly dropped the tariff in 1913; gave way to income taxes for revenue
16TH AMENDMENT ratified 1913; enacted a graduated income tax (modest rates for the poor, considerably higher for the middle class)
FEDERAL RESERVE ACT created a 12-branch regional U.S. Bank overseen by an advisory board; helped control the money supply
FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION created to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce and crush monopolies and unfair trade practices
CLAYTON ANTI TRUST ACT lengthened the Sherman Act's list of objectionable practices, such as price discrimination and interlocking directorates
LOUIS BRANDEIS first Jew to serve on the Supreme Court; appointed by Wilson in 1916
MORAL DIPLOMACY Wilson's foreign policy; sought to heal American relations abroad; operations in Philippines, Mexico, and Haiti
LUSITANIA AND ARABIC Vessels sunk by German U-Boats in WWI that carried Americans; Wilson refused to enter the conflict
SUSSEX PLEDGE pledge by Germany not to sink vessels without provocation; if broken, the U.S. would break diplomatic ties
&ch28=MUCKRACKERS journalists who exposed the ills of society, paved the way for progressivism
JACOB A RIIS early muckraker, wrote How the Other Half Lives, which described the dark and dirty slums of New York
LNCOLN STEFFENS muckraker who wrote articles in McClure's titled "The Shame of the Cities" that unmasked the corrupt alliance between big business and the government
IDA M. TARBELL muckraker who published a devastating but factual depiction of the Standard Oil Company
DIRECT PRIMARIES allowed voters to nominate candidates, created to undercut political machines
INITIATIVE/REFERENDUM progressive measures allowing voters to propose and pass legislation; intented to lessen power of party machines
RECALL enables the voters to remove faithless corrupt officials
ROBERT LA FOLLETTE/HIRAM JOHNSON powerful governors that launched the the progressive cause at the state level
TRIANGLE SHIRTWAIST CO. FIRE New York, 1911, 146 workers died in an 8
WOMEN'S CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION started by Frances Willard, campaigned against saloons and unwholesome society
SQUARE DEAL domestic policy of Roosevelt that sought to control corporations, protect consumers, and Conserve of natural resources
COAL MINER'S STRIKE Roosevelt stepped in a threatened to operate the mines with federal troops, miners received a 10% pay raise and an hour reduction
ELKIN'S ACT/HEPBURN ACT legislation that strengthened the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, allowed for corruption to be punished, led to "trustbusting"
MEAT INSPECTION ACT stated that the preparation of meat shipped over state lines would be subject to federal inspection.
UPTON SINCLAIR'S THE JUNGLE novel exposing the putrid quality of American meat processing
PURE FOOD AND DRUG ACT designed to prevent the adulteration and mislabeling of foods and pharmaceuticals.
CONSERVATION Roosevelt organized lands, created national parks, promoted irrigation; Department of Forestry led by Gifford Pinchot
ALDRICH VREELAND ACT response to the Panic of 1907, national banks to issue emergency currency backed by various kinds of collateral
DOLLAR DIPLOMACY Taft foreign policy that encouraged Wall Street bankers to invest in foreign areas of strategic interest to the U.S. (esp. Latin America)
BALLINGER/PINCHOT EPISODE Progressives turned on Taft when he fired Pinchot; Republicans were split, Roosevelt reran
&ch27=GREAT REPROACHMENT reconciliation between the United States and Britain that became a cornerstone of both nations' foreign policies
YELLOW JOURNALISM sensationalized news published to sell more newspapers
DE LOME LETTER letter, published by Hearst, written by a Spanish minister that degraded McKinley
THE USS MAINE American ship that exploded near Cuba, used as propaganda to make the US enter the war
GEORGE DEWEY US Naval commodore that captured the Philippines during the Spanish American War.
ROUGH RIDERS group of volunteer soldiers in the Spanish American War, led by Teddy Roosevelt
BUFFALO SOLDIERS effective black soldiers in the Spanish American War
BATTLE OF SAN JUAN HILL decisive battle of the Spanish American War
ANTI IMPERIALISTIC LEAGUE group of Americans, including Czar Reed and Mark Twain, that opposed American imperialism
FORAKER ACT OF 1900 legislation that made Puerto Rico and American protectorate with limited self
TELLER AMENDMENT agreement that the US would withdraw from Cuba once they were liberated from Spain
PLATT AMENDMENT Cuban constitution drafted in 1902 with American influence; expired in 1934
SANFORD DOLE American businessman who cornered the Hawaiian pineapple and sugar market; helped oust Queen Liliuokalani
JOHN HAY Secretary of State that signed treaties related to the Open door Policy and Panama Canal
OPEN DOOR POLICY agreement between American and European nations that trade in China would be a fair market
BOXER REBELLION revolt of Chinese citizens against western business and Christian missionaries
CLAYTON BULWER TREATY made with Britain in 1850, the U.S. could not gain exclusive control of a proposed Panama Canal
HAY BUNAU VARILLA TREATY gave the U.S. control of a 10-mile zone around the proposed Panama Canal; paid $10 million to Colombia and $40 million to New Panama Canal Company
ROOSEVELT COROLLARY amendment to the Monroe Doctrine; in the event of monetary problems in Latin American with European countries, the U.S. could pay off the Latin American counties' debts to keep them out
GENTLEMAN'S AGREEMENT negotiated by TR, the Japanese agreed to stop the flow of immigrants ("yellow peril") to the United States by denying passports
ROOT TAKAHIRA AGREEMENT to ease tensions with Japan, TR sent the “Great White Fleet” on a tour; the U.S. and Japan pledged to respect each other's territorial possessions
&ch26=BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN a US regiment, led by George Custer, was defeated by Sitting Bull and the Sioux Indians; led to harsh US response on western Indians
BATTLE OF WOUNDED KNEE US Armies squashed Dakota Indians refusing to end their "Ghost Dance"
HELEN HUNT JACKSON wrote about government ruthlessness in dealing with the Indians, changed opinions about the treatment of Indians
DAWES ACT OF 1887 dissolved many tribes as legal entities, wiped out tribal ownership of land, Indians could get citizenship if they assimilated.
FIFTYNINERS or "Pike's Peakers", those who flocked to mine gold and silver in Colorado and Nevada ("Comstock Load")
THE LONG DRIVE Texas cowboys (white, black, and Mexican) driving herds of cattle hundreds of miles to Missouri rail terminals for sale
HOMESTEAD ACT OF 1862 allowed a settler to acquire as much as 160 acres of land if they lived on it for five years and improved it
DRY FARMING method of frequent shallow cultivation that adapted to the dry western environment; over time it depleted and dried the soil
OKLAHOMA "SOONERS" people who illegally entered the Indian territory of Oklahoma before it was opened to the public
THE GRANGE organized in 1867, objective was to enhance the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities.
POPULISTS called for nationalizing the railroads, telephones, and telegraph; income tax, loans for farmers, and free and unlimited coinage of silver.
PULLAMN STRIKE OF 1894 led by Eugene Debs in Chicago, 1894; Cleveland brought in federal troops to squash the strike, shows government supported business in this era
WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN Democratic nominee in 1896, gave "Cross of Gold" speech that supported Populist and free silver platform
WILLIAM MCKINLEY Republican nominee in 1896, a Senator that was pro-tariff and the gold standard
GOLD STANDARD ACT OF 1900 provided that paper currency be redeemed freely in gold only; caused the Populists to fade away
&ch25=1880s IMMIGRATION Italians, Jews, and Eastern Europeans migrate to the US in the 1880s (2000 a day); slums developed
SOCIAL GOSPEL new trend in Christianity that deemphasized salvation and encouraged helping the poor (Walter Rauschenbusch and Washington Gladden)
JANE ADDAMS established Hull House, helped immigrants get acclimated in American society (Lillian Wald and Florence Kelly Established Henry Street Settlement)
NATIVISM anti-foreign sentiment among Americans of English decent
AMERICANIZATION MOVEMENT process by which immigrants gave up all or some of their culture to adopt American culture
D.L. MOODY Protestant evangelist, led an urban Christian revival in Chicago in response to Catholicism, Judaism, and liberal theology
MARY BAKER EDDY founded Church of Christian Science, preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness.
CHARLES DARWIN evolution pioneer, conservatives rejected modernism, moderates attempted to merge science and religion, modernists ignored the Bible.
