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psychchapter6

QuestionAnswer
The apparent narrowing of a river as it flows directly away from you into the distance best illustrates the depth cue known as: linear perspective.
Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates: the cocktail party effect.
The perception that Bugs Bunny is hopping across a movie screen best illustrates: stroboscopic movement.
In the context of visual perception, convergence refers to the: extent to which the eyes turn inward when looking at an object.
John Locke is to Immanuel Kant as ________ is to ________. nurture; nature
The Gestalt principles of proximity and similarity refer to ways in which we: organize stimuli into coherent groups.
People are more likely to perceive a figure and ground illustration as reversible if they are told it is reversible. This best illustrates the importance of: top-down processing.
Africans who live in cities are more vulnerable to the Müller-Lyer illusion than are Africans living in much less carpentered environments. This best serves to support the view of perception advanced by the philosopher: Locke
As Dick carefully watches his dog running away from him, it is likely that he will experience a(n): decrease in retinal disparity and a decrease in convergence.
Experiments with the visual cliff suggest that: the ability to perceive depth is at least partially innate.
Farouk insists that by intense mental concentration he can actually influence the mechanically generated outcomes of slot machines. Farouk is most specifically claiming to possess the power of: psychokinesis
pedestrians walked past an elderly gentleman lying on a city sidewalk without showing any concern. As a consequence, other passersby failed to perceive that the man was in need of immediate medical assistance. This best illustrates the importance of: context effects.
Which of the following distance cues most likely contributes to the perception that the height of the St. Louis Gateway Arch is greater than its width? relative height.
Because the football game was interrupted by a long halftime, 5 year old Mark mistakenly concluded that the first and second halves of play were two different games. His experience best illustrates the organizational principle of: proximity.
After chicks were fitted with special lenses that visually displaced objects to the left, they: never adapted to visual distortion.
The perceived lightness of an object depends on relative luminance. This provides an illustration of: context effects.
In order to give greater depth to his painting, Shakir enveloped the background landscape in a misty haze. Shakir was making use of the distance cue known as: relative clarity.
It wasn't until Clara heard some of her classmates laughing loudly during history class that she began to perceive the professor's ongoing lecture to be very funny. This provides an illustration of: context effects.
Déjà vu has been explained as being a reflection of a disruption in the receipt of perceptual information. Another possibility is that it is caused by: Inattentional blindness.
Memory can be regarded as a ____ of the past. perception.
Born blind, Christo receives a corneal transplant at age 6 and can now see. He is now attempting to throw a ball to a friend, who will praise him each time the ball heads in the right general direction. In this situation, Christo's behavior is being shaped.
You are reading this question carefully, entirely focused on it because you want to do well on the test. You may be experiencing _____ as the result of _____ motivation (your grade on the test). Visual capture, extrinsic.
What is the difference between subliminal perception and extra sensory perception? Subliminal perception relates to stimuli for which the transducer is known, extra sensory perception related to stimuli for which there is no known transducer.
Color constancy is probably more closely related to: Perception than sensation.
Because responses to the visual cliff are not influenced by culture, it appears that depth perception is: Strongly influenced by genes.
You look at a door that is shut and see a rectangle. You also see the door as rectangular when it is partially open. That most people, regardless of culture, see this same thing, suggests that: Perceptual constancy is a reflection of the genome.
Psychoactive drugs have their primary effect on the: Central nervous system.
Drugs that produce vivid visual hallucinations, like _____, are likely to influence neural activity in the _____. LSD, occipital lobes.
Which of the following might be an operational definition of perceptual set? Expectations that color what we perceive.
There have been several reports that suggest that people can send and receive telepathic messages. Follow up studies are, however, typically unable to: Replicate the results, suggesting that the original results were due to chance.
Gestalt psychology is most consistent with which of the following approaches to psychology? Cognitive.
The process of perceptual interpretation would be of most interest to: Structuralists
The Ponzo Illusion illustrates that people judge the size of an object in terms of its perceived: distance.
In the horizontal/vertical illusion, most people perceive a ________ line as ________. vertical; longer than an equally long horizontal line
Of two identical horizontal bars in the Ponzo illusion, the bar that is: higher in the visual field appears to be longer because it appears to be farther away.
As she gazed down from a bridge at the rapidly flowing river, Nancy felt as though she were moving. Her experience best illustrates the phenomenon of: visual capture.
