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Microbiology Combo

Tortora Chapter Q&As from Ch. 16,17& 21-26

QuestionAnswer
Innate immunity is The body's ability to ward off diseases
Physical factors to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection Layers of cells, Tears and Saliva
The function of the "ciliary escalator"is to Remove microorganisms from the lower respiratory tract
Exhibits the highest phagocytic activity Neutrophils
Characteristics of inflammation Redness, pain, local heat and swelling.
The following can be determined from a differential count The number of white blood cells, The numbers of each type of white blood cell and The possibility of a state of disease.
The complement protein cascade is the same for the classical pathway, alternative pathway, and lectin pathway beginning with the activation of C3
Causes of vasodilation Kinins, Prostaglandins and histamine
The following choices shows the order in which white blood cells migrate to infected tissues Neutrophils & Monocytes
"margination" refers to Adherence of phagocytes to the lining of blood vessels.
The following statement is true Alpha-interferon acts against specific viruses
Normally found in serum Complement
Effects of complement activation Interference with viral replication, bacterial cell lysis, opsonization and Increased phagocytic activity
An effect of opsonization Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms
Normal microbiota provide protection from infection by all of the following They provide antibacterial chemicals, They make the chemical environment unsuitable for nonresident bacteria and They produce lysozyme
Provides protection from phagocytic digestion Killing white blood cells, Lysing phagolysosomes, and ability to grow at a low pH
Defensive cells such as T cells identify pathogens by binding Complement
A chemical factor to protect the skin and mucous membranes from infection Sebum, Gastric juices,pH and Lysozyme
Fixed macrophages They are found in certain tissues and organs, They are cells of the mononuclear phagocytic system and They are mature monocytes
Adherence of phagocytes may be accomplished by all of the following Complement, Trapping a bacterium against a rough surface, opsonization and chemotaxis
An effect of histamine Vasodilation, swelling, redness and pain
A function of inflammation To destroy an injurious agent, To wall off an injurious agent and to repair damaged tissue
Chill is a sign that Body temperature is rising
The following statement is true Complement activity is antigen specific
Complement fixation results in all of the following Activation of C3b, Immune adherence, acute local inflammation and cell lysis
The alternative pathway for complement activation is initiated by Polysaccharides and C3b
The classical pathway for complement activation is initiated by Antigen-antibody reaction
Activation of C3a results in Acute inflammation, Increased blood vessel permeability, fever and attraction of phagocytes
Neutrophils with defective lysosomes are unable to produce toxic oxygen products
Vasodilation is caused by all of the following Histamine, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes
Activation of C5-C9 results in Leakage of cell contents
Involved in adaptive immunity Basophil, eosinophil,monocyte and neutrophil
Involved in resistance to parasitic helminths Eosinophil
Macrophages arise from Monocytes
Which one of the following do not belong with the others Dendritic cells
Bacteria have siderophores that capture iron;humans counter this by Transferrin
Occur during inflammation. What is the first step Vasodilation
The lectin pathway for complement action is initiated by mannose of the parasite
effects of fever Increases production of T cells, Interferon activity, transferrin production
Several inherited deficiencies in the complement system occur in humans. Which one would be the most severe Deficiency of C3
The Classical pathway of complement activation C1 is the first protein activated in the classical pathway, the C1 protein complex is initiated by antigen-antibody complexes, Cleaved fragments of some of the proteins act to increase inflammation and C3b cause opsonization
Chlamydia trachoma tis can live inside white blood cells because it inhibits formation of phagolysosomes
Bacterial enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase can protect bacteria from phagocytic digestion
A subcutaneous infection resulting from epidermal damage is likely to contain staphylococci. True
Dendritic cells are phagocytic cells derived from monocytes True
The circulatory system and the lymphatic system are not connected in any way. False
Some microorganisms escape from the phagosome before fusing with the lysosome and are able to survive and grow within phagocytes. True
Infections that alter the differential white blood cell count do so by increasing the number of leukocytes. False
Neutrophils and eosinophils are the phagocytic granulocytes. True
If phagocytic cells are found in the tissues, they will be macrophages. False
Interferons can cure many viral infections, including the common cold False
Complement component C3b acts to increase adherence of phagocytes to microbes. True
For the complement cascade, only the classical pathway can result in cytolysis. False
Body fluids such as perspiration, tears, and saliva contain the enzyme __________, which breaks down the cell walls of gram-positive bacteria. lysozyme
White blood cells that are collectively referred to as __________ differentiate to form the blood cells, which engulf and destroy microbes. Phagocytes
Neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils are collectively referred to as __________. granulocytes
The process of coating bacteria with serum proteins to promote attachment of phagocytes is called __________. opsonization
Defensive cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells have __________ receptors on their surfaces that bind to molecular components on the surfaces of invading microorganisms. (1 word) toll-like
In phagocytosis, the phagosome and the __________ fuse to form phagolysosome. lysosome
Before entering the tissue, phagocytes stick to the lining of capillaries by a process known as __________. margination
Complement components C5 through C9 form plasma membrane channels in cellular microbes referred to as the __________. membrane attack complex
When blood is allowed to clot and the clot removed, the remaining liquid is referred to as __________. Serum
Body temperature, which can change because of infection, is controlled by a region of the brain known as the __________. hypothalamus
Which of these molecules or structures is not associated with innate immunity? antibodies
The epidermis ________. contains the protein keratin
The ID50 for many pathogens is significantly smaller when testing with gnotobiotic animals compared to animals with normal microbiota. This is likely due to ________. microbial antagonism
The respiratory system is protected against harmful microbes by all of the following except ________. the lacrimal apparatus
All of these statements about sebum are true Its metabolism can result in acne, It is secreted by sebaceous glands and It has antimicrobial properties. Accutane limits acne by preventing its formation.
One remarkable finding on a patient's laboratory workup is a marked eosinophilia. This might be suggestive of ________. either a parasitic infection or an allergic (hypersensitivity) reaction
part of the mononuclear phagocytic system alveolar macrophages wandering macrophages Kupffer's cells, and microglial cells
adherence of a phagocyte to a microbe A capsule limits adherence. Adherence is a critical step in phagocytosis. The M protein of Streptococcus pyogenes limits adherence. Complement molecules attached to the microbe can enhance adherence.
bacterial destruction by phagocytosis Myeloperoxidase in lysosomes is involved in the formation of HOCl.
The stage of phagocytosis in which the phagocyte's plasma membrane attaches to the surface of the microbe is called ________. adherence
Which answer is true of the inflammatory process Kinins cause increased capillary permeability. Edema occurs. Swelling occurs due to vasodilation and increased capillary permeability and Leukotrienes cause increased capillary permeability.
All of these answers are true of inflammation except ________. many neutrophils can be found at the site of chronic inflammation
. Activation of the complement cascade ________. can cause the infecting microbe to be killed by lysis
Complement can be activated by all of the following contact with a pathogen,antigen-antibody binding, mannose-binding lectins and opsonization
All of the following are true of nitric oxide (NO) excessive production can cause septic shock, it can cause relaxation of blood vessel smooth muscle,it can be produced by blood vessel endothelial cells and it can be produced by macrophages that have been induced to produce NO synthase
Assume you mix red blood cells, antibodies against the red blood cells, and complement in a test tube. What would you expect to see lysis of the red blood cells
All of the following are true of the classical pathway of complement activation C5b joins C6, C7, C8, and C9 to form the membrane attack complex,activated C1 activates C2 and C4,activated C2a and C4b activate C3 and C1 is activated by an antigen-antibody complex
Complement component C3, in the classical pathway, is split by ________. C2aC4b
Which of the following occurs first, setting in motion the remaining events? Toll-like receptors (TLRs) on macrophages and dendritic cells attach to pathogen-associated microbial patterns (PAMPS) on invading microorganisms.