BOOKER T WASHINGTON leading champion of black education, advocated "self-help" and avoided the issue of equality
WASHINGTON CARVER African American who taught and researched at Tuskegee Institute, became an internationally famous agricultural chemist
W.E.B. DU BOIS founded the NAACP, urged blacks to aggressively seek equality
MORRILL ACT OF 1862/HATCH ACT OF 1888 provided a grant of public lands to states to build universities
DIME NOVELS sensationalized accounts of the old west, most notable was Harlan F. Halsey
REALISM literary movement, crude human comedy and drama of the everyday world, notables were Mark Twain, Stephen Crane, Kate Chopin (first feminist writer) and Jack London
WOODHULL AND CLAFLIN feminists who published a magazine advocating free love, anti
CARRIE C. CATT leader of the new generation of the women's suffrage movement, led NAWSA when women were granted suffrage
EARLY PROHIBITION The National Prohibition Party was formed in 1869, Woman's Christian Temperance Union was formed in 1874, Anti
LOUIS SULLIVAN architect who developed the skyscraper
VAUDEVILLE/BARNUM AND BAILEY first major circuses to entertain the middle class
WILD WEST SHOWS depicted cowboys and Indians fighting, featured William "Buffalo Bill" Cody and Annie Oakley (riflewoman)
&ch24=UNION PACIFIC RAILROAD railroad from Omaha to San Francisco, Chinese and Irish labor, expanded Asian trade, finished in 1869 in Utah
CORNELIUS VANDERBILT major railroad tycoon
STOCK WATERING/REBATES/POOLS shady schemes by the railroads to maximize profits
INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION established by the Interstate Commerce Act, prohibited rebates and pools, attempt to control business
ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL invented the telephone
THOMAS EDISON invented the phonograph, light bulb, and moving pictures (film)
ANDREW CARNEGIE major steel tycoon, controlled all aspects of production
JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER major oil tycoon, first to establish trusts (monopolies) to eliminate competition
J.P. MORGAN wealth banker that financed other robber barons
GUSTAVUS SWIFT Chicago meat-packing tycoon, developed first refridgerator car, first to use animal by-products for glue, soap, and other products
BESSEMER PROCESS process that converts iron to steel
GOSPEL OF WEALTH Carnegie and others' belief that the wealthy received their money from God to do good for society
SOCIAL DARWINISM belief that only the strongest businesses and people in society can survive.
SHERMAN ANTI TRUST ACT passed by Congress to regulate and/or eliminate any trust restricting trade
NATIONAL LABOR UNION organized in 1866, lasted six years and attracted 600,000 members, included skilled and unskilled labor, but usually not foreigners or women
KNIGHTS OF LABOR led by Terence Powderly, sought to include all workers in one big union, 750,000 by 1885
AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR (AFL) founded in 1886 and was led by Samuel Gompers, sought for better wages, hours, and working conditions through walkout and the boycott
HOMESTEAD STRIKE major lockout and strike in 1892 at Carnegie’s Pittsburg steel plant; Pinkertons and the state militia put it down
HAYMARKET SQUARE violent strike in Chicago, 1886; a bomb killed eight police, four were executed; symbolic beginning of the labor revolution
&ch23="BLOODY SHIRT" campaign slogan of Ulysses S Grant in the 1868 election (he won due to black votes)
FISK AND GOULD PLOT massive scheme in 1869 by cornering the gold market and selling when prices dropped.
BOSS TWEED leader of the Democratic political machine in New York, aka "Tammany Hall"
CREDIT MOBILIER corruption scandal by railroad workers to make huge stock profits
THE WHISKEY RING a bootleg whiskey scheme the cost the government millions in tax revenue
LIBERAL REPUBLICANS party in response to disgust of the political corruption in Washington and of military Reconstruction
PANIC OF 1873 caused by overspeculation in land and hyperinflation; led to call for the coinage of silver
"GILDED AGE" term coined by Mark Twain, gilded = "gold
STALWARTS rivals of the Half Breeds
HALF BREEDS rivals of the stalwarts, Republican political machine led by James Blaine; based on the spoils system
SPOILS SYSTEM/PATRONAGE practice by politicians of giving economic or political supporters civil servant jobs
COMPROMISE OF 1877 deal that allowed Hayes to become president in exchange for the end of reconstruction in the south.
JIM CROW LAWS laws in southern states that initiated segregation (or, "separate but equal" public works)
PLESSY V. FERGUSON (1896) case where the Court ruled segregation to be constitutional
CHINESE EXCLUSION ACT banned Chinese immigration into America
GARFILED/GUITEAU/ARTHUR Guiteau assassinated Garfield so Arthur would become president and give him a civil service job
PENDLETON ACT OF 1883 law signed by Arthur that ended the spoils system and launched a merit
MUGWUMPS Republicans (hating the nominee Blaine) who bolted to the Democratic party during the 1884 election.
GROVER CLEVELAND only president to serve two nonconsecutive terms; first Democratic president in 28 years; lowered tariffs, badly handled the Panic of 1893
PANIC OF 1893 worst economic panic of the 1800s, caused by overbuilding and over
SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT OF 1890 signed by Harrison, to increase the amount of silver in circulation
BILLION DOLLAR CONGRESS highspending Republican congress of the 1880s; raised tariffs, gave to veterans, increased government purchases on silver
&ch41=ROSS PEROT Independent candidate in 1992; divided Republican vote, paved way for rise of Clinton
OKLAHOMA CITY BOMBING terrorist bombing of a federal building in 1995
BRANCH DAVIDIANS cult in Waco, Texas during the 90s; Attorney General Reno sent in troops; members killed themselves
COLUMBINE MASSACRE two student gunmen assaulted students and teachers in a Colorado school in 1998; 13 were killed
NEWT GINGRICH Republican Speaker of the House in the 90s; countered Clinton's agenda with his conservative "Contract with America"
NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement; lowered all tariffs between the U.S., Mexico, and Canada
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade; lower tariffs around the world in the 90s; beginning of global economy
THE LEWINSKY SCANDAL Clinton lied under oath about having an affair with inter Monica Lewinsky; he was impeached for perjury, but not convicted
ELECTION OF 2000 Republican George W. Bush and Democrat Al Gore; unsettled for weeks, rested on recounts in Florida, Supreme Court gave election to Bush
&ch40=NEW RIGHT/MORAL MAJORITY conservative voters targeted by Republicans in the 1980s; largely evangelical Christian
BOLLWEEVILS renegade congressional democrats that pushed the Reagan tax cuts into law
REAGANOMICS based on "Supplyside" economics, called for massive tax cuts to stimulate economy, reduced social programs, and increased military spending
SDI Strategic Defense Initiative; proposed antimissile defense shield, aka, "Star Wars"
REAGANGORBACHEV SUMMITS series of meetings in the 80s to cool tensions in the Cold War; agreed to INF Treaty, which banned nukes in Europe
IRANCONTRA AFFAIR The U.S. sold weapons to Iran; Iran helped regain American hostages from Lebanon; Money went to the Contras in Nicaragua
SAVINGS AND LOAN CRISIS hundreds of mortgage banks failed in the 80s; real estate values dropped and the stock market suffered
THE GULF WAR Americanled campaign to repel Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein out of oilrich Kuwait; "Operation Desert Storm" was a major success
AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT prohibiting discrimination against citizens with physical or mental disabilities
&ch39=STAGFLATION 1970s, postwar boom was ending, very high inflation with low economic production
VIETNAMIZATION Nixon's plan to leave Vietnam in 1969; "peace with honor"
NIXON DOCTRINE proclaimed that the United States would honor its existing defense commitments after Vietnam
SILENT MAJORITY despite the volume of liberal activism; Nixon reached out to nonvocal conservative majority in America
KENT STATE PROTEST when the US entered Cambodia, student protests erupted; at Kent State (OH), National Guardsmen killed four students
PENTAGON PAPERS published in the NY Times in 1971, outlined the war blunders of the Kennedy and Johnson administrations
HENRY KISSINGER Nixon's foreign policy advisor; planned end to Vietnam and Nixon's trip to China
SHANGHAI COMMUNIQUE meeting between Nixon and the Chinese government in Beijing; led to USSR coming to the peace table
DETANTE Cold War policy in the 1970s with the goal of easing tensions between the US, USSR, and China
AMB/SALT TREATIES agreements between the US and USSR to reduce nuclear weapons
THE WARREN COURT liberal Supreme Court of the 1960s and 70s that expanded civil liberties
THE BURGER COURT liberal Supreme Court of the 1970s and 80s, largely appointed by Nixon, passed Roe v. Wade
AFFIRMATIVE ACTION policy of setting aside employment and education slots based on race; later limited by Bakke v. UC
ENVIRONMENTALISM launched in the 1970s by Nixon to clean air and water; created the Environmental Protection Agency
SOUTHERN STRATEGY Nixon's reelection plan in 1972 to appoint conservative justices and limit civil rights appealing to southern states
WAR POWERS ACT passed by Congress over Nixon's veto; requires the president to notify the Congress of military operations
ARAB OIL EMBARGO implemented by OPEC after the US supported Israel in the Six Day War; beginning of the energy crisis
CREEP Committee to Reelect the President; broke into Democratic headquarters, began the Watergate scandal
WATERGATE SCANDAL hearings over Nixon's involvement in CREEP's actions; tapes proved his guilt, he was forced to resign; later pardoned by Ford
HELSINKI ACCORDS 1975; recognized Soviet boundaries and helped to ease tensions between the two nations
EQUAL RIGHTS AMENDMENT failed constitutional amendment during the feminist movement that would have banned discrimination based on sex
CAMP DAVID ACCORDS Carter mediated a peace between Egypt and Israel; top foreign policy achievement
IRAN HOSTAGE CRISIS November 4, 1979; antiAmerican Muslims stormed the U.S. embassy in Tehran and took hostages, lasted two years
&ch38=NEW FRONTIER Kennedy's policy slogan; aimed to boost the economy, to provide international aid, provide for national defense, and to boost the space program
TRADE EXPASION ACT OF 1962 authorized tariff cuts of up to 50% to promote trade with other countries
