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psychchapter2

psych chapter 2

QuestionAnswer
The nervous system is designed for: Rapid, brief responses.
Hormones are released by the___system whereas pheromones are released by the___system. endocrine, exocrine.
The soma of a neuron is similar to: A nucleus in that it contains DNA.
Excitatory Post Synaptic Potential___dendrites. Depolarize
Action potentials occur in the: Axon.
Presynaptic membrane is another name for___. The postsynaptic membrane is____a neuron. Terminal button: sometimes.
Axodendritic synapses____the odds that the____will fire. None of the above, transmits the message on.
Which might represent the central nervous system? Which might represent the peripheral nervous system? The computer. The wire going between the printer and the computer.
The top part of the brain has been linked to___. The bottom part of the brain has been linked to____. Consciousness. Keeping the organism alive.
Frontal cortex is to____as temporal is to____. Think, sound.
sympathetic is to___as parasympathetic is to____. fight or flight, relative calm.
Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the medulla.
The body's natural production of endorphins is likely to be decreased by heroin use and increased by vigorous exercise.
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your heart muscles by the autonomic nervous system.
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to lapse into a coma.
A failure to recognize that one's arm or leg is part of one's self is most likely to be associated with damage to the right hemisphere.
The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a(n) action potential.
Reuptake refers to the reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
A laboratory cat could be made to twitch its whiskers by direct stimulation of the ________ lobes of its cerebral cortex. frontal.
The parietal lobes are to ________ as the occipital lobes are to ________. sensing touch; seeing.
Recording electrodes are placed directly on the scalp to produce a(n) eeg.
To trigger a person's hand to make a fist, José Delgado stimulated the individual's motor cortex.
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the sympathetic nervous system.
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most likely to have difficulty playing his guitar.
A slap on the back is more painful than a pat on the back because a slap triggers more neurons to fire, and to fire more often.
A picture of a cat is briefly flashed in the left visual field and a picture of a mouse is briefly flashed in the right visual field of a splitbrain patient. The individual will be able to use her right hand to indicate she saw a mouse.
Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the brainstem.
Aaron consistently exhibits a knee-jerk response without having any sensations of the taps on his knees. Aaron's experience is most indicative of a severed spinal cord.
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.
The motor cortex is responsible for: language production.
Broca's and Wernicke's areas are found on the cerebral cortex.
The organization of the nervous system has been influenced by the process of: natural selection.
Plasticity and neurogenesis typically occur in the central nervous system, not the peripheral nervous system. This suggests that the organization of the central nervous system is Less heritable than that of the peripheral nervous system.
Subjects who have had their corpus callosum cut are compared with people whose corpus is intact to see if there is a difference in the ability to memorize words. The ability to memorize words is the: dependent variable.
there is more variability in the amount of neurotransmitter released into a synapse within the central nervous system than the amount released into a similar synapse within the peripheral nervous system. This would be indicated by the size of the: standard deviation.
A psychiatrist is most interested in which of the following? neurotransmitters.
The effect of a lesion in the motor cortex on the ability to move the left hand would be most interesting to a: behaviorist.
A race car driver participates in a very competitive race. The part of his brain that enables him to plan a strategy to win the race is the frontal lobe.
If someone has difficulty understanding spoken language, he or she may have damage to Wernicke's area.
An axon is polarized when the inside of the axon is electrically negative with respect to the outside.
Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by damage to your thalamus.
People's failure to recognize themselves in a mirror is most likely to be associated with damage to the right cerebral hemisphere.
physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory stimulation quickly returned to normal. however, he could no longer figure out how to find his way around his neighborhood. It is most likely that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his association areas.
Damage to the association areas in the frontal lobe is most likely to interfere with the ability to formulate plans.
The sympathetic nervous system inhibits digestion and accelerates heartbeat.
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers would be most likely to make use of a(n) fMRI.
The localization of a function such as speech production to the right or left side of the brain is called lateralization.
The brain is most likely to compensate for a loss of neurons by generating new brain cells.
