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macro/micro/normo

anemia

QuestionAnswer
What does RPI stand for? Reticulocyte Production Index
What are the 3 morphological classifications of anemia? Microcytic/Hypochromic Macrocytic/Normochromic Normocytic/Normochromic
What are the 2 basic pathophysiological causes of anemia? Increased destruction Decreased production
What does RDW stand for? Red Cell Distribution Width
The RDW indicates 1) The degree of anisocytosis 2) The degree of poikilocytosis 3) Both Both, however, anisocytosis is the main component. In the event there are many different types of poiks, the RDW will increase due to their variation in size.
A slide stained with New Methylene Blue will help to distinguish reticulocytes from other cells. How? The remnant RNA (or reticulum) that is left in the retic will stain bright blue. (Mature RBC's do not contain RNA)
Hemoglobin A is composed of _______. 2 Alpha and 2 Beta chains
Hemoglobin F is composed of _______. 2 Alpha and 2 Gamma chains
Hemoglobin A2 is composed of _______. 2 Alpha and 2 Delta chains
How many globin chains are in a hemoglobin molecule? 4 Normal hemoglobin molecules are made of 2 alpha globin chains and either 2 beta, delta or gamma globin chains.
How many heme molecules are in a hemoglobin molecule? 4 One heme molecule for each globin chain.
What are globin chains made of? Amino acids liked together forming a polypeptide chain.
The anemias that develop from improperly made globin chains are collectively called_____. Hemoglobinopathies
How many iron molecules can one hemoglobin molecule carry? 4 One on each heme molecule.
Hemoglobinopathies are considered 1) Quantitative globin defects 2) Qualitative globin defects 2) Qualitative globin defects There are plenty of globin chains being made, but they are being made incorrectly.
Thalassemias are considered 1) Quantitative globin defects 2) Qualitative globin defects 1) Quantitative globin defects The globin chains are being made correctly, but the rate of synthesis is decreased.
What are the 2 types of thalassemias? What is the difference? Alpha thalassemia and Beta thalassemia. Alpha thal has a decreased rate of synthesis of alpha globin chains, but normal rate of beta chains. Beta thal has a decreased rate of synthesis of beta chains, but normal rate of alpha chains.
How many alpha genes are missing from alpha thalassemia minor? What does this mean for the rate of synthesis? There is only one gene missing. The rate of synthesis for alpha chains will only be slightly decreased.
How many alpha genes are missing from alpha thalassemia trait? What does this mean for the rate of synthesis? There are two alpha genes missing. The rate of synthesis for alpha chains will be moderately decreased. The body will try to compensate by making some hgb molecules with 4 beta chains. (Hgb H)
How many alpha genes are missing from alpha thalassemia major? What does this mean for the rate of synthesis? There are three alpha genes missing. The rate of synthesis for alpha chains will be severely decreased resulting in Hgb H disease. (Most hemoglobin molecules will be made with 4 beta chains)
What effect does lead poisoning have on the hgb molecule? It will cause defects in heme synthesis resulting in the inability of iron to enter the heme molecule.
What is the lab picture of lead poisoning? If it is not caught soon enough what kind of permanent damage can occur? There will be a mild anemia with micro/hypo RBCs. Basophilic stippling will be noted. FEP will be increased. Patient can develop permanent CNS damage.
An increase in Free Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin and Zinc Protoporphyrin indicates what? Iron molecules are unable to attach to protoporphyrin, thus there is an excess in the blood. This is seen in IDA, ACD, lead poisoning and Sideroblastic Anemia.
What are the 4 most common reasons for Iron Deficient Anemia? Nutritional deficiency (poor diet) Faulty or incomplete absorption (bowel resection, genetic factors) An increase in demand (pregnancy, growth spurt) Excessive loss (heavy menstruation, internal bleeding)
What is the most common cause of IDA in men? What can this indicate? Gastrointestinal bleeding. Indicative of colon cancer.
What is the most common cause of IDA in women? Heavy menstrual bleeding.
What are the 3 stages of IDA? 1) Iron levels being to deplete. Serum iron and TIBC (indirect measure of transferrin) will be normal. Ferritin will begin decreasing. 2)
What lab values will differentiate IDA and Sideroblastic Anemia? Serum Iron and Ferritin IDA-low iron and ferritin Sideroblastic-normal to increased iron and normal ferritin
Which anemia can cause pica? IDA
What is the morph picture of IDA? Microcytic/Hypochromic May see targets and some anisocytosis.
Is sideroblastic anemia caused by a lack of iron or the inability of iron to enter the heme molecule? The inability of iron to enter the heme molecule.
If IDA is successfully treated what will the initial morph picture be? A dimorphic population of cells.
What are the treatment options for people with IDA? Iron therapy, or in severe cases transfusion.
What is the morph picture of Sideroblastic Anemia? Microcytic/Hypochromic with targets, ringed sideroblasts, basophilic stippling and possibly a dimorphic population.
What causes ACD? Anemia of Chronic Disease results from inflammation, infection or malignancy.
What will the morph be of Beta Thalassemia Trait? (Heterozygous) A mild micro/hypo anemia with slight amt of targets and basophilic stippling.
A homozygous beta thalassemia is also known as what? Beta Thalassemia Major or Cooley's Anemia
What happens to RBCs in beta thalassemia major? Alpha chains precipitate and damage the rbc membrane.
What type of thalassemia is transfusion dependent? Beta Thalassemia Major (Cooley's Anemia)
What is the rate of migration for the following? Hgb C Hgb S Hgb F Hgb A Hgb C = crawl Hgb S = slow Hgb F = fast Hgb A = accelerate
What disease occurs from hemoglobin S? Sickle Cell Anemia
Created by: moriah.jacy on 2010-11-06



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