FLEXIBLE RESPONSE skirmishes made "massive retaliation" unrealistic; this called for an array of military options that could be matched to the crisis at hand
MODERNIZATION POLICY stated that western involvement in the Third World was a chance to create western style economies in those places
BAY OF PIGS INVASION April 1961; CIAsponsored plot to overthrow Castro; was a massive failure that furthered tension with Cuba
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS October 1962; standoff between US and USSR when nuclear weapons were discovered in Cuba; a deal was reached
FREEDOM RIDERS Civil Rights activists spread out across the South to end segregation in facilities serving interstate bus passengers
MARTIN LUTHER KING, JR Civil Rights leader, led peaceful boycotts, marches, and made major speeches; formed the SCLC; assassinated in 1969
BIRMINGHAM MARCH peaceful civil rights marchers were repelled by police with attack dogs and highpressure water hoses; King imprisoned, led Kennedy to pursue civil rights laws
MARCH ON WASHINGTON August 1963; King led 200,000 black and white demonstrators to Washington; made "I Have a Dream" speech
SELMA MARCH 1965; voter registration campaign led by King; two people were killed
LEE HARVEY OSWALD alleged assassin of JFK in Dallas, Nov 1963
THE GREAT SOCIETY series of domestic programs by LBJ; included civil rights, voting rights, welfare and poverty, immigration, and education
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 strengthened the government's ability to desegregate, banned hiring based on race, helped women
GULF TONKIN RESOLUTION Congress virtually gave up their wardeclaring powers and handed the president a blank check for Vietnam
MEDICARE/MEDICAID/WELFARE Great Society programs that provide health care for the elderly, the poor, and assistance to the poor and unemployed
FREEDOM SUMMER movement of northern college students to enter the south and register blacks to vote; three were killed
VOTING RIGHTS ACT OF 1965 banned literacy tests and sent federal voter registers into several southern states
WATTS RIOTS a riot in Los Angeles in 1965; blacks were enraged by police brutality and burned and looted their own neighborhoods for a week
MALCOLM X civil rights leader; advocated militant reform through the Nation of Islam; was shot and killed by the NOI when he got too powerful
BLACK PANTHERS was originated by Stokley Carmichael; furthered militant civil rights by openly carrying weapons in the streets of Oakland
OPERATION ROLLING THUNDER regular fullscale bombing attacks by the US against North Vietnam in a "step by step" fashion.
CREDIBILITY GAP William Fulbright staged a series of televised hearings where he convinced the public that it was being lied to by the government over Vietnam
COINTELPRO Johnson encouraged the FBI to turn its counterintelligence program against the peace movement.
TET OFFENSIVE January 1968, the Viet Cong attacked 27 key South Vietnamese cities, including Saigon; Americans watched on TV, demanded end to the war
1968 DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION LBJ did not seek another term; competition for the nomination was fierce; RFK was murdered, Humphrey won at the convention which was engulfed with protesters
COUNTERCULTURE or "hippies" that advocated free love and drug use; opposed the war in Vietnam ("doves")
MATTACHINE founded in 1951, was the first major gay/lesbian activist group in America
THE WEATHER UNDERGROUND aka Students for a Democratic Society, an underground terrorist group that bombed government and military sites
&ch37=ELVIS PRESLEY created rock and roll by fusing RandB and country; beginning of a youth counterculture in America
McCARTHYISM led by Sen. Joe McCarthy, accused American politicians and military personnel as being communist; taken down by journalist Edward Murrow; inspiration for The Crucible
ROSA PARKS NAACP member who launched the civil rights movement; refused to give up her bus seat to a white (required by Montgomery, Ala law)
BROWN V. BOARD OF EDUCATION argued by Thurgood Marshall of the NAACP, decision overturned Plessy v. Ferguson and led to the end of segregation
LITTLE ROCK NINE nine black students in Arkansas who were prevented from entering a school; Eisenhower mobilized the National Guard to admit them
CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1957 set up a permanent Civil Rights Commission to investigate violations of civil rights
SCLC Southern Christian Leadership Conference, led by Martin Luther King, aimed to mobilize the vast power of the black churches on behalf of black rights
SITINS black youths in North Carolina sat at white lunch counters and demanded to be served
SNCC Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee; civil rights group made up of black students
OPERATION WETBACK attempt by Eisenhower to round up Mexican illegals exploiting the Braceros program
INTERSTATE HIGHWAY ACT appropriated money to create job by building highways that linked the country; helped the shipping and auto industries, injured railroads and downtowns
STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND to reduce military spending, Eisenhower cut army and navy funds in exchange for high tech bombers; goals was to threaten the USSR with "massive retaliation"
EISENHOWER DOCTRINE Eisenhower vowed to come to the aid of any Middle Eastern nation threatened by communism to protect American oil; OPEC later formed
LANDRUMGRIFFIN ACT in response to the Jimmy Hoffa affair; designed to punish labor leaders financial shenanigans and to prevent bullying tactics
SPACE RACE in response to Sputnik, the US improved its space program with NASA, it launched satellites, and created the NDEA
POSTWAR WRITERS mockingly antiwar and antitotalitarian, continuation of interwar idealism; notables included Joseph Heller, J.D. Salinger, Kurt Vonnegut, and John Updike
&ch36=TAFTHARTLEY ACT outlawed the "closed" (allunion) shop; made unions liable for disputes; required union leaders to take a noncommunist oath.
EMPLOYMENT ACT OF 1946 to promote maximum employment, production, and purchasing power after WWII
GI BILL made generous provisions for sending the former solders to school; also gave loans to GIs for homes and small businesses
SUNBELT after WWII, populations began moving to the Southeast, Southwest, and California; Rustbelt and Frostbelts struggled
BABYBOOMERS massive population explosion after WWII, lived in suburbs; would love Elvis, would be the hippies of the 60s and yuppies of the 80s
YALTA CONFERENCE meeting between Truman, Churchill, and Stalin to discuss postwar issues; seen as the beginning of the Cold War
COLD WAR coined by Walter Lippmann, refers to multidecade tension between the US and USSR, no shots were fired between the two
UNITED NATIONS postWWII assembly of nations to improve diplomacy and prevent war
NUREMBURG TRIALS trials of Nazi war criminals by Allies; prosecuted by American Chief Justice Robert Jackson
BERLIN AIRLIFT after the USSR closed access to Berlin, the US dropped supplies to Allies trapped in the city
NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization; military alliance among the US, western European nations, and later Turkey
TRUMAN DOCTRINE US containment policy to give military aid to any nation threatened by a Communist take over
MARSHALL PLAN US containment policy to give economic aid for nations to rebuild after the war; encourage them to resist Communism
NATIONAL SECURITY ACT created the Department of Defense, Joint Chiefs of Staff, the National Security council, and Central Intelligence Agency
LOYALTY BOARD launched by Truman to investigate the possibility of communist spies in the government, 3,000 were ousted; many had to take loyalty oaths
HUAC Committee on UnAmerican Activities, established by the House to investigate Communists, antireligion, homosexuality, rock n’ roll, civil rights; Alger Hiss, Rosenbergs were targeted
POINT FOUR Truman's foreign policy that lent U.S. money and technical aid to underdeveloped lands to help them help themselves from Communism
FAIR DEAL Truman's domestic policy called for improved housing, better employment and pay, farmer supports, and an extension of Social Security
KOREAN WAR the US defended South Korea from an invasion by the Communist North; stalemated until an armistice in 1953
&ch35=ABC1 AGREEMENT Allied decision after Pearl Harbor to defeat Germany first, then Japan
JAPANESE INTERNMENT FDR executive order placed west coast Japanese in internment camps; upheld by Korematsu v. United States
WAR PRODUCTION BOARD organized America's industries to only make items essential to the WWII effort
OFICE OF PRICE ADMINISTRATION controlled inflationary prices during WWII
WAR LABOR BOARD / SMITHCONNALLY ANTISTRIKE ACT measures taken during WWII to limit wage increases and strikes; the government also took coal mines and railroads
BRACEROEOS programs during WWII that allowed Mexican immigrants to work in agriculture
FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES COMMISSION After pressure from Black leader A. PHILIP RANDOLPH, FDR outlawed hiring discrimination in the defense industries (but not the military)
TUSKEEGEE AIRMEN heroic allAfrican American air squadron
NAVEJO CODE TALKERS the Us used the Navajo language to communicate over the radio
DOUGLAS MACARTHUR American General in the South Pacific; lost and recovered the Philippines
CHESTER NIMITZ American General in the Central Pacific; coordinated Battle of Midway and Island Hopping campaigns
ISLAND HOPPING called for bypassing key Japanese islands and attacking supply islands instead; The major bases would then wither from lack of supplies
DWIGHT EISENHOWER American general in charge of Allied campaigns in Tunisia and the Normandy invasion
GEORGE S PATTON American General who played a major role in the liberation of France
A.C. McAULIFFE American General who led Allies to victory in the Battle of the Bulge
MANATTAN PROJECT secret mission in New Mexico to develop an atomic bomb, led by Robert Oppenheimer; bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
&ch34=STIMSON DOCTRINE response to Japanese invasion of Manchuria; held United States would not recognize any territorial acquisitions achieved by force
LONDON CONFERENCE 1933, meeting of 66 nations to address the global depression; fell apart when US vacated
TYDINGSMcDUFFIE ACT gave independence to the Philippines in 1946
RECIPROCAL TRADE AGREEMENTS empowered the president to lower tariffs, aimed at increasing global trade
JOHNSON DEBTDEFAULT ACT banned US trade with debtdodging nations
NEUTRALITY ACTS OF 193537 stated that no American could legally sail on a belligerent ship, trade with a belligerent, or make loans to a belligerent.
