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First Civilizations

Study Guide to Chapter 1

Empire A group of many different lands under one ruler
Nebuchadnezzar Chaldean king who built the Hanging Gardens. Ruled all of Mesopotamia
Assyrians People who had the first large army to use iron weapons
Babylon The center of the Chaldean Empire
Caravan Group of traveling Merchants
Sumerian Inventions Plow, wheel, sailboat, cuneiform, writing, and ziggurants
Domestication Taming an naimal or plant for use by humans
Trade to exchange goods with others helping to spread ideas around the world
Nomads People who move from place to place on a regular basis
Artifacts Things made by humans long ago
Archaeologist Person who studies artifacts and fossils to understand the past.
Catal Huyuk One of the oldest cities in present day turkey
Farming Important event in human history, People were able to grow their own crops, settle in one place, trade with others
Tigris and Euphrates Two rivers running through Mesopotamia
Middle Class Artisans, merchants, farmers, and fisherman
Historians People who study and write about the human past
Fossils Any evidence of past life (plants or animals) preserved in the rocks
Ice Age Period of imte when great sheets of ice covered parts of the earth
Bronze Mixture of copper and tin
Jericho One of the oldest known cities
Mud Bricks Building material for homes
Hittites Developed a way of making iron stonger
Mesopotamia Area of the middle east known as the "cradle of civilization". Climae is how and dry.
Epic A long poem about a hero
Paleolithic "Old Stone Age"
Irrigation A way of bringing water to crops by building dams, walls and ditches
Artisans Skilled workers who made metal products, cloth, and pottery
Hammurabi Leader famous for his law code
Cuneiform System of writing used by the Sumerians
Nineveh Center of Chaldean Empire and site of one of the oldest libraries
Gilgemesh A hero of an epic who travels and the world performing great deeds
scribes record keepers who went on to become government officials
neolithic New Stone Age
ziggurat A grand temple with a shrine at the top
Sargon King of the Akkadians who conquered all of Mesopotamia
Astronomers People who study heavenly bodies
Created by: Twowicks