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in which positively charged ions are pumped back outside a neural membrane.
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the myelin sheath.
The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________. seeing; hearing.
When Stoyka was a child, a brain disease required the surgical removal of her left cerebral hemisphere. Stoyka is now a successful college student who lives a normal life. Her success best illustrates the importance of plasticity.
The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the endocrine system.
Jason's intensely uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms following heroin use were probably due in part to a reduction in his body's normal production of endorphins.
The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________. breathing; walking.
The parasympathetic nervous system is to the sympathetic nervous system as ________ is to ________. lowering of blood sugar; raising of blood sugar.
If primed with the flashed word foot, the ________ hemisphere will be especially quick to recognize the word heel. If primed with foot, cry, and glass, the ________ hemisphere will be especially quick to recognize the word cut. left, right.
Babbling requires the use of the: motor cortex.
_____, which suppress the experience of pain, are likely to impact activity in the part of the brain linked to the body senses, the ____ lobes. opiates, parietal.
An aggressive temperament, reflecting the effect of _____ might be associated with activity in the ____. genes, almygdala.
Biological psychology emphasizes the importance of ______, whereas evolutionary psychology focuses on the importance of _____. nurture(experience), nature(inheritance)
Subjects who have had their corpus callosum cut are compared with people whose corpus is intact to see if there is a difference in the ability to memorize words. The group that they are in (cut or uncut corpus callosum) is the: independent variable.
A study finds that, the more neural activity there is in the cerebral cortex during an event, the more likely is that someone will remember that event. This is an example of: a correlation.
In attempting to learn about the relationship between neural activity and mental health in an effort to develop a cure for mental illness, one would be engaged in: applied research.
Which level of analysis is linked to studies of the role of the amygdala in aggressive behavior? biopsychosocial.
A picture of a woman on the telephone was briefly flashed in the left visual field of Vicki, a splitbrain patient. In order to indicate that she had actually seen the telephone, Vicki used her ________ hand to ________. left, write the word "telephone"
The part of the cerebral cortex that controls voluntary muscle movements is the motor cortex.
The left hemisphere of a split-brain patient receives visual input only from the ________ visual field of ________. right; both right and left eyes.
Left-handedness is ________ common than usual among mathematicians and ________ common than usual among artists. more; more.
The reticular formation extends from the spinal cord up to the thalamus.
A football quarterback can simultaneously make calculations of receiver distances, player movements, and gravitational forces. This best illustrates the activity of multiple neural networks.
The surgical removal of a large tumor from Dane's occipital lobe resulted in extensive loss of brain tissue. Dane is most likely to suffer some loss of visual perception.
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communities, it is most necessary to recognize that people are biopsychosocial systems.
The process of anticipating that you will be punished for misbehaving takes place in the association areas.
Botulin poisoning from improperly canned food causes paralysis by blocking the release of acetylcholine.
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron. dendrites to the cell body to the axon.
An amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the surface of the brain is called a(n) eeg.
Visual information processing in the temporal lobe of Deaf people whose native language is sign best illustrates plasticity.
Brain plasticity may contribute to the effectiveness of constraint-induced therapy.
The person most likely to suggest that the shape of a person's skull indicates the extent to which that individual is argumentative and aggressive would be a phrenologist.
The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere best illustrates lateralization.
The ability to simultaneously copy different figures with the right and left hand is most characteristic of those whose ________ has been cut. corpus callosum.
Motor neurons are an important part of the peripheral nervous system.
Marion Diamond, who seen freezes and slices sections of rat brain cortex, has observed that removing the ________ of newly born rats facilitates the development of ________ hemisphere(s) of their brains. ovaries; the right.
During depolarization, ________ molecules rush into the axon; during repolarization, ________ molecules rush out of the axon. sodium; potassium.
People's moral judgments are most likely to seem unrestrained by normal emotions if they have suffered damage to their frontal cortex.
Suppose that a speech synthesizer could produce specific words when signaled by the brain activation patterns involved when a person merely thinks about these words. This would be an illustration of neural prosthetics.