QUARENTINE SPEECH after the Japanese invaded China, FRD called for embargoes on Japan; avoided violating Neutrality
NEUTRALITY ACT OF 1939 when WWII began, it lifted embargoes on Allies; adopted a "cash and carry" policy for munitions sales
HAVANA CONFERENCE FDR vowed to allow Latin American nations to assist in upholding the Monroe Doctrine
CDAAA AND AMERICA FIRST COMMITTEE Committee to Defend and Assist the Allies supported cash and carry; AFC opposed any involvement in WWII
LENDLEASE passed after the fall of Britain, allowed the US to loan munitions to Allies in WWII; kept US boys at home
ATLANTIC CHARTER Roosevelt's and Churchill's vision for the world after WWII; would lead to liberation of colonies and form the United Nations
ROBIN MOOR / GREER / KEARNEY / REUBEN JAMES American vessels sunk by UBoats while making Lend Lease deliveries
FOUR FREEDOMS SPEECH FDR's State of the Union address in 1941; called for freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom from want, freedom from fear; basis for modern liberalism
&ch33=THE GREAT DEPRESSION worst economic downturn in US history; many bank failures, massive unemployment and poverty; low output (except farming, who had too much)
FRANKLIN D. ROOSEVELT wealthy NY governor elected in 1932; wife was Eleanor; fought the Depression and later WWII
BANKING HOLIDAY March 610 1932, closed banks in order to prevent withdraws ("runs on banks"), and in turn failures
THE NEW DEAL Roosevelt's plan to stimulate the economy during the Depression; called "relief, recovery, and reform"; helped banks, farmers, and put people to work
FIRESIDE CHATS Roosevelt's weekly radio addresses to inform the public on government actions
NEW DEAL OPPONENTS Father Charles Coughlin, a Catholic radio host; Senator Huey P. Long of Louisiana, publicized his "Share Our Wealth" program, was later killed; Francis E. Townsend, who fought for payments to the elderly
FRANCES PERKINS Secretary of the Labor under FDR; first female appointed to the cabinet
THE DUST BOWL late in 1933 a prolonged drought struck the Great Plains; caused by overcultivation; described in The Grapes of Wrath
SOCIAL SECURITY FDR's plan to end senior citizen poverty; workers contribute to aid of retirees
CIO Congress of Industrial Organizations; formed by John Lewis as union for unskilled labor; later merged with the AFL (became AFLCIO)
NINE OLD MEN refers to the Supreme Court justices during FDR's presidency who repeatedly struck down New Deal programs
COURT PACKING PLAN FDR asked Congress to expand the Supreme court to 15 justices, which he would fill them with proNew Dealers; public backlash was fierce, and FDR lost popularity.
KEYNESIAN ECONOMICS theory that the government must spend money to stimulate the economy during recessions
&ch32=WARREN G. HARDING elected in 1920; first of the Republican "Old Guard" to be president after the progressive era
WASHINGTON NAVAL CONFERENCE global summit of major powers with the objective of disarmament
FIVE POWER NAVAL TREATY called for scaleddown navies of the United States, Great Britain, Japan, France, and Italy to a 5:5:3:1:1 ratio
FOUR POWER TREATY made between Britain, Japan, France and the United States to preserve the status quo in the Pacific
NINE POWER TREATY affirmed the sovereignty and territorial integrity of China as per the Open Door Policy, and made it international law
KELLOGGBRIAND PACT aka the Pact of Paris, was ratified by 62 nations and called for a "outlawing of war"
FORDNEYMcCUMBER TARIFF to prevent Europe from flooding American markets with cheap goods after the war, Congress raised the tariff from 27% to 35%
THE "OHIO GANG" members of Harding's cabinet; were often corrupt, and probusiness conservatives
TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL scandal involving Interior Secretary Albert Fall who received kickbacks from oil companies in exchanges for government land permits
CALVIN COOLDIGE VP under Harding, later elected to his own term; "silentCal", probusiness and antilabor
DAWES PLAN OF 1924 plan that called for German reparations to allies, who in turn could pay debts to American banks; stalled after the crash
HERBERT HOOVER ran Food Administration during WWI, Commerce Secretary under Harding and Coolidge, elected president in 1928; was blamed for the Great Depression
AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT signed by Hoover to give money to farm organizations seeking to buy, sell, and store agricultural surpluses; fought "plague of plenty"
HAWLEYSMOOT TARIFF raised tariff to 60% to help farmers; hurt European producers and interrupted Dawes Plan, deepened Depression
BLACK TUESDAY October 29, 1929; millions of stocks were sold in a panic; regarded as the beginning of the Depression
HOOVERTOWNS communities of shacks during the Depression
RECONSTRUCTION FINANCE CORPORATION Hoover's plan to stimulate the economy; attempted to "prime the pump" by assisting insurance companies, banks, farmers, and state and local governments
BONUS EXPEDITIONARY FORCE claimed about 20,000 people, converged on the capital in 1932 demanding the immediate payment of their entire bonus
GOOD NEIGHBOR POLICY Hoover's pledge for better relations with Latin America; withdrew American troops from Latin America
&ch31=FIRST RED SCARE early 1920s, Americans were fearful of a communist take over, many bombings; also fearful of all immigrants, like Sacco and Vanzetti; KKK resurfaced, Palmer Raids sought suspects
EMERGENCY QUOTA ACT/IMMIGRATION ACT laws passed in the 1920s to limit the amound of immigrants to the US
18TH AMENDMENT/VOLSTEAD ACT legislation that launched the prohibition of the sale, transport, and consumption of alcohol; led to speakeasies and the mafia
BILLY SUNDAY/AMIEE McPHERSON notable Christian evangelists of the 1920s, made church services a form of entertainment; advocated prohibition and fought evolution
AL CAPONE notable gangster in 1920s Chicago; represented organized crime that controlled illegal alcohol, prostitution, and kidnapping
SCOPES (MONKEY) TRIAL showdown between evolution and fundamental Christianity; centered on teacher who taught evolution in Tennessee
HENRY FORD father of the gasoline engine; launched automobile industry, produced the singlestyle Model T
GENERAL MOTORS launched by William Durant in 1908, in competition with Ford, gave consumers options (Chevy, Pontiac, Olds, etc) and financing (GMAC)
WRIGHT BROTHERS/CHARLES LINDBERG early pioneers of the airplane
AMOS N ANDY first major radio program of the 1920s
D.W. GRIFFITH first major filmmaker of the 1920s; first full length film was Birth of a Nation
FLAPPERS progressive women of the 1920s who partied, smoked, danced, and dressed sexier
HARLEM RENAISSANCE major AfricanAmerican artistic and political movement; led by Langston Hughes, Duke Ellington, Marcus Garvey, and others
THE EXPATRIATES literary era in the interwar period, emphasized dissolution and youth; notables were Henry Mencken, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Ernest Hemingway
FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT notable architect of the 1920s and 30s
ANDREW MELLON Treasury Secretary during the 1920s; often credited with the boom, and sometimes blamed for the bust
&ch22=FREEDMAN'S BUREAU federal program to assimilate and provide supplies to freed slaves after emancipation
LINCOLN'S PLAN states could be readmitted after 10% of population took loyalty oaths, and when state constitutions outlawed slavery
JOHNSON'S PLAN Lincoln's plan, plus ratification of 13th Amendment (which outlawed slavery)
CONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION Congress passed the Reconstruction Act, which divided the south into military districts; states must ratify the 14th Amendment (equal protection of the law)
BLACK CODES limited rights for blacks in the South during reconstruction; placed them in sharecropping (plantation owners would rent out land to blacks, by contract, at lousy rates)
15TH AMENDMENT granted black men the right to vote, Congress feared that southern states would reverse their constitutions regarding black suffrage after readmission
CIVIL RIGHTS BILL OF 1866 gave citizenship to all blacks; was a response to the black codes
THADEAUS STEVENS radical House Republican that fought for black freedom and racial equality (Sumner did the same in the Senate)
