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Mrs. D Archaeology

Archaeology Unit

Who created the use of AD/BC to count time? The Roman monk Dionysius Exguus in 525 AD/CE
What does the initials AD and BC stand for? AD is Anno Domini which is Latin for "In the year of our Lord" and BC stands for "Before Christ".
What event was used to separate time from counting "backward" and "forward"? The birth of Christ because religion was important to the Romans at this time in history.
Which time period are we in right now and how does it count (forward or backward)? We are in AD/CE time and it counts forward (1, 2, 3, etc.)or left to right.
In what way does BC time count? "Backward" or right to left so the larger numbers are to the left, counting up to "smaller" numbers (500BC, 499, 498, 497, etc.)
What are other terms that are being used to describe AD/BC today? CE and BCE (which were terms that were actually created in the 1700's believe it or not!)
What do the terms CE and BCE stand for? CE stands for "Common Era" and BCE stands for "Before Common Era" but the way time is divided has stayed the same.
in 1582 AD/CE our calendar changed to what type of calendar? The Gregorian calendar which added an extra day every 4 years (leap year).
How long is the solar year? 365 1/4 days long
What is Archaeology? The study of material remains of people of the past (known as artifacts).
What are artifacts? Things that are made by people.
Are bones an example of an artifact? No, but items that have been carved from bone would be considered an artifact.
Name some examples of artifacts. pottery, tools, writing, art, buildings, jewelry, etc.
Where do we find artifacts? in the ground or under water.
What is a primary source? A source of information from the past that was created during the actual time period.
Name some primary sources. bones, artifacts, photographs, diaries, newspaper articles, etc.
What is a secondary source? Secondary sources are when someone recreates or uses primary sources to study about the past but the item was not actually created in the time period.
What are two forms that sources can be found? Written and non-written
What is an example of a written source? Newspapers, diaries, hieroglyphs, tombs, tablets, songs, letters, books, etc. (anything with writing)
Give some examples of non-written sources. fossils, pottery, jewelry, clothing, buildings, statues, etc. (anything without writing).
What is a culture's oral tradition? Their myths, legends, and beliefs passed down by word of mouth through generations.
What is classic archaeology? Like treasure hunting, excavators were looking for valuable items from the past rather than preserving information from the past.
What was a consequence of classic archaeology? Many items that were not thought valuable were destroyed so we lost the opportunity to learn about the past.
Modern archaeology Using a systematic way to excavate a site to get all the items and information from the site without damaging the items or the site.
What do you call it when archaeologist grid the site and and dig down each section? The archaeological record
What is kitchen midden? Ancient trash heaps that help give archaeologists information about a group's diet, daily activity and contact with other cultures.
What are some tools modern archaeologists use to study the past? CAT scan machines, computers, Sonars, and other high tech equipment to help them get all the information about the past.
What are some other scientists that archaeologist might rely on to help them learn about the past? botanists (study plants), zoologists (study animals), cryptographers (study writing), dendrochronologists (date wooded items by matching the tree rings), paleontologists (study bones), etc.
What is cultural dating? When archaeologists compare objects they find with information they already have to try to decide how old the object is?
Give an example of cultural dating. When archaeologists find a coin with pictures on it they can compare the pictures of other coins or items from that area to find out how old the item is.
What are the two types of cultural dating? absolute and relative
What is absolute dating? A form of cultural dating when the archaeologist can give the age of an item in years.
What is relative dating? A form of cultural dating when the archaeologist can only decide if an item is older than or newer than another item.
What is scientific dating? When the age of an item is determined more accurately in a lab.
What is dendrochronology? Tree ring dating-used to date an item made of wood. This is the oldest form of scientific dating, going back to the 1700's.
What is radiocarbon dating? A type of scientific dating used on objects that were once living. It measures the amount of carbon left in the item. This process is used for items between 1,000 and 60,000 years old.
What is potassium-argon dating? A type of scientific dating used to measure items that are older. The process measures the levels of potassium and argon (two elements) found in the rock surrounding the item. This process could be used for items that are more than 500,000 years old.
What is an archaeologist to? Someone who studies people from the past through the artifacts they have left behind.
What is excavation? The process of digging up an archaeological site.
What is culture? A group of people living in the same geographic area that share the same way of life (including language, art, traditions, religion, government, ideas, etc.)
What is history? The study of the past.
What is prehistory (prehistoric)? The time before man had a written record of its history.
Created by: mdavis