The tendency to see complete letters on a neon sign, even though some of the bulbs are out, illustrates the principle of: closure.
Infants are especially likely to avoid crawling over the edge of a visual cliff if they: have a lot of previous crawling experience.
Schemas are best described as: concepts that organize sensory input.
The illusion of movement in animated neon signs is known as: the phi phenomenon.
If two objects cast retinal images of the same size, the object that appears to be closer is perceived as ________ the object that appears to be more distant. smaller than
Mr. Watkins had been blind from birth. While corrective eye surgery enabled him to see, he was unable to visually distinguish a spoon from a key. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by: Locke.
The horizon Moon appears to shrink in size if it is viewed through a narrow tube that eliminates the perception of distance cues. This best illustrates the importance of: context effects.
John Locke would have suggested that a perceptual set results from: prior experience.
The distorted room illusion involving two girls who rapidly shrink or enlarge can best be explained in terms of: the misperception of distance.
The extrasensory ability to perceive an automobile accident taking place in a distant location is to ________ as the extrasensory ability to know at any moment exactly what your best friend is thinking is to ________. clairvoyance; telepathy
Optical illusions are probably related to the process of: Encoding.
Born blind, Christo receives a corneal transplant at age 6 and can now see. He is now attempting to throw a ball to a friend, who will praise him each time the ball heads in the right general direction. In this situation, Christo is being positively reinforced for appropriate behavior.
Born blind, Christo receives a corneal transplant at age 6 and can now see. He will eventually learn to avoid balls thrown at his face as the result of the effects of negative reinforcement.
The idea of gestalt indicates that: There is more to perception than transduction.
Inattentional blindness and sensory adaptation are both situations where: Individuals no longer respond to the presence of something.
Gender role, gender typing and gender identity are often the result of: Selective attention.
Visual capture is probably: Probably interesting to some people who study behavior genetics.
Tolerance to the effects of drugs is likely to reflect changes at the level of the: Synapse.
Physical dependence on drugs is likely to produce changes at the level of the: Synapse.
people are shown different optical illusions in one of two orders. They are asked to describe what they see. Their responses reflect what they are looking at, and what they have already seen. What is the dependent variable in this study? Their descriptions of the illusions that they are looking at.
Babies placed on the visual cliff tend to stay on one side of the table is a: Hypothesis, because it is testable.
The process of perceptual interpretation would be of most interest to: Structuralists
The evolutionary perspective might be used to explain: Responses to the visual cliff.
When the moon is high in the sky, it appears ______ than when it is just above the horizon. smaller.
In the Müller-Lyer illusion, the arrowheads at the ends of the lines lead people to misjudge the ________ of the two horizontal lines. length.
Gestalt psychologists emphasized that: We organize sensations in meaningful patterns.
When hearing the words “eel is on the wagon,” you would likely perceive the first word as “wheel.” Given “eel is on the orange,” you would likely perceive the first word as “peel.” This context effect best illustrates the organizational principle of: closure.
Janice experienced motion sickness simply from watching a movie scene of a thrilling motorcycle chase. Her experience best illustrates the impact of: visual capture.
Almost half the birds in the yard were brown cardinals and the rest were bright red cardinals, so Jimmy perceived them as two distinct groups of birds. This best illustrates the principle of: similarity.
The perception of a humanlike face in the random configurations of the lunar landscape best illustrates the impact of ________ on visual perception. perceptual schemas.
The principle of connectedness would most likely lead you to perceive all the ________ as parts of a single unit. rungs in a ladder.
The ability of newly hatched chicks to perceive depth best serves to support the views of: Kant.
If you stared at a house as you walked down a street, the trees in front of the house would appear to be moving: in the opposite direction as you, and the trees behind the house would appear to be moving in the same direction as you.
The organizational principles identified by Gestalt psychologists best illustrate the importance of: top-down processing.
People were shown the same top half of a photographed face paired with two different bottom halves of photographed faces. They were especially likely to recognize that the top halves of the faces were identical if they: were deprived of visual experience during infancy.
An integrated understanding of perception in terms of our sensory capacities, cultural contexts, and Gestalt principles is most clearly provided by: biopsychosocial approach.
A 3D movie enhances one's sense of depth perception by simulating the effects of: retinal disparity.