SCALAWAGS former southern Democrats who formed alliances with freedmen and Republicans to seize control of politics in the South
CARPETBAGGERS Northerners who had moved to the South to seek political power and profit
"REDEEMERS" when Reconstruction ended, traditional white Democrats returned to government
KU KLUX KLAN antiblack and antiimmigrant terrorist group; "Invisible Empire of the South"
TENURE IN OFFICE ACT required the president to get consent from the Senate before removing cabinet members; was a trick to impeach Johnson
"SEWARD'S FOLLY" refers to State Secretary Seward's purchase of Alaska for 7.2 million in 1867
&ch21=BATTLE OF FIRST BULL RUN first major battle of the Civil War; won by the Confederacy
GEORGE MCCLELLAN major Union general early in the war; led the Army of the Potomac
PENINSULA CAMPAIGN Union campaign led by McClellan to capture Richmond; was a disaster after defeat at the Seven Days' Battle
UNION BLOCKADE Union ships blocked cotton exports to Europe and food imports to the South
BATTLE OF MERRIMACK AND MONITOR only major naval battle; the two ships fought four hours to a standstill
BATTLE OF SECOND BULL RUN August 1862; Lee defeated Pope; forced Union to get a victory
BATTLE OF ANTIETAM bloody battle in Sep 1862; Union victory prevented British intervention and opened door to Emancipation
EMANCIPATION PROCLAMATION freed slaves in the Confederacy (not in Union or border states)
BATTLE OF GETTYBURG AND BATTLE OF VICKSBURG two Union victories on July 4, 1863; turning point of the war; first major victory for Grant
WILLIAM T. SHERMAN Union general who invaded and scorched the South from Atlanta to Charleston
WAR/PEACE DEMOCRATS those loyal to Lincoln and Union / those opposed to the war
COPPERHEADS radicals who attempted to sabotage Lincoln, the war, and emancipation
UNION PARTY party created by Republicans and War Democrats; Lincoln and Johnson win in election of 1864
WILDERNESS CAMPAIGN Grant was transferred to the east with the goal of ending the war with an assault on Richmond
BATTLE OF RICHMOND Lee surrenders to Grant at Appomattox Courthouse on April 9, 1865
JOHN WILKES BOOTH assassinated Lincoln at Ford's Theatre on April 14, 1865
&ch20=CONFEDERACY nation formed from the rebel states during the Civil War
FORT SUMPTER federal fort in South Carolina, attack by Confederacy; first shots of the Civil War
BORDER STATES slave states that did not break from the Union (Maryland, Missouri, Kentucky, Delaware, West Virginia)
ROBERT E LEE major general of the Confederate Army (led unit called Army of Northern Virginia)
STONEWALL JACKSON number two Confederate general
ULYSES S. GRANT major general of the Union army in the second half of the Civil War
TRENT AFFAIR a union vessel, the Trent, intercepted a British ship evacuating confederate soldiers; almost led to conflict
ALABAMA RAIDER one of many Britishmade vessels given to the Confederacy; captured 60 Union vessels
ENROLLMENT ACT (1863) law implementing a Union draft; one pay $300 for exemption; led to riots in New York
MORRILL TARIFF once the South left the Union, Republicans raised the tariff to protect northern industries
NATIONAL BANKING SYSTEM launched to stimulate the sale of government bonds and establish a standard banknote currency ("greenbacks")
FIFTYNINERS prospectors who flocked to Pennsylvania to get rich on newlydiscovered petroleum
&ch19=UNCLE TOM'S CABIN written by Harriet B. Stowe in 1850, aroused emotional opposition to slavery
BORDER RUFFIANS proslaveryites from Missouri who fraudulently voting in th Kansas popular sovereignty election
JOHN BROWN abolitionist, killed five at Pottawatomie Creek; seized the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry in western Virginia; was hanged and became a martyr
LECOMPTON CONSTITUTION voters were allowed to vote on one line in the Kansas constitution for or against slavery (it would be slave either way)
JAMES BUCHANAN Democratic president on the eve of the Civil War
SUMNERBROOKS EPISODE In 1856, abolitionist Senator Charles Sumner was cained and nearly killed by proslave Senator Preston Brooks
AMERICAN (KNOWNOTHING) PARTY formed by Protestants who were alarmed by the increase of immigrants from Ireland and Germany
DREAD SCOT DECISION deemed the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional, declared slaves to be "property" that could not be removed without due process (fifth Amendment).
PANIC OF 1857 broke out in 1857 due to California gold inflating the currency and overspeculation in land and railroads.
"FREEPORT DOCTRINE" Stephen Douglas said in the Illinois senatorial debate that no matter how the Supreme Court ruled, slavery would stay down if the people voted it down.
ABRAHAM LINCOLN Republican candidate from Illinois in 1860; after defeating Douglas, the first southern states broke away.
JEFFERSON DAVIS US Senator from Mississippi, elected president of the Confederacy in 1860.
CRITTENDEN AMENDMENTS final attempt to appease the South; new states north of the 36° 30' line could choose to be slave or free, southern states would always be slave.
&ch18=POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY notion that people of a territory should determine if they want to be slave or free
"FIREEATERS" Southern, pro-slave in antebellum years
"FREE SOILERS" Northern, antislave in antebellum years
FREESOIL PARTY antislave northerners, didn't want blacks in the west, supported Wilmot Proviso, prointernal improvements
49ERS miners looking to get rich in the California Gold Rush; businessmen "mined the miners"
UNDERGROUND RAILROAD chain of safe houses in the South that freed slaves to Canada; organized by Harriet Tubman
SEVENTH OF MARCH SPEECH famous speech by Daniel Webster in 1850; urged North and South to compromise and that a new fugitiveslave law be formed
COMPROMISE OF 1850 California a free state, NM and Utah based on popular sovereignty, new fugitive slave law
FUGITIVE SLAVE LAW OF 1850 "bloodhound bill"; paid officers to return slaves to the south; Northern emotions hit when seeing apprehended slaves
FRANKLIN PIERCE elected in 1852; puppet of the Democrats; sought expansion in Nicaragua and Cuba; signed trade treaties with China (Wanghia) and Japan (Kanagawa)
TRANSCONTINENTAL RAILROAD went through organized south from Houston to Los Angeles; US made Gadsden Purchase from Mexico
KANSASNEBRASKA ACT proposed by Stephen Douglas; gave popular sovereignty to Kansas and Nebraska to organized land for northern railroad; crippled Missouri Compromise and Compromise of 1850
REPUBLICAN PARTY originated as a Midwestern party opposed to slavery.
&ch16="KING COTTON" name for the cottonbased south; major export to Britain, populations were planter aristocrats, the white majority, free blacks, and slaves
AMERICAN COLONIZATION SOCIETY focused on transporting the blacks back to Africa; Liberia was founded in 1822 (the capital was Monrovia); 15,000 blacks went
NAT TURNER led a major slave revolt in Virginia in 1831
ABOLITIONISM major antislave movement; leaders were W. Lloyd Garrison, Sojourner Truth (former slave woman), and Frederick Douglas (main black abolitionist)
GAG RESOLUTION House resolution to prevent abolition bills from being debated; led by Democrats
&ch15=SECOND GREAT AWAKENING major Christian revival in response to deism and Unitarianism (believed God existed, but was unknowable); led by the Methodists and Baptists
"BURNEDOVER" DISTRICT name given to New England during Second Great Awakening; saw many touring preachers, like Charles Grandison Finney and Peter Cartwright
SEVENTH DAY ADVENTISTS predicted Jesus would return on October 22, 1844; despite the false prediction, the church continued
MORMONS led by Joseph Smith from NY; Brigham Young brought the group to Utah; church was persecuted for polygamy
DOROTHY DIX fought to reform the prison system toward "penitentiaries" that would revive criminals
SENECA FALLS CONVENTION meeting of women to demand the rewriting of the Declaration of Independence to include women and demand more rights; notables were Lucretia Mott, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, and Susan B. Anthony
DOMESTIC FEMINISM group of women who resisted suffrage by arguing that women possessed prestige in the home; had fewer children and more respect from their husbands.