Interferons ________. are host specific but not virus specific
End of Chapter 16 Chapter 17 Begins Here
Type of immunity resulting from vaccination Artificially acquired active immunity
Type of immunity resulting from transfer of antibodies from one individual to a susceptible individual by means of injection Artificially acquired passive immunity
Immunity resulting from recovery from mumps Naturally acquired active immunity
Newborns immunity due to the transfer of antibodies across the placenta Naturally acquired passive immunity
Immunity that is not due to antibodies Innate immunity
Immunity due to injection of tetanus toxoid Artificially acquired active immunity
Immunity due to injection of an antigen Artificially acquired active immunity
T cells are activated by Interaction between CD4 and MHC II
Recognizes antigens displayed on host cells with MHC II TH cell
The specificity of an antibody is due to The variable portions of the H and L chains.
Characteristic of B cells They originate in bone marrow, they have antibodies on their surfaces, they are responsible for the memory response, and they are responsible for antibody formation
Characteristic of cellular immunity The cells originate in bone marrow, cells are processed in the thymus gland and it can inhibit the immune response
Plasma cells are activated by a (n) antigen
The antibodies found in mucus,saliva, and tears are IgA
The antibodies found on B cells are IgD
The antibodies that can bind to large parasites are IgE
In addition to IgG, the antibodies that can fix complement are IgM
Large antibodies that agglutinate antigens are IgM
The most abundant class of antibodies in serum is IgG
The best definition of an antigen is A chemical that elicits an antibody response and can combine with these antibodies.
The best definition of an antibody is A protein made in response to an antigen that can combine with that antigen
Patients with an inherited type of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis have a mutation in the gene that codes for apoptosis
Chemical signals sent between leukocytes are Interleukins
Natural Killer cells destroy virus-infected cells, tumor cells and destroy cells lacking MHC I
An antibody's Fc region can be bound by Macrophages
Antigens coated with antibodies are susceptible to phagocytosis
Cell death caused by perforin and granzymes is caused by Cytotoxic T lymphocytes
IL-2 produced by TH cells cause phagocytosis
Antigen-antibody binding may result in all of the following Agglutination of the antigens, complement activation, neutralization of the antigen and opsonization of the antigen.
End of chapter 17 Begin Chapter 21
Which of the following is not normal microbiota of the skin? Streptococcus
An 8-year-old female has scabs and pus-filled vesicles on her face and throat. Three weeks earlier she had visited her grandmother who had shingles. What infection does the 8-year-old have? Chickenpox
Which of the following pairs is matched S. pyogenes  erysipelas, P. acnes  acne P. aeruginosa  otitis externa
The etiologic agent of warts is Papovavirus.
characteristic of P. aeruginosa Oxidative metabolism,Oxidase positive,Produce pyocyanin
of the following pairs is matched Pustular rash  smallpox,Koplik spots  rubella,Vesicular rash  chickenpox
transmitted by the respiratory route Chickenpox, small pox, German measles
caused by herpesvirus Chickenpox, Shingles, Keratoconjunctivitis
Thrush and vaginitis are caused by Candida albicans
The greatest single cause of blindness in the world is Trachoma.
can be treated with topical chemotherapeutic agents Dermatomycosis
cause of ringworm Microsporum, Trichophyton, Epidermophyton
Newborns' eyes are treated with an antibiotic when Always
A possible complication of herpetic keratitis is Encephalitis,Fever blisters,Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis,Congenital rubella syndrome
sensitive to penicillin Streptococcus
Which region of the skin supports the largest bacterial population Axilla
Which infection is caused by S. aureus pimples,sty,furuncle and carbuncle
characteristic used to identify S. pyogenes Catalase-negative,Group A cell wall antigen, Group M proteins, Beta-hemolytic
causative agent of conjunctivitis Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplex,Adenovirus and Hemophilus aegyptii
In which of the following respects is measles similar to German measles rash
Vaccination for rubella is Not recommended for pregnant women and new borns, necessary because the disease is mild and necessary even if the person has been infected before.
congenital rubella syndrome It may be fatal,It may result in deafness, blindness, and mental retardation,It doesn't occur with subclinical infections
The etiologic agent of chickenpox Herpes zoster
The etiologic agent of fifth disease Parvovirus
The etiologic agent of roseola HHV-6
The etiologic agent of fever blisters Herpes simplex
Used to treat epidemic herpetic keratitis Trifluridine
Used to treat smallpox There is no treatment for this virus
Used to treat sporotrichosis Fungicide
Used to treat candidiasis Fungicide
Scabies is a skin disease caused by A mite
Scabies is transmitted by Fomites.
A patient has pus-filled vesicles and scabs on her face, throat, and lower back. She most likely has Chickenpox.
Which of the following leads to all the others TSST-1
Herpes gladiatorium is transmitted by Direct contact.
The patient has a papular rash. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings reveals small 8-legged animals. Scabies
The patient has vesicles and scabs over her forehead. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings shows gram-positive cocci in clusters. S. aureus
The patient has scaling skin on his fingers. Conidiospores are seen in microscopic examination of skin scrapings Microsporum
A 45-year-old male has pus-filled vesicles distributed over his back in the upper right quadrant, over his right shoulder, and upper right quadrant of his chest. His symptoms are most likely due to Varicella-zoster virus
A 35-year-old female has a red, raised rash on the inside of her thighs. Gram-stained skin scrapings show large budding cells with pseudohyphae. The infection is caused by Candida albicans
Assume that your lab partner swabs the side of his face and used the swab to inoculate a nutrient agar plate. The next day, he performs a Gram stain on the colonies. They are gram-positive cocci. You advise him that he should next look for A coagulase reaction
the following is correctly matched Conjunctivitis  Chlamydia trachomatis Conjunctivitis  Pseudomonas Infected tissue fluoresces  Dermatomycosis Opportunistic infection in AIDS patients  Candidiasis
A 17-year-old male has pus-filled cysts on his face and upper back. Microscopic examination reveals gram-positive rods. This infection is Acne
A 17-year-old male has pus-filled cysts on his face and upper back. Microscopic examination reveals gram-positive rods. This infection is caused by Propionibacterium acnes
Which of the following results in comparatively long-lasting immunity A person survives an infectious disease.
The resistance to reinfection with measles virus following recovery from measles infection is called ________. adaptive immunity
HIV selectively destroys CD4 cells and as a result, a person with AIDS is susceptible to life-threatening viral infections. Knowing this, you can conclude that ________. these viruses have T-dependent antigens
Cyclosporine is a drug sometimes used to prevent transplant rejection after organ transplant surgery. This drug specifically disrupts cell-mediated immunity by cytotoxic T cells. Which of these events can be predicted based on this information Antibody production will not be disrupted in the recipient.