Perceptual grouping may facilitate short-term memory through its effect on: Recognition.
The size-distance relationship is an example of: Automatic Processing.
Someone you want to get to know better smiles at you when your focus your attention on him and ignore everything else that is going on around you. In this situation, the: Positive reinforcement may produce inattentional blindness.
Absolute and difference thresholds may be affected by: Perceptual adaptation.
The effects of perceptual set are an example of: Top-down processing.
people are shown different optical illusions in one of two orders. They are asked to describe what they see. Their responses reflect what they are looking at, and what they have already seen. What is the independent variable in this study? The illusions that they are presented and the order in which they are presented.
In an experiment agroup of subjects is shown a set of connected dots, one group is shown dots in the same positions but without connecting lines. The group that saw no connecting lines is referred to as the control group. The other group is the Treatment group.
Someone interested in neuroscience would be interested in Changes in the nervous system associated with sensory adaptation.
Someone with an interest in the social-cultural perspective might be interested in: The effects of ethnic background on perceptual set.
Terry Sweeney, a professional photographer with prosopagnosia, demonstrates an inability to: recognize familiar faces.
The individual boulders and crevices of the huge and clearly visible mountain peak appeared so indistinct to the hikers that they knew it would take them another full day to reach it. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on distance perception. texture gradient
People are most likely to perceive the steady drip of a leaky water faucet as: a repeating rhythm of two or more beats.
listeners are asked, What would life be like without Fletchers Ice Cream? the same question is interrupted after the word “without.” many listeners mentally respond with the words “Fletchers Ice Cream.” Their response best illustrates the principle of: closure.
If two identical objects are equally distant from a viewer, the brighter object appears to be: closer.
The impact of experience on perception is most clearly illustrated by: perceptual adaptation.
The greatest difficulty facing contemporary parapsychology is the: lack of a reproducible ESP phenomenon.
The spacing effect refers to the distance in _____ between events, the grouping effect refers to the distance in _____ between objects. Time, space.
Perceptual grouping may facilitate short-term memory through its effect on: Chunking.
Someone you want to get to know better smiles at you when you focus your attention on him and ignore everything else that is going on around you. In this situation: A conditioned reinforcer may produce inattentional blindness.
Perceptual constancies, such as size, are probably the result of: Learning.
The effects of perceptual set are an example of: Top-down processing.
Perception _____ than sensation. Has a lower heritability quotient.
A cognitive neuroscientist is probably not going to be excited about exploring which biological system? Endocrine
_____, which suppress the experience of pain, are likely to impact activity in the part of the brain linked to the body senses, the ____ lobes. Opiates, parietal.
There have been several reports that suggest that people can send and receive telepathic messages. Follow up studies are, however, typically unable to: Replicate the results, suggesting that the original results were due to chance.
Gestalt psychology is most consistent with which of the following approaches to psychology? Psychodynamic
Of the following which would be most interesting to a behaviorist? The effects of inattentional blindness on behavior.
The process of perceptual interpretation would be of most interest to: A cognitive neuroscientist.
Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates: cocktail party effect.
Rudy claims that his special psychic powers enable him to correctly anticipate whether the outcome of a coin toss will be heads or tails. Rudy is claiming to possess the power of: precognition.
Shauna claims that she knows at any given moment exactly what important political figures are thinking. Shauna is claiming to possess the power of: telepathy.
After corrective eye surgery, patients blind from birth have the greatest difficulty in visually distinguishing between stimuli that differ in: shape.
After watching a scary television movie, Julie perceived the noise of the wind rattling her front windows as the sound of a burglar breaking into her house. Her mistaken interpretation best illustrates the influence of: perceptual set.
The perceived lightness of an object depends on relative luminance. This provides an illustration of: context effects.
One explanation of ESP is selective: Recall.
Inattentional blindness and sensory adaptation are both situations where: Individuals no longer respond to the presence of something.
Most people use the same cues to see groups of figures. This suggests that: Natural selection has influenced our perception of organization.
Watching one baby's response to the visual cliff might be a ____, whereas watching several babies as they interact with their mothers might be a _____. Case study, naturalistic observation.
Of the following, which would be most interesting to someone interested in psychodynamic processes? What image people see when looking at a figure/ground illusion in relation to their internal conflicts.
v=In the historical controversy over the dynamics of perception, ________ was to nature as ________ was to nurture. Kant, Locke.