WILDERNESS UTOPIAS attempts at rural societies without government interference; included New Harmony, Brook Farm, and Oneida; all failed
TRANSCENDETALISM literary movement; Romantic, believed truth transcended the senses, individualism; notables were Ralph Waldo Emerson, Henry Davis Thoreau, Luisa May Alcott, Emily Dickenson
DISSENTERS Transcendentalist who were darker, mysterious, horror; notables were Edgar Allen Poe, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Herman Melville
&ch14=MANIFEST DESTINY God wants America to move west
"RUGGED INDIVIDUALISM" culture of tough frontier life; full of disease and loneliness
IRISH IMMIGRATION 1.5 million in the 1840s; mostly poor Catholic; fought blacks for jobs in NY and Boston
GERMAN IMMIGRATION 1.5 million in the 1850s; political refugees; many settled in Chicago, Milwaukee, and rest of Midwest.
COMMONWEALTH V. HUNT case that declared labor unions legal
CULT OF DOMESTICITY mantra of women before 1840 symbolizing the veneration of housewifry.
"FACTORY GIRLS" young, single women that worked beginning in the Market Revolution.
SAMUEL SLATER "Father of the Factory System" in America; memorized British plans for textile machinery
ELI WHITNEY father of the assembly line; invented the cotton gin (which regenerated slavery)
HOWE AND SINGER pioneers of the sewing machine and textile industry
SAMUEL MORSE invented the telegraph; linked Washington and Baltimore; “What hath God wrought?”
JOHN DEERE developed a steel plow in 1837 that could till rocky soil of the west
CYRUS McCORMICK developed the mowerreaper that could harvest wheat five times faster than before
CUMBERLAND ROAD began in 1811, completed in 1852; the "national road" went from Maryland to Illinois
ROBERT FULTON developed the steamboat; became valuable shipping link between sections
PONY EXPRESS carried mail from Missouri to California.
&ch17=CAROLINE AFFAIR American ship sunk by the British, Americans tried one for murder, charges were dropped
CREOLE AFFAIR Britain gave asylum to slaves who seized an American ship in the Bahamas
WEBSTERASHBURTON TREATY settled the Maine border between Canada and the United States; US gained the ironrich Great Lakes region
OREGON FEVER over 5,000 Americans who migrated to the Oregon Territory while it was still occupied by the British
JAMES K POLK last Jacksonian president, goals were annexation of California, to settle the Oregon dispute, and lower the tariff
WALKER TARIFF passed in 1846, lowered rates 32% to 25%
OREGON DISPUTE settled when the line was drawn at 49 degreesthe future border between British Columbia and Washington
SLIDELL AFFAIR sent by Polk to Mexico to buy California; he was denied access, leading to Mexican War
MEXICAN WAR declared by US over unpaid claims and Slidell Affair, major generals were Taylor, Fremont, and Scott
TREATY OF GUADALUPE HIDALGO negotiated by Trist, secured Texas for US, the US paid $18 million for the southwest (including California)
WILMOT PROVISO proposed the former Mexican territory to be free, it never passed the Senate, signaled the coming Civil War
&ch13="CORRPUT BARGAIN" election of 1824, Clay conspired with JQ Adams to gain the presidency and Secretary of State and keep Jackson out
"HICKORYITES" / "KING MOB" average folks who supported Jackson and caused commotion, caused problems in Washington when he was elected
SPOILS SYSTEM policy of giving political supporters and contributors government jobs as rewards.
TARIFF OF ABOMINATIONS name given to Tariff of 1828, despised by southerners who lost exports to Britain and had to pay high prices with no industries to protect
JOHN C CALHOUN VP under Jackson, prominent Whig, secretly led South Carolina in the nullification crisis through the South Carolina Exhibition
NULLIFICATION CRISIS South Carolina threatened to nullify the Tariff of Abominations and possibly break from the Union
TARIFF OF 1833 put forth by Clay, appeased southerners by gradually dropping the tariff over ten years to original levels
FORCE BILL gave the federal government the right to forcibly collect tariffs from southern states.
EATON AFFAIR squabble between the wives of Jackson's cabinet members.
SPOGAI Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to the Indians, effort to Christianize the five "civilized tribes" (Cherokees, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Seminoles)
INDIAN REMOVAL ACT signed by Jackson to move 100,000 Indians to Oklahoma along the "trail of tears"
BANK WAR political battle between Jackson, and Clay and Nicolas Biddle, over the renewal of the bank; Jackson vetoed the recharter, put funds in pet banks
ANTIMASONS antiJackson party that ran a candidate in 1832 to displace Jackson
WILDCAT / PET BANKS small, unreliable state banks in which Jackson placed federal funds; unreliable paper money led to the Specie Circular, or metallic money requirement for buying land.
WHIGS party opposed to Jackson, based on the American system and state's rights
MARTIN VAN BUREN Democratic candidate and winner in the election of 1836; carried on Jackson's policies
PANIC OF 1837 caused by overspeculation on canals, roads, railroads, and slaves; also by Jackson's use of pet banks; Van Buren got the blame
LONESTAR REBELLION revolt of American settlers again Mexico; memorable battle at the Alamo; led to the Texas Republic
"LOG CABINS AND HARD CIDER" slogan for Whig candidate William Harrison in 1840; also used "Old Tippecanoe and Tyler Too"; van Buren lost due to the panic;
&ch12=WAR OF 1812 18121815, second war for independence, triggered by impressments, victory solidified America
SIEGE OF WASHINGTON War of 1812, the British burned down the capital
BATTLE OF BALTIMORE War of 1812, Americans survived British naval onslaught at Fort McHenry, StarSpangled Banner written.
TECUMSEH Indian who unified tribes to fight Americans, was defeated at Tippecanoe by Harrison and Horseshoe bend by Jackson
BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS decisive battle in the War of 1812, Americans under Jackson victorious
TREATY OF GHENT Treaty that ended War of 1812, reestablished situation before the war, outlawed impressments
HARFORD CONVENTION group of Federalists opposed to War of 1812; demanded financial retribution, restriction on the president and congress
TARIFF OF 1816 first protective tariff in America
HENRY CLAY congressman, Secretary of State, fought for American System (internal improvements, banks, tariffs), "Great Compromiser"
ERA OF GOOD FEELINGS period after War of 1812, one party politics, good economy, problems loomed
PANIC OF 1819 first financial panic in US, main cause was the overspeculation in frontier lands
LAND ACT OF 1820 authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 an acre
TALLMADGE AMENDMENT proposed slave ban in Missouri Territory, called emancipation of children born to slave parents; bill was defeated.
MISSOURI COMPROMISE proposed by Clay, Missouri to be a slave state, slavery outlawed north of 36'30 line.
McCULLOCH V. MARYLAND (1819) confirmed the supremacy of the federal government over the states; clarified the elastic clause
GIBBONS V. OGDEN (1824) empowered the Congress to regulate commerce between the states
ADAMSONIS TREATY (1819) Us purchased Florida from Spain, Jackson served as governor
CANNING PROPOSAL attempted by Britain to share Latin American land with the US, the US denied
MONROE DOCTRINE (1823) denied the right of Europeans to colonize in the western hemisphere, US would not intervene in foreign wars.
&ch11=REVOLUTION OF 1800 Jefferson’s name of 1800 election, signaled changed from Federalists to Jeffersonians
NATURALIZATION LAW OF 1802 reduced the requirement of 14 years of residence to the previous 5 years.
ALBERT GALLATIN Secretary of Treasury to Jefferson, reduced the national debt and balanced the budget
JUDICIARY ACT OF 1801 passed by the expiring Federalist Congress; created 16 new federal judgeships, were filled by Adams – “The Midnight Judges”
JOHN MARSHALL Supreme Court Justice, carried on the Federalist message after the party was gone.
MARBURY V. MADISON (1803) Supreme Court deemed the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional, established judicial review
TRIPOLIAN WAR four year war between US and Tripoli, US paid Tripoli $60,000 for the release of captured Americans, US navy shown to be weak
LOUISIANA PURCHASE middle third of the continent, sold to US by Napoleon of France, explored by Lewis, Clark, and Pike
AARON BURR Fiery Vice President of Jefferson, hated Hamilton and killed him in a duel, part a conspiracy to take over Louisiana
ORDERS IN COUNCIL British order to navy to capture American ships headed for French ports
BERLIN AND MILAN DECREES France order to capture all ships (including American) headed for British ports.
IMPRESSMENTS policy of British navy to kidnap foreign officers to serve in British navy.