Cell-mediated immunity in part protects against ________. intracellular bacteria and viruses
cell types is involved in cell-mediated immunity T regulatory cells,T helper cells,TH1 cells andT cytotoxic cells
All of these statements are true of antigens They are often proteins or polysaccharides, They can include nonmicrobial molecules, such as pollen, egg white, and blood cell surface molecules,They are typically nonself molecules, and They are often surface molecules on microbes.
For IgG, the antigen binding site is found on the ________. variable region of a heavy chain and the variable region of a light chain
All of these statements are true of the IgG antibody class except ________. it is the most abundant antibody class in body secretions
the following would be a possible consequence of a disorder that selectively destroys the T regulatory cells in a patient autoimmune diseases
Which answer is true for IgA It picks up the secretory component as it passes through mucosal cells.
these processes is in the proper sequence IgE is formed; IgE binds to mast cells and basophils; antigen binds IgE; histamine is released.
the correct order of differentiation stem cells to B cells to plasma cells
Which of these statements is not true of antibody molecules Antibody molecules can directly destroy antigen.
A property of T cells, but not B cells, is their ________. ability to form cells that directly kill virus-infected host cells
T helper cells they activate B cells,they have CD4 molecules on the cell surface,they activate macrophages,they recognize antigen presented by class II MHC molecules.
T cytotoxic cells ________. produce perforins
a potential concern of using T-independent antigens as vaccines These antigens will be ineffective in producing an immune response in infants
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity ________. is particularly important for killing microbes that are too large be destroyed by phagocytosis
anamnestic response IgG predominates
Haptens can bind to antibody molecules only if the haptens are attached to a carrier molecule. False
For a single antibody molecule, the two light chains have an identical amino acid sequence in the constant regions but different amino acid sequences in the variable regions. False
The Fc region of an antibody molecule can bind to host cells. True
The class I major histocompatibility molecules are found on most body cells. True
The process of eliminating potentially self-reactive T cells in the thymus is called clonal selection. False
IgM circulating in a newborn's blood was produced by the mother and crossed the placenta to enter the fetal circulation before birth. False
The anamnestic response requires the presence of memory cells. True
Helper T cells are involved in both the humoral and the cellular immune responses. True
Macrophages and dendritic cells are the only cells that can present antigen to T cells. False
T cells react to antigens on the surface of APCs only when those antigens are associated with proteins of the major histocompatibility complex. True
Chapter 21 Begins
What do the following diseases have in common: Scalded skin syndrome Toxic shock syndrome Staphylococcal food poisoning They are all caused by exotoxins produced by strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
Which microorganism is responsible for otitis externa Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Place the following infections in order of increasing tissue involvement and severity: (1) septicemia, (2) folliculitis, (3) cellulitis, (4) furuncle. 2-4-3-1
produce infections of the skin with blue-green pus seudomonas aeruginosa
Warts are generally caused by ________. papillomavirus
Sporotrichosis is the most common type of ________. subcutaneous mycoses
the most appropriate way of testing whether a skin lesion is caused by a dermatophyte culture scrapings of the lesion periphery on Saborauds agar
Ringworm is caused by a/an ________. fungus
true regarding chickenpox and shingles A child who is not immune to chickenpox may get it following exposure to a patient with shingles.
Measles can potentially be eradicated because ________. Humans are the only reservoir, and vaccination is effective.
eukaryotic pathogen that infects the eye Acanthamoeba
characteristic of Streptococcus M proteins,beta-hemolytic,gram-positive, and cocci
characteristics of the varicella-zoster virus transmission via the respiratory route,reactivation infections decades after initial infection,vesicular skin rash, and latent infection in nerve cells
caused by HSV-1 herpes whitlow,cold sores,herpes gladiatorum, and encephalitis
a possible result of rubeola macular rash, encephalitis,subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, and pneumonia
cause conjunctivitis Haemophilus,Chlamydia,Pseudomonas, and Neisseria
associated with Candida albicans whitish overgrowth of the oral cavity,bright red skin with lesions on the borders,immunosuppressed individuals, andsusceptible to nystatin
a treatment for papillomas laser therapy,cryotherapy,treatment with certain topical drugs, and electrodissection
enzymes produced by deep tissue streptococcal infections protease,deoxyribonuclease,hyaluronidase, and streptokinase
Chapter 22 Begins here
Consider the following three common agents of bacterial meningitis: Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Haemophilus influenzae B. Which of the following would be most helpful in differentiating these three agents gram-stain morphology
he current first choice of antibiotic for bacterial meningitis is ________. cephalosporin
Vaccination is recommended to prevent epidemic meningitis among college students and military recruits resulting from infection with ________. Neisseria meningitidis
he most important element in the pathogenicity of S. pneumoniae is ________. the capsule
The diagnosis of bacterial meningitis requires a sample of ________. cerebrospinal fluid
Treatment for rabies exposure requires ________. injections of antirabies vaccine and immune globulin
Which disease may be transmitted by contaminated dairy products listeriosis
used to diagnose West Nile encephalitis ELISA test for IgM antibodies
Reservoirs for rabies include the following, except ________. mosquitoes
these vaccines has actually been implicated in causing the disease it is designed to prevent Sabin oral polio vaccine
A migrant farmworker has been brought into the emergency room showing early symptoms of tetanus. He indicates that he had received a puncture wound in his hand a week before the onset of symptoms. When asked about vaccination or booster, he did not know. tetanus immune globulin
A 10-month-old infant has become constipated and demonstrates muscular weakness by her inability to sit up or crawl. Her muscle tone is continuing to deteriorate, and she is beginning to have difficulty holding her head up. While questioning her mother to infant botulism
What is the best way to control West Nile encephalitis Eliminate the vector.
Which method is best for controlling African trypanosomiasis Control the vector.
An otherwise healthy 19-year-old college student was admitted to the emergency room with a fever, bad headache, and a stiff neck, symptoms suggestive of meningitis. A spinal tap was done. The CSF was cloudy, and the cell count on the fluid was 500 WBC/ml. Neisseria meningitidis
Naegleria encephalitis is commonly acquired by ________. children swimming in ponds and streams
true concerning foodborne botulism in older children and adults Disease results from consuming botulism toxin in improperly preserved foods.
Which of the following begins as a lung infection but may cause meningitis in immunosuppressed individuals? cryptococcosis
What structures make up both the cranial and spinal meninges the arachnoid mater, the pia mater, the dura mater
Which wild animal has the highest percentage of the reported rabies cases Raccoons
A flat, red lesion is called a ________. macule
Which of the following statements is false regarding shingles Everyone who has had chicken pox will get shingles.
true about the normal microbiota of the nervous system There are no normal microbiota
Encephalitis and meningitis are difficult to treat because Antibiotics cannot penetrate the blood-brain barrier.
the following organisms is capable of causing meningitis Neisseria meningitidis, Haemophilus influenzae ,Streptococcus pneumoniae
the following are true about H. influenzae A healthy carrier state can exist,It is encapsulated,It requires a blood supplement in media, It is used in a whole bacterial vaccine
the following pairs is matched Neisseria meningitidis  cultured in a candle jar ,Haemophilus influenzae  virulence due to capsule ,Mycobacterium leprae  cultured in armadillos ,Naegleria fowleri  causes amoebic encephalitis
the following organisms is correctly matched to the recommended treatment Haemophilus influenzae  cephalosporins ,Cryptococcus neoformans  amphotericin B ,Mycobacterium leprae  dapsone ,Poliovirus  Salk vaccine
true about leprosy It is transmitted by direct contact. Diagnosis may be based on the lepromin testIt is rarely fatal.
transmitted by the respiratory route N. meningitidis,H. influenzae , C. neoformans
true about rabies It is caused by Rhabdovirus,Hydrophobia is an early symptom.,Diagnosis is based on immunofluorescent techniques,It is not fatal in bats
The symptoms of tetanus are due to Clostridial neurotoxin.
