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fm boards endo 2010

fm boards 2010

what blood sugar is needed to make diagnosis of diabetes, fasting vs random >126 >200
complications of diabetes are in 3 categories macrovascular-cad and stroke, microvascular-retinopathy and nephropathy and neuropathy
despite good control of diabetes you often still have this complication Macrovascular
life threatening complications of elevated blood sugar DKA and hyperosmolar coma(non ketotic hyperglycemia )
iv fluid treatment for DKA initially normal saline then 1/2 ns. then when bs is less than 250 add in glucose
difference between DKA and hyperosmolar coma no acidosis and ph 7.3 (normal 7.35-7.45)
mortality rate associated with hyperosmolar coma 50%
how do you treat low blood sugar in a comatose patient IM glucagon or iv 50% glucose
hypo vs hyperthyroidism hashimotos vs Graves
treatment for hyperthyroid PTU, methimazole, radioactive Iodine, and surgery
3 types of hypothyroidism primary, secondary and tertiary
primay hypothyroidism is caused by defect in the gland
defect in the gland due to 3 causes hashimotos, iodine deficiency and drugs
what drugs can cause hypothyroidism amiodarone, lithium, interleuken-2 and alpha interferon(Alia)
primary hypothyroidism can also be caused by thyroidectomy, post radioactive iodine therapy, and neck irradiation
secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism is caused by pituitary failure hypothalmus failure
2 main causes of hypercalcemia hyperparathyroidism and cancer
treatment for hypercalcemia includes 7 options iv fluids, calcitonin, corticosteroids, iv bisphosphonates, oral phosphate, and dialysis. sometimes surgery
hypocalcemia is caused by 7 causes hypoparathyroidism, pseudohyperparathyroidism, chronic renal failure, vitamin d deficiency, magnesium deficiency, chemotherapy, medications
4 medications that can cause hypocalcemia diuretics, estrogen, laxatives, magnesium
when calcium is low what lab should you check and why albumin. because half of your calcium is bound to albumin
what type of calcium is most important free calcium or ionized because it is not bound to proteins
sx's of low calcium neuromuscular irritability and tetany
2 test for low calcium Chvostek's sign and Trousseau's sign
describe the Chvostek's sign tap over the facial nerve and the facial muscles will spasm
Trousseau's sign blow up bp cuff past a patient systolic bp and wrist and fingers will spasm
ekg findings of low calcium prolonged QT
treatment for low calcium mild vs severe oral vs iv calcium
types of adrenal insufficiency primary and secondary
primary adrenal insufficiency is a.k.a. Addison's disease
define Addison's when the adrenal cortex fails to make enough cortisone
causes of primary adrenal insufficiency are 5 autoimmune, hemorrhage, infection, tumor, medication
the discontinuation of what medication can cause adrenal insufficiency corticosteroids
secondary adrenal insufficiency is caused by lack of ACTH produced by the pituitary
symptoms of adrenal insufficiency weakness, weight loss, abd pain, nasuea, vomiting, hyperpigmentatio
Addisonian crisis symptoms severe vomiting, diarrhea, low bp, elevate K, coma and death
diagnosis of addison's with what test cortisol level and ACTH stimulation test. if ACTH is elevated primary disease is present
treatment of addison's disease is with cortisol
what is Paget's disease increased rate of bone remolding in older people
cause of Paget's unknown
lab test in Paget's elevated alk phosp
treatment of Paget's symptomatic vs asymptomatic symp-oral bisphosphonates non symp-no treatment
Cushing disease is caused by too much cortisol
too much cortisol can be caused by excessive steroid therapy, too much ACTH
too much ACTH can be caused by pituitary abnormality or tumor
what types of tumors adrenal and small cell carcinoma of the lung
diagnosis of cushings syndrome should be made by 2 test am cortisol and dexamethasone suppression test
physical findings of cushing's moon face, buffalo hump, weakness, fatigue, poor healing of skin, irregular menses
Syndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (SIADH) is defined as too much ADH-leading to concentrate urine
concentrated urine leads to what in the blood 3 hyponatremia, volume overload within the body-which causes low plasma osmolality
symptoms of SIADH nausea, fatigue and headache, can lead to coma
causes of SIADH tumors like small cell of the lung), CNS trauma or infection and medications
treatment for SIADH fluid restriction and slow correction of sodium, plus loop diuretics, lithium, and demeclocycline
define Diabetes Insipidus not enough ADH
what happens to urine and osmolality when ADH goes down urine gets diluted, plasma osmolality goes up
sx's of DI-3 polyuria, polydipsia and dehydration
types of DI central, nephrogenic, dipsogenic(too much water), gestational
central is caused by pituitary of hypothalmic
nephrogenic is caused by kidney not responding to the ADH
dipsogenic is caused by ingestion of too much water
gestational complication of pregnancy
diagnosis of DI is confirmed by water deprivation test or vasopressin test
treatment of DI-2 find underlying cause and vasopressin(DDAVP)
causes of hypopituitarism idiopathic, trauma, tumors , CNS infection and iatrogenic(post radiation)
infarction of the pituitary is called Sheehan's syndrome
6 anterior pituitary hormones anterior-TSH, PROLACTIN(milk production after baby), FSH, LH, ACTH, GROWTH HORMONE
2 posterio pituitary hormones ADH and oxytocin(for uterine contraction and milk let down)
Created by: ambstudystack