EMBARGO ACT signed by Jefferson, banned the exportation of any goods to any countries, destroyed American merchants.
NONINTERCOURSE ACT replaced Embargo Act, opened up trade to every country except France and Britain
MACON'S BILL NO. 2 offered France and Britain an embargo against the other if one would lift Orders in Council or Berlin/Milan Decrees
&ch10=BILL OF RIGHTS first ten amendments to the Constitution, drafted by Madison, placed limitations of government and protects natural rights.
THE JUDICIARY ACT OF 1789 created the Supreme Court, with a chief justice and five associates; district courts; created Attorney General
FEDERALIST PARTY led by Washington, Adams, and Hamilton; wanted strong federal government, loose constructionism, probank and tariff, proBritain
DEMOCRATICREPUBLICAN PARTY led by Jefferson, Madison, Monroe; wanted more state power, strict constructionism, antibank and tariff, pro France
ALEXANDER HAMILTON first Treasury Secretary, advocated assumption, a US Bank, and excise taxes; rival of Jefferson
WHISKEY REBELLION In 1794, Pennsylvania distillers opposed and fought the 1791 excise tax on whiskey; Washington aggressively sent in troops.
NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATION OF 1793 Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation of 1793 affirming American neutrality from the BritainFrance war
MIAMI CONFEDERACY The British armed these eight Indian nations to terrorize Americans and protect the British Great Lakes fur trade.
JAY TREATY the British would evacuate U.S. soil, pay for ship damages, the U.S. would continue to pay the debts owed to British merchants
PINCKNEY TREATY Spain feared an AmericanBritish alliance; they granted the Americans free navigation of the Mississippi River
XYZ AFFAIR upset by the Jay Treaty, France attacked American ships; Adams sent reps to France, but were disallowed to meet foreign minister.
QUASI WAR tension between France and the United States in the late 1790s; led the creation of the Navy and Marines, armed conflict never occured.
CONVENTION OF 1800 Napoleon invited new American reps, it ended previous treaties, France agreed to pay damages to American shippers
ALIEN AND SEDITION ACTS increased naturalization period in order to decreased immigrant supporters for Jefferson; made it illegal to criticize the government.
VIRGINIA AND KENTUCKY RESOLUTIONS Jefferson and Madison call upon these states to nullify the Alien and Sedition Acts.
&ch9=REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD Held the belief that children should be raised to uphold the ideals of republicanism, Women were the keepers of the nation’s consciousness
VIRGINIA STATUTE FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM drafted by Thomas Jefferson, stated that religion should not be imposed on anybody and that each person decided his/her own faith
ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION first constitution of the United States, weak Congress, strong states, led to economic and political upheaval
NORTHWEST ORDINANCE OF 1787 When lands get settled, it is monitored by the federal government; when 60,000 people arrive, it becomes a state
LAND ORDINANCE OF 1785 acreage of the Old Northwest should be sold and the proceeds should be used to help pay off the national debt, gave guidelines for townships
SHAYS' REBELLION farmer revolt to prevent foreclosures; signaled the failure of the Articles of Confederation
DEY OF ALGIERS Africans who held American ships ransom, led to embarrassment and the need for a stronger navy
VIRGINIA PLAN or large state plan, called for representation to be based on population in congress.
NEW JERSEY PLAN or small state plan, called for equal representation in the congress
CONNECTICUT (GREAT) COMPROMISE call for bicameral Congress; House based on population, two Senators for every state.
THREEFIFTHS COMPROMISE for purposes of representation and taxation, slaves were counted as threefifths
FEDERALISTS faction at the Constitutional Convention that favored the new Constitution; led by Madison, Hamilton, Franklin, and Jay
ANTIFEDERALISTS faction of the Constitutional Convention that disliked the new Constitution; led by Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry, and Richard Henry Lee
&ch8=SECOND CONTINENTAL CONGRESS met May 1775; With grievances not rectified, they raised money; selected George Washington to head the army
LEXINGTON AND CONCORD first shots fired in the Revolution
MINUTEMEN name for Massachusetts militiamen who agreed to fight in "a minute's notice."
BUNKER HILL June 1775, first major battle of the Revolution; Americans captured hill, but retreated when gunpowder ran out.
OLIVE BRANCH PETITION professed American loyalty to the king and begged to the king to stop further hostilities.
THOMAS PAINE published Common Sense in 1775 urging Americans to rebel because they were larger
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE motion made at the Philadelphia Congress by Richard Henry Lee on July 2nd; Thomas Jefferson wrote the commentary on July 4th.
PATRIOTS AND LOYALISTS the Loyalists (antirebellion) were called Tories, and the Patriots (prorebellion) were called Whigs
BOSTON CAMPAIGN The Americans, led by Washington, forced the British to evacuate Boston in March 1776 and regroup in New York.
NEW YORK CAMPAIGN In summer 1776, the British, under Howe repeatedly defeated the Americans and forced them to flee to New Jersey.
HESSIANS German soldiers hired by the British; frequently deserted
BATTLES OF TRENTON AND PRINCETON Howe failed to chase Washington, so Washington launched surprise night attacks on 12/26/1776.
BARON VON STEUBEN German drill sergeant that whipped American troops into shape.
BURGOYNE'S BLUNDER 1777, attempt by British to sever NY from New England; Burgoyne was slowed by Benedict Arnold; Howe retired to Philadelphia.
BATTLE OF SARATOGA Oct 1777, turning point of the war; American General Gates defeated General Burgoyne; made aid from France possible.
ARMED NEUTRALITY various European nations aligned against Britain; Ben Franklin plead for aid from France;
BENEDICT ARNOLD feeling disrespected; he turned against America
CAROLINA CAMPAIGN 1778, the British back loyalists in the South; they were defeated by Nathaniel Greene
WESTERN CAMPAIGN Iroquois under Joseph Brant fought American expansion; Treaty of Fort Stanwix forced them to cede their land
JOHN PAUL JONES led American privateers against the British Navy to hamper trade and supply lines
BATTLE OF YORKTOWN fall 1781; decisive battle where General Cornwallis was surrounded by Washington, Rochambeau, and Admiral de Grasse
TREATY OF PARIS Sep 1783; US recognized, Spain gets Florida and Louisiana, Britain gets Canada, fishing shared.
&ch7=MERCANTILISM British economic policy; they exported more than they imported in order to get gold and silver into their treasury; relied on shipping.
NAVIGATION LAWS required all goods flowing to and from the colonies to be transported in British vessels; also required that colonists only trade with Britain
GEORGE GRENVILLE British prime minister, strictly enforced Navigation Laws; issued Sugar, Quartering, and Stamps Acts in 1765
STAMP ACT issued to pay debt from the French and Indian War, and to fund current troops; was forced to be revoked by the Stamp Act Congress
"NO TAXATION WITHOUT REPRESENATION" American belief that Britishimposed taxes on the colonies were illegal because no colonist sat in the Parliament.
NONIMPORTATION AGREEMENTS organized by the Stamp act Congress to boycott British goods; brought colonies closer together.
DECLARATORY ACT Issued by the British to reaffirm its right to bind the colonies in all cases whatsoever.
TOWNSHEND ACTS issued by "champagne" Charlie Townshend; put a light import tax on glass, white lead, paper, paint, and tea (leading to smuggling)
BOSTON MASSACRE On March 5, 1770, a crowd of 60 townspeople harassed 10 redcoats, prompting them to fire on the civilians, killing/wounding 11 of them.
COMMITTEES OF CORRESPONDENCE local intercolonial communication centers; started by Samuel Adams; by 1773, all colonies had joined
SONS OF LIBERTY secretive committee of correspondence; compromised British efforts to keep order
BOSTON TEA PARTY the British attempted to force colonists to sell surplus tea; on December 16, 1773, a band of Bostonians, ships and dumped the tea into the sea.
INTOLERABLE ACTS series of punishments for the Boston Tea Party; restricted town meetings, closed Boston Harbor, a new Quartering Act, soldiers tried in Europe.
QUEBEC ACT gave FrenchCanadians Catholics freedom of religion, expanded Canada's borders, bad precedent for Americans
FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS met to redress grievances; 12 colonies, 55 delegates, included John Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry.
THE ASSOCIATION called for a complete boycott of British goods; nonimportation, nonexportation, and nonconsumption.
&ch6=SAMUEL DE CHAMPLAIN "Father of France", settled Quebec in 1608
COUREURS DU BOIS rambunctious French fur trappers, traded with Indians, set up posts from Canada to Louisiana
ANTOINE CADILLAC founded Detroit in 1701 to thwart English settlers pushing into the Ohio Valley.
ROBERT LA SALLE explored the Mississippi and Gulf basin, naming it "Louisiana" (this checked Spanish penetration into the Gulf region).