The treatment for tetanus is Antibodies
A 30-year-old female was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Her symptoms could be due to all of the following Clostridium botulinum, Listeria monocytogenes,Streptococcus pneumoniae
The most effective control of a vectorborne disease is Elimination of the vector
Treatment for tetanus in an unimmunized person is Tetanus immune globulin.
Treatment for tetanus in an immunized person is Tetanus toxoid
The most common route of central nervous system invasion by pathogens is through The circulatory system
The prodromal symptom(s) of meningitis is (are) Like a mild cold.Fever and headache,Stiff neck and back pains. Convulsions.
the following are requirements for an outbreak of botulism Killing bacteria that compete with Clostridium,An anaerobic environment,An incubation period,A nutrient medium with a pH below 4.5.
The most common cause of meningitis in children is Haemophilus influenzae
Meningitis that begins as an infection of the lungs is caused by Cryptococcus neoformans.
the following pairs is matched Leprosy  direct contact,Poliomyelitis  respiratory route,Meningococcal meningitis  respiratory route
A 30-year-old female was hospitalized after she experienced convulsions. On examination, she was alert and oriented and complained of a fever, headache, and stiff neck. Which of the following is most likely to provide rapid identification of the cause of Gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid
All of the following are caused by prions Sheep scrapie,Kuru,Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease,Transmissible mink encephalopathy
the following are true about the lepromin test It detects the presence of anti-M. leprae antibodies,It is negative in the lepromatous form,It consists of M. leprae,
Purplish spots on the skin are characteristic of an infection by N. meningitidis.
A 1-year-old female was hospitalized with fever, lethargy, and rash. Gram-negative, oxidase-positive cocci were cultured from her cerebrospinal fluid. Her symptoms were caused by Neisseria meningitidis.
A 1-year-old female was hospitalized with fever, lethargy, and rash. Gram-negative, oxidase-positive cocci were cultured from her cerebrospinal fluid. All of the following are true about the microbe responsible for her symptoms Be normal in the throat.Be treated with antibiotics,Cause epidemics
On June 30, a 47-year-old man was hospitalized with dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and nausea. Examination revealed facial paralysis. The patient had partially healed superficial knee wounds incurred while laying cement. Anaerobically
A diagnosis of rabies is confirmed by Direct fluorescent-antibody test
Which of the following is treated with antibiotics Streptococcal pneumonia
Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals gram-negative rods. What is the organism Haemophilus
Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals amoebae. What is the organism Naegleria
Microscopic examination of cerebrospinal fluid reveals gram-positive rods. What is the organism Listeria
On June 30, a 47-year-old man was hospitalized with dizziness, blurred vision, slurred speech, difficulty swallowing, and nausea. Examination revealed facial paralysis. The patient had partially healed superficial knee wounds incurred while laying cement. Antitoxin
On October 5, a pet store sold a kitten that subsequently died. On October 22, rabies was diagnosed in the kitten. Between September 19 and October 23, the pet store had sold 34 kittens. Approximately 1000 people responded to health-care providers followi Antirabies immunoglobulin
A vaccine is available for all of the following Haemophilus meningitis,Neisseria meningitis,Tetanus,Rabies.
Patients with leprosy usually die from Tuberculosis
Which of the following is acquired by ingestion Botulism,Listeriosis, Poliomyelitis
Which of the following statements is true The lepromin test is positive during tuberculoid leprosy,Leprosy is highly contagious,Loss of nerve sensation occurs in tuberculoid leprosy, Disfiguring nodules and deformation occur in lepromatous leprosy
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched Tetanus  blocks relaxation nerve impulse,Botulism  stimulates transmission of nerve impulse,Poliomyelitis  kills CNS cells,Rabies virus  grows in brain cells
Which of the following is transmitted by ingestion Poliomyelitis,Listeriosis,Botulism,Meningococcal meningitis
Which of the following vaccines is a cause of the disease it is designed to prevent Oral polio vaccine
On July 5, an 11-year-old girl complained of pain in the knuckles of her left hand. During July 6-7, she had increasing pain that extended up to the left shoulder. A throat culture was obtained and amoxicillin was prescribed. On July 9, she had difficulty She was treated with ceftriaxone. On July 11, she was hospitalized with a temperature of 40.7°C and she could not drink. She developed respiratory distress and tachycardia; she died from cardiac arrest. Fluorescent antibody testing of brain tissue reveal
In Situation 22.1, the antibiotics did not cure her disease because the pathogen was Protected by the blood-brain barrier
The disease described in Situation 22.1 is Meningitis
Chapter 22 Ends Chapter 23 Begins
the following statements about septicemia are true Symptoms include fever and decreased blood pressure,Lymphangitis may occur,Symptoms are due to bacterial endotoxin,It may be aggravated by antibiotics
Which of the following pairs is matched Subacute bacterial endocarditis  alpha-hemolytic streptococci,Pericarditis  Streptococcus pneumoniae,Puerperal sepsis  Staphylococcus aureus
All of the following grow inside host cells Brucella,Dengue fever virus, Leishmania
Which of the following is treated with penicillin Pericarditis,Anthrax,Listeriosis
the following statements about tularemia are true It is caused by Francisella tularensis,The reservoir is rabbits,It may be transmitted by arthropods,It may be transmitted by direct contact.
the following is a symptom of brucellosis A local infection,Relapsing fever,Pneumonia,Jaundice
Which of the following is transmitted in raw milk Anthrax,Brucellosis,Listeriosis
the following is a characteristic of Bacillus anthracis Gram-positive, Forms endospores, Found in soil
The symptoms of gas gangrene are due to all of the following Microbial fermentation,Necrotizing exotoxins,Proteolytic enzymes,Hyaluronidase
Infections by all of the following bacteria may be transmitted by dog or cat bites Pasteurella multocida,Streptobacillus,Fusobacterium
Malaria Anopheles (mosquito)
Dengue Aedes (mosquito)
Epidemic typhus Pediculus (louse)
Rocky Mountain spotted fever Dermacentor (tick)
The incidence of all of the following diseases is increased by unsanitary and crowded conditions Plague,Epidemic typhus,Endemic murine typhus,Relapsing fever
Which of the following is true about toxoplasmosis It is caused by a protozoan,The reservoir is cats,It is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route,It can be congenital
All of the following facts about Chagas' disease are true Causative agent  T. cruzi,Vector  kissing bug,Reservoir  rodents,Diagnosis  serological tests for antibodies
Which of the following is caused by a bacterium Epidemic typhus, Tickborne typhus, Plague ,Relapsing fever
Septicemia may result from all of the following A focal infection,Pneumonia,A nosocomial infection,Contamination through the parenteral route
All of the following statements about puerperal sepsis are true It is transmitted from mother to fetus,It is caused by health-care personnel,It is a complication of abortion or childbirth,It doesn't occur anymore because of antibiotics and aseptic techniques
All of the following statements about schistosomiasis are true The cercariae penetrate human skin, A parasite of birds causes swimmer's itch in humans,The intermediate host is an aquatic snail,It is caused by a flatworm.