The secretions of the pituitary gland are most directly regulated by the hypothalamus.
One stroke patient was put to work cleaning tables, with his good arm and hand restrained. Slowly, the bad arm recovered its skills. He gradually learned to write again and even to play tennis. This best illustrates the value of plasticity.
Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the sensory cortex? lips.
One function of glial cells is to provide nutrients to interneurons.
An allornone response pattern is characteristic of the initiation of neural impulses.
The venom of the black widow spider causes violent muscle contractions by accelerating the release of acetylcholine.
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as endorphins.
An undersupply of serotonin is most closely linked to depression.
Animal research has revealed a general reward system that triggers the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs? sensory cortex.
Which technique allows us to see activity in the brain as people speak? Functional magnetic resonance imaging.
Subjects who have had their corpus callosum cut are compared with people whose corpus is intact to see if there is a difference in the ability to memorize words. The ability to memorize words is the: dependent variable.
When we say that the sensory cortex is responsible for organizing information from the body, we are using which approach to psychology? functionalist.
A simulated MRI scan of the brain indicates that looking at a grid of black and white lines produces the most activity in the central areas of the ______ lobe. occipital.
Which of the following are functions of the cerebellum? coordinate balance and movement.
Right-handed split-brain patients are able to name unseen objects placed in their right hands but not objects placed in their left hands.
The sensory cortex is located in the ________ lobes. parietal.
A monkey with electrodes implanted in its brain is able to move a computer cursor simply by thinking about the move. This best illustrates the potential value of neural prosthetics.
For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your leg muscles. motor neurons.
To fully appreciate the interaction of neural activity, mental processes, and the functioning of human communities, it is most necessary to recognize that people are biopsychosocial systems.
Which of the following body parts is associated with the greatest amount of brain tissue in the motor cortex? face.
The body's own natural production of endorphins is likely to be suppressed by heroin usage.
Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the processing of new memories? hippocampus.
Alana suffered a brain disease that destroyed major portions of her temporal lobes. Alana is most likely to suffer some loss of auditory perception.
The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the medulla.
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is to use a(n) mri.
The inability to recognize familiar faces even though one can clearly see and describe features of the faces is associated with damage to the right ________ lobe. temporal.
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should electrically stimulate the rat's amygdalla.
José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of pain is most likely caused by the release of endorphins.
You come home one night to find a burglar in your house. Your heart starts racing and you begin to perspire. These physical reactions are triggered by the sympathetic nervous system.
The temporal lobe is important for interpreting spoken words.
Because the organization of the brains of identical twins is more similar than that of fraternal twins, it suggests that: controlled by genes.
There is a positive correlation between the amount of a hormone released by the pituitary gland and the amount of hormone released by the adrenal gland. This means that: With less pituitary hormone, there is less adrenal hormone.
A clinical psychologist would be most interested in which brain area? the frontal lobes.
The human nervous system is composed of billions of neurons that communicate by electrical impulses.
An excitatory postsynaptic potential ______ a target neuron, and an inhibitory postsynaptic potential ______ a target neuron. depolarizes; hyperpolarizes.
Anions are ________ charged molecules located ________ the axon. negatively; inside.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream.
After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers. This best illustrates plasticity.
At the age of 22, Mrs. LaBlanc was less than 4 feet tall. Her short stature was probably influenced by the lack of a growth hormone produced by the pituitary gland.
The sequence of brain regions from the evolutionarily oldest to newest is brainstem, limbic system, cerebral cortex.
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal functioning of your cerebral cortex.
Compared with right-handers, left-handers are more likely to experience migraine headaches and more likely to suffer from allergies.
If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release ________ into your bloodstream. epinephrine.
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a single neuron. dendrites to the cell body to the axon.
Nature is to nurture as: Behavior genetics is to biological psychology.
Subjects in the effects of a drug on neurotransmitter reuptake are given either an inert substance or the drug. If they receive the drug, the subjects are in what would be considered the: experimental group.