A perceptual set is a: mental predisposition that influences what we perceive.
Figure is to ground as ________ is to ________. a white cloud; blue sky.
The tendency to hear the steady drip of a leaky sink faucet as if it were a repeating rhythm of two or more beats best illustrates: perceptual organization.
If Jill carefully watches Eduard as he runs directly toward her, she will experience a(n): increase in retinal disparity and an increase in convergence.
Face recognition is especially attuned to the eyes and: mouth.
Shape constancy refers to our perception of an object as unchanging in shape regardless of changes in the: angle from which we view the object.
If all the following oncoming vehicles were traveling at the same speed, which would most likely be perceived as moving the most slowly? train.
When visually deprived infant monkeys were first allowed to see, they could not visually distinguish: circles from squares.
In the video 'Blindsight', research participants with normal vision engage in an experimental simulation of blindsight using: radar signals.
When Helen noticed that her classmates were all wearing expensive designer jeans, she suddenly perceived her own offbrand jeans to be very unattractive. This best illustrates the importance of: context effects.
The tendency to see all the individual spokes in a bicycle wheel as part of a larger single unit best illustrates the principle of: connectedness.
Lenore had been blind from birth. Immediately after corrective eye surgery, she could visually perceive figure-ground relationships. This fact would serve to support the position advanced by: Kant.
A floating sea vessel is to the ocean water as ________ is to ________. figure; ground.
Rhonda is repeatedly laughed at for seeing XX XX XX XX as 8 X's. She is not laughed at when she reports seeing four pairs of X's. In effect, Rhonda's perception of: Similarity is being punished unless she reports the "correct" answer.
Few, if any, people can see both images of a reversible figure at the same time. This suggests that the ability to distinguish between figure and group: Natural selection has influenced this trait.
Delta waves are linked to synchronicity in the activity of neurons in the: Cerebral cortex.
You notice that what people see depends on what they expect to see. A scientist would be concerned that your discovery is a reflection of: Occipital
Because she mistakenly thought she was much closer to the mountain than she actually was, Fiona perceived the mountain to be ________ than it actually was. smaller
Which of the following cues is most essential to the perception of depth in the visual cliff? texture gradient.
It has been suggested that experience with the corners of buildings and the rectangular shapes of a carpentered world may contribute to: the MüllerLyer illusion.
Sensation is to _____ as perception is to _____. detection, interpretation.
Having been laughed at repeatedly for not seeing what others see, a student rapidly learns to adjust their perceptual set to be consistent with that of others. This modification of perceptual set would be most interesting to: behaviorists.
In the Müller-Lyer illusion, the line enclosed in an outward-pointing arrowhead is perceived as ______ than the line enclosed in an inward-pointing arrowhead. longer.
Information from the left visual field ends up on the Right side of both eyes.
Information from the left eye Goes to both sides of the brain.
Eye movements are controlled By the superior colliculus.
___may be caused by the same gene that causes_____ dyslexia, albinism
The ability to recognize your mother regardless of where she is standing in relation to you is dependent on complex cell
How many different types of rods are there? 1.
Yellow is the product of Red and green
In additive mixing, red and green make____. In subtractive mixing, these colors make___. Yellow, orange.
Negative afterimages, like that of the green flag, are consistent with what theory of vision? Opponent process.
One reason that things look differently at night than they do during the day is Rods do not detect red light.
Which of the following is not another name for "good form"? Continuity.
In general, The farther an object is, the less space it takes up on the retina.
In general, The farther an object is, the less space it takes up on the retina.
Objects that are high in the visual field Tend to be farther away than objects that are lower in the field.
Objects that are close to you have a much___lense. thicker.
We see the hill where the trees cannot be separated as behind the one where they can be because of height in field.
The inability to separate individual trees on the far hill shows the effect of Perspective.
The difference between the images on the retina is large when what you are looking at is... Close to you.
The further something is from you The more parallel the eyes are.
Horizontal and amacrine cells are important for contrast.
According to Gestalt psychologists, people organize their perceptions based on certain rules.
Perception is influenced by sensory processes, results from neural activities in the brain, results from stimulation of sensory organs, is the interpretation of sensory information. all of the above
You see it one way, someone else sees it differently. Who's correct? There may be more than one correct answer.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-11-19



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