All of the following statements about rheumatic fever are true It is a complication of a Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection,It is an inflammation of the heart,It is an inflammation of the joints,It is cured with penicillin.
) Rickettsia intracellular parasite
Brucella gram-negative aerobic rods
Bacillus gram-positive endospore-forming rods
Which of the following can be transmitted from an infected mother to her fetus across the placenta Toxoplasma
Borrelia relapsing fever
Yersinia plague
Streptobacillus rat-bite fever
Spirillum rat-bite fever
A patient has the following symptoms: a papule, enlarged lymph nodes. Microscopic examination of the papule reveals nucleated cells in white blood cells. The patient most likely has: Leishmaniasis
Human-to-human transmission of plague is usually by The respiratory route
A characteristic symptom of plague is Bruises on the skin
Vector Anopheles
Etiology Plasmodium
Diagnosis presence of merozoites
Treatment antibiotics
A predisposing factor for infection by Clostridium perfringens is Gangrene
Which of the following is a zoonosis Hantavirus infection, Anthrax ,Brucellosis,Tularemia
Arthropods can serve as a reservoir for which of the following diseases Brucellosis
Which of the following pairs is matched Brucellosis  a temperature of 40°C each evening Tularemia  a localized infection appearing as a small ulcer Borrelia  rash and flulike Toxoplasmosis  congenital brain damage
All of the following can be transmitted to humans from domestic cats Toxoplasmosis,Plague,Bartonella
Relapsing fever and undulant fever differ in all of the following ways Mode of transmission,Presence of rash,Etiology
All of the following are treated with antibiotics Plague. , Tularemia. , Lyme disease
Which of the following produces a permanent carrier state following infection Cytomegalovirus
EB virus causes all of the following Infectious mononucleosis. , Burkitt's lymphoma. , Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Which of the following leads to all the others Breakage of capillaries
A patient complains of fever, severe muscle and joint pain, and a rash. The patient reports returning from a Caribbean vacation one week ago. Which one of the following do you suspect Dengue
Which of the following pairs is not correctly matched for Gram reaction Lyme disease  gram-negative , Rocky Mountain spotted fever  gram-negative
Scrapings from a patient's rash reveal cercariae. The disease is most likely Swimmer's itch
You advise your pregnant friend to give her cat away because She could get toxoplasmosis
Which of the following is evidence that the arthritis afflicting children in Lyme, Connecticut, was due to bacterial infection Treatable with penicillin
Which of the following is the usual cause of septic shock Endotoxin
A 62-year-old man was hospitalized with an 8-day history of fever, chills, sweats, and vomiting. His temperature on admission was 40°C. A routine peripheral blood smear revealed ring-shaped bodies in the RBCs. What treatment would you prescribe? Mefloquine
All of the following are true about Group B streptococci Are present in healthy carriers,Cause gram-positive sepsis,Cause neonatal sepsis
A patient presents with inflammation of the heart valves, fever, malaise, and subcutaneous nodules at joints; the recommended treatment is Anti-inflammatory drugs
Which disease is not caused by an obligately intracellular bacterium endemic murine typhus,Rocky Mountain spotted fever,ehrlichiosis,epidemic typhus
A hyperbaric chamber is sometimes used to treat wounds infected with ________. Clostridium perfringens
The CDC recommends that pregnant women be tested and offered antibiotic therapy before delivery if they are vaginal carriers of ________. Streptococcus agalactiae
Why do antibiotics sometimes aggravate septic shock Antibiotics may cause the lysis of more bacteria and the release of more endotoxin.
A 24-year-old woman in Minnesota complained of a flu-like illness accompanied by a high fever and headache a week after being bitten by a tick. During examination of a blood smear, it was noted that some of her monocytes contained clumps of tiny bacteria human granulocytic anaplasmosis
Tularemia can be contracted by humans by all of the following methods except ________. infection with Epstein-Barr virus
Most cases of Burkitt's lymphoma occur in individuals who are infected with EB virus and ________. Plasmodium species
Most naturally occurring anthrax infections are ________. cutaneous infections from endospore entry at a skin lesion
A man found living in a rat-infested building develops a high fever and swollen lymph nodes, called buboes, in the armpit and groin. A gram-negative bacillus is isolated from the patient, and the rats are found to be infested with Xenopsylla cheopis. What bubonic plague
A patient has flu-like symptoms and a bull's-eye rash on his leg. Investigation reveals that he had been hiking in Connecticut and was bitten by two ticks. What is the diagnosis Lyme disease
A Nigerian tourist is hospitalized with fever and chills that occur in 48-hour cycles. A blood smear reveals circular rings within the erythrocytes. What is the treatment chloroquine
Swimmer's itch is caused by ________. larvae of schistosomes
The symptoms of schistosomiasis are due primarily to ________. eggs deposited by adult worms in host tissue
A 34-year-old Caucasian male is being examined in the emergency room of a Boston hospital, complaining of a high fever and severe muscle pain and joint pain. He returned to Boston two days ago, after spending 10 days travelling throughout Brazil on busine dengue fever
Toxoplasmosis is most commonly contracted by ________. contact with cat feces
At what stage does the tick vector transmit Lyme disease to humans the nymph stage
Which of the following is not an intermediate host for Toxoplasma gondii, the causative agent of Toxoplasmosis cats
How does a person acquire Schistosomiasis, a disease caused by the flukes in the genus Schistosoma Free-swimming cercariae penetrate human skin
All of these statements are true of yellow fever Aedes aegypti is the vector. Fever, chills, and jaundice are frequent symptoms. Liver damage may result from infection. Control of mosquito populations can reduce the disease incidence.
Which of the following is frequently the cause of infection following animal bites? Pasteurella multocida
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched Clostridium perfringens; soil Francisella tularensis; rabbitsYersinia pestis; rodents Rickettsia typhi; rodents
All of these statements are true of brucellosis The causative agent grows intracellularly. Infected cows excrete bacteria in their milk. Wild elk and bison are reservoirs. Treatment requires prolonged antibiotic therapy.