A psychologist destroys various parts of the thalamus in an effort to learn what this does to the ability of a rat to learn its way through a maze. This is an example of: basic research.
A drug that mimics the effects of a particular neurotransmitter or blocks its reuptake is called a(n) agonist.
The resting potential of an axon results from the fact that an axon membrane is selectively permeable.
People who can hear usually process spoken language with the ________ hemisphere. Deaf people usually process sign language with the ________ hemisphere. left; left.
What will most likely happen as a neurosurgeon sedates the entire right cerebral hemisphere of a right-handed patient who is asked to count aloud with both arms extended upward? The patient's left arm will fall limp but he will continue counting aloud.
The process of comparing currently experienced visual input with past visual memories takes place in association areas.
Neurotransmitter receptor sites are primarily located on the dendrites.
A brain tumor caused extensive damage to Mr. Thorndike's hypothalamus. It is most likely that he may suffer a loss of sexual motivation.
Endorphins are neurotransmitters.
Which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath? axon.
Cognitive insights are likely to result from activity in the: right hemisphere of the cerebral cortex.
Psychoactive drugs have their primary effect on the: central nervous system.
If the heritability of a trait is high, it suggests that there is little _____ the neural structures controlling that behavior. plasticity in.
Subjects in the effects of a drug on neurotransmitter reuptake are given either an inert substance or the drug. If they receive the inert substance, the subjects are in what would be considered the: control group.
Explorations of the role of interneurons in behavior are consistent with which approach to psychology? functionalism.
The nucleus accumbens is the center of a(n) ________ circuit that is active in both hunger for food and pleasurable stimulation from addictive drugs. dopamine.
Following frontal lobe damage, Joe cannot avoid making unwise gambling decisions. This problem appears most strongly related to his inability to experience mental categories composed of similar objects.
Paralysis triggered by botulin poisoning is most likely to be relieved by a(n) ACh agonist.
An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures. GABA.
A picture of a dog is briefly flashed in the left visual field of a split-brain patient. At the same time a picture of a boy is flashed in the right visual field. In identifying what she saw, the patient would be most likely to verbally report that she saw a boy.
To predict the hand preference of newborn infants, you would be best advised to observe how they turn their heads.
Which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath? axon.
Prozac is an antidepressant drug that increases the level of the neurotransmitter serotonin.
Neurotransmitters bind to receptor sites and influence the flow of ________ into receiving neurons. electrically charged atoms.
Conscious information processing is LEAST likely to be required for the automatic physical survival functions regulated by the brainstem.
Neural networks refer to interrelated clusters of neurons in the central nervous system.
The neurons of the central nervous system cluster into work groups known as neural networks.
In a recent car accident, Tamiko sustained damage to his right cerebral hemisphere. This injury is most likely to reduce Tamiko's ability to facially portray emotions.
If an individual's right cerebral hemisphere is completely destroyed by disease, that person is unable to see anything in his or her left field of vision.
The parasympathetic nervous system stimulates digestion and slows heartbeat.
Hypnosis is most likely to produce changes in neural activity within the: central nervous system.
Stimulant drugs like amphetamines, that tend to increase attention and alertness, are likely to influence the: reticular formation.
Cultural differences in personal space suggest that the neurons that control where we position ourselves relative to others are: Relatively plastic, reflecting the effects of experience more than genes.
Someone interested in cognitive neuroscience might also be interested in: the central nervous system.
Which technique involves the use of magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computergenerated images of the brain's soft tissues? MRI
The reuptake of a neurotransmitter such as serotonin would involve the reabsorption of serotonin into a(n) axon terminal.
Stimulation of the reticular formation will cause a sleeping cat to awaken.
Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back? parietal
Alzheimer’s disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine.
Neurosurgeons have severed the corpus callosum in human patients in order to reduce epileptic seizures.
Information from higher brain regions is transmitted to the medulla through the thalamus.