KING WILLIAMS WAR AND QUEEN ANNE'S WAR involved the British colonists against the coureurs de bois; Spain allied France, and various Indian tribes helped both
WAR OF JENKINS EAR fought between Spain and Britain and was confined to the Caribbean and Georgia
KING GEORGES WAR grew out of Jenkins Ear; Britain fought Spain and France; Britain captured Louisbourg, became enraged when the peace treaty handed it back to France
OHIO VALLEY Main area of contention by 1754; Britain wanted to expand; the French wanted to link Canada and the lower Mississippi
FORT DUQUESNE/FORT NECESSITY George Washington was sent to secure Virginian land; surrendered at Fort Necessity
CAJUNS uprooted Acadians (Canada); French speakers; scattered to the lower Mississippi.
FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Britain conquered France in 1763 to become the sole power of North America
ALBANY CONGRESS many colonies met to try to pacify the Iroquois with gifts and guns; the long term plan was to unify the colonies against France
WILLIAM PITT "Great Commoner"; top British General in the French and Indian War;
TREATY OF PARIS (1763) gave Canada and Florida to the British, Louisiana and Cuba to Spain, fishing islets to France
CHIEF PONTIAC led several tribes and some French in a violent campaign to drive the British out of the Ohio country
PROCLAMATION OF 1763 to sort out issues with Indians, Britain prohibited settlement in the area beyond the Appalachians
&ch5=INDENTURED SERVITUDE In exchange for working, they received transatlantic passage and eventual "freedom dues" (food, clothes, land)
HEADRIGHT SYSTEM Whoever paid the passage of a laborer received the right to acquire 50 acres of land; Virginia and Maryland used this to encourage more colonists;
BACON'S REBELLION Revolt of servants over repeated Indian attacks, and Gov. Berekley's refusal to address the matter.
NEW YORK CITY SLAVE REVOLT In 1712, a slave revolt in New York cost the lives of 12 whites and caused the execution of 21 blacks by fire.
STONO RIVER REVOLT In 1739, South Carolinian slaves tried to march to Spanish Florida but were stopped by a local militia.
FIRST FAMILIES OF VIRGINIA These families came to dominate the economy and the House of Burgesses in Virginia; built large riverfront mansions
HALFWAY COVENANT In 1662, this new arrangement modified the agreement between the Puritan church and its adherents, to admit to baptism on the unconverted children of existing members.
SALEM WITCH TRIALS A group of adolescent girls in Salem, Massachusetts claimed to have been bewitched by certain older women; a witch hunt ensued, leading to the legal lynching of 20 women in 1692
LEISLER'S REBELLION In New York, animosity between lordly landholders and aspiring merchants fueled a bloody insurgence from 16891691.
&ch4="PENNSYLVANIA DUTCH" misnomer for Germans that arrived in America before the Revolution; not being loyal to Britain, they clung to their customs
SCOTSIRISH Scottish Presbyterians from Ireland after clashing with the Irish Catholics; eventually, many came to Pennsylvania; lawless groups like the Paxton Boys and Regulators caused many problems
TRIANGULAR TRADE food/materials to the Caribbean, Spanish and Portuguese wine and gold to Europe, and industrial items from Europe
GREAT AWAKENING Theological challenges to Puritanism; Preachers: Jacobus Arminius (free will), Jonathan Edwards (Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God); George Whitefield (humans are weak and need God)
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN Inventor, scientist, politician; editor of the popular newspaper Poor Richard's Almanac
ZENGER CASE This paved the way for freedom of the press and eventually the antagonisms of Revolution
&ch3=PURITANS Calvinist who wanted distinct separation between the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church; separatists left England for Holland, then America.
PLYMOUTH Puritan colony founded in 1620; first New England colony; led by William Bradford
MAYFLOWER COMPACT An agreement by the Puritans to form a crude government and to submit to the will of the majority under the regulations agreed upon
GREAT MIGRATION (PILGRIM) Massive exodus of 20,000 Puritans to America and Barbados in 1629; to escape persecution by King Charles and Archbishop Laud
MASSACHUSETTS BAY COLONY led by John Winthrop, established near Boston in 1629; heavily Puritan
ANNE HUTCHINSON challenged the Puritan orthodoxy, was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony to Rhode Island for heresy
ROGER WILLIAMS Popular Salem minister who was an extreme Separatist and denounced the authority of the civil government; he was banished from the Bay Colony in 1635; founder of Rhode Island and the Baptist Church.
THOMAS HOOKER Puritan founder of Hartford, Connecticut colony in 1639
PEQUOT WAR conflicts in 163637 between New Englanders and local Indians; Pequots were slaughtered at Mystic River
KING PHILIP'S WAR A Wampanoag chief created an alliance of tribes to attack the English; by 1676, 52 Puritan towns had been attacked; the colonist prevailed, Indians never recover
NEW ENGLAND CONFEDERATION Unified the Massachusetts and Connecticut colonies to combat the Indians, French, and Dutch; Charles II disapproved and revoked the Bay colony’s charter in 1684.
DOMINION OF NEW ENGLAND Created in 1687, cancelled the New England Confederation, and administered control from the crown via Edmund Andros; ended town meetings.
BERKELEY AND CARTERET Administrators of land that would be New Jersey
DUTCH WEST INDIA COMPANY Trading company centered in the Caribbean; often resorted to piracy
NEW NETHERLAND Established in 1623 by the Dutch West India Company in the Hudson River NY for the area’s fur; purchased Manhattan Island from the Indians for about $30.
NEW AMSTERDAM Capital of New Netherland; home base for the Dutch West India Company; largely aristocratic
NEW SWEDEN From 16381655, the Swedish trespassed on Dutch preserves by planting the anemic colony of New Sweden on the Delaware River
PETER STUYVESANT Director-General of New Netherland; expelled the Swedes; was defeated by the English
QUAKERS Religious Society of Friends, a tolerant religious group; led by William Penn, created the unique colony of Pennsylvania, and later New Jersey and Delaware.
&ch2=FRANCIS DRAKE seadog (English pirate), who circumnavigated globe and plundered Spanish ships
HUMPHREY GILBERT failed to establish a colony in Newfoundland in 1583 after being lost at sea
WALTER RALEIGH half brother of Gilbert, set up a failed colony at Roanoke Virginia 1585 (named for Queen Elizabeth).
VIRGINIA COMPANY OF LONDON Jointstock company, received a charter from King James I of England for a settlement in the New World; wanted to find gold and a passage to the East Indies.
JAMESTOWN first permanent English settlement (1607), near Chesapeake Bay, VA; led by John Smith
LORD DE LA WARR rescued Jamestown in 1610 with supplies and troops after the "starving winter"
ANGLOPOWHATAN WARS series of wars between the English and Powhatan Indians, led to the marriage between Rolfe and Pocahontas; Indians failed to dislodge English; were barred from lands.
HOUSE OF BURGESSES Established in 1619 in Virginia, first legislative body in the colonies.
LORD BALTIMORE prominent English Catholic who founded Maryland as a haven for Catholics
ACT OF TOLERATION As Protestants flooded into Maryland, Catholics feared a loss of religious freedom; in 1649, the local representative group in Maryland granted toleration to all Christians.
INDENTURED SERVITUDE colonists who labor to pay off their passage to America
BARBADOS SLAVE CODE denied even the most fundamental rights to slaves and allowed fierce punishment for wrongdoing.
CAROLINA started to support Caribbean, fought with Savannah Indians, grew tobacco and rice, Charleston was a key port and aristocratic city.
SQUATTERS Virginia outcasts who started North Carolina; many were antiChurch of England; broke from South Carolina in 1712.
JAMES OGLETHORPE founder of Georgia in 1733; the colony was a buffer against Florida, many criminals.
&ch1=AZTECS preColumbian Indian civilization in central Mexico, conquered by Cortes
MAYANS preColumbian Indian civilization in Yucatan Mexico and central America
INCAS preColumbian in South America, conquered by Pizarro.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS Italian seafarer, sailed for Spain, sought western route to China, landed in Caribbean.
TREATY OF TORDESILLAS line of demarcation, divided New World between Spain and Portugal
CONQUISTADOR Spanish explorers, conquered New World Indians
HERNAN CORTES Spanish conquistador, explored Mexico and conquered the Aztecs.
IROQUOIS Mighty Indian nation in the northeastern United States.
VIKINGS earliest Europeans to Americans, landed in Nova Scotia around 1000
COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE Europe provided the markets, capital, and technology; Africa provided the slaves; New World provided the raw materials.
PONCE DE LEON explored Florida in 1513 and 1521
ECOMIENDA allowed Europeans to hold Indians with the intent to Christianize them and force them into labor
POPE'S REBELLION In 1680, Pueblo Indians resisted conversion to Catholicism1
Created by: Abdull Hamud Abdull Hamud