Which one of the following pairs is correctly matched to its vector Leishmania tropica; sandfly,Plasmodium vivax; mosquito yellow fever; mosquito Typanosoma cruzi; reduviid bug
End of Chapter 23 Begin of Chapter 24
One of the most serious infections of the upper respiratory system is ________. epiglottitis
One of the most important reasons to diagnose and treat strep throat is ________. Untreated strep throat may contribute to the development of rheumatic fever
Pertussis is characterized by ________. a whooping type cough
An effective vaccine does not exist for the common cold, because ________. there are too many antigenically different microorganisms causing the cold
Which of these answers best describes why antibiotic administration is inappropriate for most of the common upper respiratory tract infections? Most are caused by viruses
A physician receives a lab report indicating that acid-fast bacilli were found in sputum from a patient with a lower respiratory tract infection. The physician suspects ________. tuberculosis
An 8-week-old infant has been brought to the ER due to difficulty breathing. Chest sounds and a chest X-ray indicate an acute bronchiolitis. Oxygen saturation is poor. What is the most likely diagnosis? respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)
An outbreak of pneumonia occurs in a wing of a hospital housing kidney transplant patients. The source of infection is traced to the water supply of the air conditioner. This case describes transmission of which of the following? Legionella pneumophila
The frequency of influenza epidemics is associated with the ________. frequency of mutations in viral genes for envelope spikes
Which of the following respiratory infections cannot be treated with antimicrobial drugs? common cold
The DTaP immunization is for ________. diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis
An 85-year-old man has been experiencing weight loss, night sweats, and a dry cough for several months; recently, he has begun coughing up sputum with tinges of blood in it. Following a chest X-ray showing some white spots on his lungs, an AFB stain and c reactivation tuberculosis
A patient has a rapid onset of fever, chills, labored breathing, and sore throat. He recently returned from Mexico, where he drank local water and stayed in an air-conditioned room. Several weeks ago, he purchased a parrot. After a physical exam, his phys Chlamydia psittaci
Some of respiratory diseases are best diagnosed by a gram-stained smear and/or culture, while others are best diagnosed by specific antigen testing or by detecting IgM antibodies. Which of these respiratory diseases is best diagnosed by doing a specific I Mycoplasma pneumoniae
All of these descriptions pertain to Mycoplasmal pneumonia ________. gradual onset of fever and coughcannot be treated with penicillin alveoli do not fill up with fluid also called walking pneumonia
If a patient has a positive tuberculin skin test, it means that ________. the patient has a latent case of tuberculosis the patient was vaccinated with the BCG vaccine the patient has an active case of tuberculosis the patient has recovered from tuberculosis
All of these statements are true of tuberculosis Extremely dangerous multiple drug-resistant strains have emerged, TB bacteria can survive for months on sputum-contaminated materials, It is transmitted by contact with infected humans,Once phagocytized, the bacteria can survive inside the phagocytic ce
All of the following cause lower respiratory tract infections ________. Legionella Mycoplasma Blastomyces Chlamydia
Haemophilis influenzae can cause all of these respiratory infections sinusitis laryngitis epiglottitis otitis media
All of these statements are true of diphtheria Complications may include damage to heart or kidneys. It is prevented by immunization with diphtheria toxoid.It is caused by a gram-positive, non-endospore-forming rod. Symptoms include the formation of a tough grayish membrane in the throat.
Put the steps of the development of tuberculosis in the proper order:1. Formation of caseous center 2. Liquefaction 3. Ingestion of the bacilli by macrophages 4. The signaling of additional macrophages and lung-damaging inflammation 5. Multiplication 3, 5, 4, 1, 6, 2
Among which ethnic group in the United States do most cases of tuberculosis occur Asian and Pacific Islanders
How do human contract coccidioidomycosis? Inhalation of a arthroconidium
What is true about otitis media? caused by Staphylococcus aureus, caused by streptococcus pyogens, transmitted by swimming pool water, a complication of tonsillitis
A diagnosis of strep throat is confirmed by serological test, gram stain, hemolytic reaction, bacitracin inhibition
Penicillin is used to treat scarlet fever, streptococcal sore throat, diptheria, pneumococcal pneumonia
What microorganism causes symptoms most like tuberculosis? histoplasma
A person can have a positive tuberculin skin test because she has been vaccinated, she has tuberculosis, she is immune to tuberculosis, she has had tuberculosis
What causes an infection of the respiratory system that is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route Mycobacterium tuberculosis
What is the reservoir for Psittacosis? parakeets
What is the reservoir for Tuberculosis? cattle
What is the reservoir for Histoplasmosis? soil
What is the reservoir for Pneumocystis? humans
What produces exotoxin? streptococcus pyogenes, corynebacterium diptheriae, bordetella pertussis
What produces the most potent exotoxin? Corynebacterium diptheriae
The recurrence of influenza epidemics is due to antigenic shift
What etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses? Blastomyces
Infection by what is often confused with viral pneumonia? Mycoplasma
what causes a disease characterized by a red rash? Streptococcus
Inahalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by what? Coccidioides
Legionella is transmitted by airborne transmission
Infection that begins in the lungs and spreads to the skin Blastomyces
Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick walled cysts. What is the etiology? Pneumocystis
A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. What is the etiology of the symptoms? Bordetella
What respiratory infection can be contracted by ingestion? Tuberculosis
What produces small "fried egg" colonies on a medium containing horse serum yeast extract? Mycoplasma
All of the following statements about otitis media are true It is caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. It is a complication of tonsillitis. It is transmitted by swimming pool waterIt is caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
A diagnosis of strep throat is confirmed by all of the following Hemolytic reaction. Bacitracin inhibitionSerological tests. Gram stain.
Penicillin is used to treat all of the following Streptococcal sore throat. Diphtheria. Pneumococcal pneumonia. Scarlet fever.
Mycoplasmal pneumonia differs from viral pneumonia in that It is treated with tetracyclines
Diphtheria exotoxin
Scarlet fever exotoxin
Haemophilus pneumonia endotoxin
Whooping cough endotoxin
Corynebacterium gram-positive rod
Mycobacterium acid-fast rod
Bordetella gram-negative pleomorphic rod
Haemophilus gram-negative rod
Which of the following microorganisms causes symptoms most like tuberculosis Histoplasma
A person can have a positive tuberculin skin test because She has been vaccinated. She has tuberculosis. She had tuberculosis. She is immune to tuberculosis
Which of the following diseases is correctly matched to its vaccine Whooping cough  heat-killed bacteria Diphtheria  toxoid Influenza  viruses grown in embryonated eggs
Which of the following diseases has a cutaneous form, especially in individuals over 30 years of age? Diphtheria
Which of the following causes an infection of the respiratory system that is transmitted by the gastrointestinal route Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumoniae Haemophilus influenzae Streptococcus pneumoniae
Which of the following pairs is matched Epiglottitis  Haemophilus Psittacosis  Chlamydia Whooping cough  Bordetella
Pneumonia can be caused by all of the following Legionella. Haemophilus. Mycoplasma. Streptococcus
Which of the following causes opportunistic infections in AIDS patients Pneumocystis
Which of the following diseases is correctly matched to its reservoir Tuberculosis  cattle Histoplasmosis  soil Psittacosis  parakeets Pneumocystis  humans
Which of the following does produce an exotoxin Bordetella pertussis Corynebacterium diptheriae Streptococcus pygones
Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by the catarrhal, paroxysmal, and convalescent stages Bordetella pertussis
Which one of the following is an irregular, gram-positive rod Corynebacterium diptheriae
Infection by which of the following results in the formation of Ghon complexes? Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Which one of the following produces the most potent exotoxin? Corynebacterium diphtheriae
The recurrence of influenza epidemics is due to Antigenic shift
Which of the following is an opportunistic pathogen Rhinovirus
Which of the following etiologic agents results in the formation of abscesses Blastomyces
Which of the following is most susceptible to destruction by phagocytes Streptococcus pyogenes
Infection by which of the following is often confused with viral pneumonia? Mycoplasma
Which one of the following causes a disease characterized by a red rash? Streptococcus
Inhalation of arthroconidia is responsible for infection by which of the following organisms? Coccidioides
Which of the following pairs is matched Q fever  ticks Psittacosis  parrots Pneumocystis pneumonia  nosocomial Coccidioides  soil
Legionella is transmitted by Airborne transmission.