Phineas Gage underwent a dramatic personality change after a tamping iron inflicted massive damage to his ________ lobes frontal.
Hypnosis is most likely to produce changes in neural activity within the: central nervous system.
A psychologist destroys various parts of the thalamus in an effort to learn what this does to the ability of a rat to learn its way through a maze. This is an example of: basic research.
Explorations of the role of interneurons in behavior are consistent with which approach to psychology? functionalism.
The release of a neurotransmitter from vesicles in an axon terminal into a synaptic gap is called exocytosis.
The selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a resting potential.
Morphine functions as a(n) endorphin agonist.
Deaf people who use sign language typically process language in their left cerebral hemisphere.
In which brain structure are nerves from the left side of the brain routed to the right side of the body? brainstem.
If Professor Kosiba lesions the amygdala of a laboratory rat, the rat will most likely become less agressive.
By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a robotic arm. This best illustrates neural prosthetics.
Testosterone is a _____ that influences the development of external sex organs and _____. hormone, neurogenesis.
The hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus are all part of the limbic system.
An undersupply of GABA is most closely linked to insomnia.
One explanation for why animals do not use language as we do is that they lack the necessary: cortical areas.
The tremors of Parkinson’s disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Auditory stimulation is first processed in the ________ lobes. temporal.
The activity of the hypothalamus most directly influences thirst.
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n) action potential.
To identify which of Lucy's brain areas was most active when she talked, neuroscientists gave her a temporarily radioactive form of glucose and a(n) PET scan.
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex? thalamus.
James Olds and Peter Milner discovered that rats would willingly cross an electrified floor in order to electrically stimulate areas within their hypothalamus.
Curare is a paralyzing poison that functions as a(n) ACH antagonist.
Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the hypothalamus.
The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with the activation of areas in their temporal lobes.
The occipital lobe is important for: interpreting written words.
one group of adult rats was placed in an “enriched” environment, the other group in individual barren laboratory cages. The researchers found that, compared to the brains of the “deprived” rats, those of rats living in enriched environments had more neural connections.
Which of the following areas of the human brain contains the greatest amount of brain tissue? frontal lobes.
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter dopamine.
Information travels from the spinal cord to the brain via interneurons.
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is an all-or-none response.
After three hours of playing a physically exhausting professional tennis match, Chitra began to experience feelings of exhilaration and pleasure. It is likely that her feelings were most directly linked to the release of endorphins.
Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an oversupply of glutamate.
Mental set, functional fixedness, the representativeness heuristic and similar processes are likely to reflect activity in the: frontal lobes.
Dreaming is likely to be associated with activity in which lobe of the cortex? occipital.
Because culture does not seem to influence the role of the limbic system in emotion, it is thought that what these organs do is: controlled by genes.
There is a negative correlation between the amount of a hormone released by the pituitary gland and the amount of hormone released by the adrenal gland. This means that: With more pituitary hormone, there is less adrenal hormone
A researcher finds that there is more neurotransmitter released into a synapse within the central nervous system than the amount released into a similar synapse within the peripheral nervous system. This would be indicated by the size of the: mean.
As a result of an aneurism that damaged his frontal lobe, Bill, a law school graduate, experiences the greatest difficulty in planning for the future.
In the video 'Brain Reorganization: Phantom Limb Sensations', Derek reports sensations in his phantom left hand when stroked on his left cheek.
When Dirk was stung by a bee, the pain message was transmitted to his spinal cord by the ________ nervous system. peripheral.
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the movement of your arms when you write is the somatic nervous system.
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system. peripheral.
The visual cortex is activated when blind people read Braille. This best illustrates plasticity.
The reabsorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron is called reuptake.
Direct stimulation of the motor cortex would most likely result in movement of the mouth and lips.
The limbic system structure that influences aggression and fear is the amygdala.
Some researchers believe that binge eating may be linked to binge eating.
Given the relationship between thought and language, and the location of language within the brain, it seems reasonable to conclude that thought results from activity within the: cerebral cortex.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-10-28



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