The patient is suffocating due to an inflamed epiglottis. What is the etiology? Haemophilus
The patient has a sore throat. What is the etiology? Haemophilus
The patient is suffocating due to the accumulation of dead tissue and fibrin in her throat. What is the etiology? Can't tell
Infection by which of the following begins in lungs and spreads to skin? Blastomyces
the following organisms does belong with the others Blastomyces Coccidioides Histoplasma Pneumocystis
Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows thick-walled cysts. What is the etiology? Pneumocystis
Microscopic examination of a lung biopsy shows spherules. What is the etiology? Coccidioides
You are trying to identify the cause of a patient's middle ear infection. After 24 hours, there is no growth on blood agar incubated aerobically at 37°C. Your next step is to try again Incubating anaerobically
A patient has a paroxysmal cough and mucus accumulation. What is the etiology of the symptoms? Bordetella
A patient who presents with red throat and tonsils can be diagnosed as having Streptococcal pharyngitis.
A patient has fever, difficulty breathing, chest pains, fluid in the alveoli, and a positive tuberculin skin test. Gram-positive cocci are isolated from the sputum. The patient most likely has Pneumococcal pneumonia.
Which of the following respiratory infections can be contracted by ingestion? Tuberculosis
Which of the following is an intracellular parasite Chlamydophila,Coxiella Influenzavirus RSV
Which one of the following produces small "fried-egg" colonies on medium containing horse serum-yeast extract? Mycobacterium
A patient has pneumonia. Gram-negative rods are cultured on nutrient agar from a sputum sample. The etiology is Haemophilus influenzae
End of Chapter 24 Begin Chapter 25
pertain to dental caries It is an infectious disease of the mouth. Acidic microbial products cause erosion of tooth enamel. Increase in dietary sugar causes increased risk for tooth decay. Plaque contributes to dental caries.
You see flagellated cells in a microscopic examination of feces from a patient with diarrhea. You conclude the etiology is: Giardia.
Bacillary dysentery ________. is caused by members of the Shigella genus
Beef is checked for cysticerci to prevent transmission of ________. Taenia saginata
Staphylococcal food poisoning is most likely to result from ________. consumption of staphylococcal enterotoxin in potato salad that has been left at room temperature
Which of the following can be prevented by cooking food? trichinosis tapeworms salmonellosis E. coli hemorrhagic colitis
The majority of traveler's diarrhea cases are caused by ________. Escherichia coli
true of hepatitis A but not hepatitis B fecal-oral; spread via water and food
An epidemiologist is involved in a hepatitis outbreak in a community. She traces the source of all cases to food served in a local restaurant. What health recommendations should be made to customers who ate at the restaurant? Customers should be offered passive immunization with immune globulin.
An open cut on a dental hygienist's hand is exposed to blood from a patient's mouth. All of the following are potentially blood-borne pathogens to which she may have been exposed except ________. hepatitis A
Some gastrointestinal diseases are diagnosed using a culture, others by direct antigen detection methods, and still others by measuring a specific IgM titer. Which of the following diseases is detected by doing an IgM titer? hepatitis A
Diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile ________. can result in life-threatening inflammation of the colon
Put the stages of periodontal disease in order: 1. Tooth separates from the gingiva, forming periodontal pockets. 2. Toxins in plaque irritate the gums. 3. Gingivitis progresses to periodontitis. 2, 1, 3
What is the time frame from when the staphylococcus toxin is ingested until the vomiting reflex is triggered? Between 1 and 6 hours
Which of the following is not true regarding Salmonellosis? Salmonella always crosses the epithelial membrane and enters the blood stream and the lymphatic systems.
the following pairs is correctly matched hepatitis C; transmitted via blood transfusions,hepatitis D; can cause disease only as a coinfection with hepatitis B hepatitis E; outbreaks in Asia and Africa associated with fecally contaminated water hepatitis B; chronic infections increase risk of l
All of the following pertain to E. coli E. coli O157:H7 acquired a toxin gene from Shigella. Certain strains have a plasmid for enterotoxin production. Presence in a water supply indicates fecal contamination. Some strains are normal microbiota of human intestines.
All of the following are true of typhoid fever Most cases reported in the United States are acquired during foreign travel. It is caused by Salmonella typhi. Recovered patients may become chronic carriers. Humans are the only source of infection.
All of the following cause diarrhea Shigella spp. Yersinia enterocolitica Salmonella enterica Giardia lamblia
All of the following are true of salmonellosis The bacteria invade intestinal mucosa and can readily multiply in macrophages. Pet reptiles, including turtles and iguanas, are frequently carriers. An estimated 2 to 4 million cases occur in the United States per year. It is transmitted via contaminat
All of the following are characteristic of mumps It may cause sterility in males (rarely). Complications include meningitis, inflammation of the ovaries, and pancreatitis. It commonly infects salivary glands.An effective attenuated vaccine (MMR) is available.
All of the following pertain to Staphylococcus aureus which causes food poisoning It produces enterotoxins. It is resistant to high osmotic pressure. Its growth can be prevented by refrigeration of foods. It is resistant to drying and radiation.
All of the following pertain to Streptococcus mutans It is capable of fermenting sugars. It is a gram-positive coccus.It is the major causative agent of dental caries. It produces acidic metabolic byproducts.
What is required for tooth decay? acid producing bacteria, capsule forming bacteria, sucrose
What is true of salmonellosis? it requires a large infective dose, a healthy carrier state exists, it is a bacterial infection, it is often associated with poultry products
What disease of the gastrointestinal system is transmitted by the respiratory route? Mumps
The symptoms of trichinellosis are due to the encystement of larval Trichinella in muscles
Poultry products are a likely source of infection by Salmonella enterica
What feeds on red blood cells? Entamoeba histolytica
What is true of staphylococcal food poisoning? suspect foods are those not cooked before eating, it can be prevented by refrigeration, it is treated by replacing water and electrolytes, it is characterized by rapid onset and short duration of symptoms
The most common cause of traveler's diarrhea is probably Escherichia coli
Thorough cooking of food will prevent salmonellas, beef tapeworm, trichinellosis
Most of the normal microbiota of the digestive system are found in the large intestine
What organisms is likely to be transmitted via contaminated shrimp? vibrio
What organism is likely to be transmitted via contaminated pork? Trichinella
What are transmitted by water? Cryptosporidium, Hepatitis A virus, Salmonella, Cyclospora
"Rice water stools" are characteristic of cholera
Most gastrointestinal infections are treated with water and electrolytes
Vibrio parahaemolyticus gastroenteritis is treated with tetracycline
The most common mode of HAV transmission is contamination of food during preparation
The easiest way to prevent outbreaks of gram negative gastroenteritis is to cook food thoroughly
Microscopic examination of a patient's fecal culture shows spiral bacteria. The bacteria probably belong to the genus Campylobacter
Feces from a patient with diarrhea lasting for weeks with frequent, watery stools should be examined for
Helicobacter can grow in the stomach because it makes NH-3
Eukaryotes that cause gastroenteritis Entamoeba, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Cyclos pora
Hepatitis C --diagnosed by PCR--incubation of 4 to 22 weeks--transmitted by the parenteral route--it is a flavivirus
Delicatessen meats Listeria
Milk Campylobacter
Oysters Vibrio
Beef E.Coli
Chapter 25 ends Chapter 26 Begins
(528)Predisposing factors to urinary tract infections diabetes mellitus, toxemia, tumors, kidney stones
Pyelonephritis may result from cystitis, ureteritis, urethritis, systemic infections
Cystitis is most often caused by gram negative rods
The reservoir for leptospirosis is domestic dogs
Trichomoniasis is primarily a sexually transmitted disease
Syphillis is treated with penicillin
What can cause congenital infections or infections of the newborn? genital herpes, gonorrhea, nongonococcal urethritis, syphilis
535)Genital herpes recurs at the initial site of infection
Nongonococcal urethritis can be caused by Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma homini, streptococci, Candida albicans
Candidiasis can be caused by an opportunistic infection
Most nosocomial infections of the urinary tract are caused by E. coli
Glomerulonephritis is an immune complex disease
The most common reportable disease in the United States is gonorrhea
What is the most difficulty to treat with chemotherapeutic agents? Genital herpes
Leukocytes at the infected site is a symptom of trichomoniasis
What is caused by Chlamydia? Lymphogranuloma venereum
What forms lesions similar to those of tuberculosis? Syphilis
What disease causes a skin rash, hair loss, malaise, and fever? Syphilis
Staphylococcus saprophyticus causes cystitis
Nongonococcal urethritis can be caused by ureaplasma, mycoplasma, chlamydia
A patient is experiencing profuse greenish yellow foul smelling discharge form her vagina; she is complaining of itching and irritation. What is the most likely treatment? Metronidazole
A 25 year old male presents with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. The etiology could be Rickettsia, Borrelia, Streptococcus, Treponema
A 25 year old male presented with fever, malaise, and rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Diagnosis was made based on serological testing. The patient then reported that he had an ulcer on his penis tow months earlier. This disease can be treated with penicillin
A pelvic examination of a 23 year old female showed vesicles and ulcerated lesions on her labia. Cultures were negative for Neiseeria and Chlamydia; the VDRL test was negative. What is probable? Genital herpes
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? prostatitis; inflammation of prostate dysuria; pain on urination pyelonephritis; inflammation of kidneys glomerulonephritis; inflammation of kidney glomerular capillaries
Which microorganism is responsible for approximately 75% of all UTIs and half of the nosocomial infections of the urinary tract? Escherichia coli
A 22-year-old female college student visits the campus health center, complaining of low pelvic pain, dysuria, and hematuria. A clean-catch urine specimen is collected; and upon culture, it grows >100,000 cfu/ml of a catalase-positive, coagulase-negative, Staphylococcus saprophyticus
Non-gonococcal urethritis is commonly caused by ________. Chlamydia trachomatis
A clinical microbiologist detects clue cells from a vaginal swab of a patient. These cells are diagnostic of infection associated with ________. Gardnerella vaginalis
A 23-year-old woman comes to the emergency room complaining of low abdominal pain and a fever. As she walks into the examination room, she is slightly stooped over and says that even walking is painful. She indicates that intercourse has been painful for pelvic inflammatory disease
Which of these statements about gonorrhea is true? Neisseria gonorrhoeae can disseminate from the genital area to the joints, causing arthritis.
A patient has an STI characterized by sporadically recurring, painful, fluid-filled blisters in the genital area. A Gram stain and bacterial culture indicate the presence of normal bacterial microbiota. What is the most likely etiologic agent? herpes simplex (HSV)
A mother infected with gonorrhea has transmitted the disease to her infant as he passed through the birth canal. This infection in the infant is called ________. ophthalmia neonatorum
A 20-year-old male reports to an STI clinic with symptoms of painful urination. A gram stain of urethral exudate reveals gram-negative diplococci inside leukocytes. What is the causative agent of the patient's symptoms? Neisseria gonorrhoeae
What was the incidence of gonorrhea in the United States in the year 2007? 120 cases per 100,000 people
What geographic region had the most cases of syphilis is the United States in 2006? Washington D.C.
Which of the following is a disease of the reproductive system? genital herpes syphilisgonorrhea candidiasis
All of these statements are true of pelvic inflammatory disease It may involve infection of the uterus, cervix, uterine tubes, or ovaries. The most common causative agents are Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis.Barrier contraceptives and spermicide use may prevent infection. It may result in infertility
All of these methods are used for diagnosis of syphilis rapid plasmid reagin (RPR) test VDRL test fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-ABS) test darkfield microscopy
All of these answers pertain to genital warts It is sexually transmitted.It is associated with increased risk of cervical carcinoma. It is caused by papillomaviruses. It can cause irritation and intense itching.
All of the following are true concerning syphilis tertiary stage: cardiovascular and neurological damage primary stage: chancre at initial site secondary stage: skin lesions on palm, and any surface area of the body latent stage: no symptoms, but can persist for life
All of the following are potential predisposing conditions for vaginitis treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics increased sugar concentration in vagina estrogen imbalance decrease in lactobacilli population
All of these answers pertain to vaginitis increased frequency in pregnant patients increased frequency in menopause patients diabetes mellitus and use of contraceptive pills increase risk usually caused by opportunistic microbes
All of these answers pertain to leptospirosis It is a zoonotic disease. It is caused by a spirochete. It is transmitted via contact with urine and urine-contaminated water or soil. It has an incubation period of 1 to 2 weeks, with sudden onset of headaches, chills, and fever.
All of these answers pertain to urinary tract infections (UTIs) Incomplete or infrequent emptying of the bladder increases risk of infection. The shorter urethra in females increases the risk of cystitis. Urethral infections easily spread to the bladder.An enlarged prostate gland increases the incidence of infection
Normal microbiota of the adult vagina consist primarily of Lactobacillus.
Pyelonephritis usually is caused by Escherichia coli
One form of NGU is lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Which of the following is diagnosed by detection of antibodies against the causative agent? Syphilis
The pH of the adult vagina is acidic due to the conversion of __(1)__ to __(2)__ by bacteria. ) 1-Glycogen; 2-Lactic acid
A normal urine sample collected by urinating into a sterile collection cup Is sterile
All of the following are predisposing factors to cystitis in females The proximity of the anus to the urethra. The length of the urethra. Sexual intercourse.
Which of the following is a complication of gonorrhea Pelvic inflammatory disease Endocarditis Meningitis
Itching and cheesy discharge are symptoms of: Candidiasis
Recurring vesicles are symptoms of: Genital herpes
Which of the following is treated with spectinomycin because the organism produces penicillinase? Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Which one of the following statements about genital warts is true It is transmitted by direct contact. It is caused by papillomaviruses. It is always precancerous. It is treated by removing them
The most common STD in the United States is treated with Penicillin.
Pelvic inflammatory disease Affects one million women annually. Can be caused by N. gonorrhoeae. Can be transmitted sexually. Can be caused by C. trachomatis
Infants born to mothers with recurrent genital herpes do not usually acquire Herpesvirus at birth if the mother is asymptomatic because Maternal antibodies offer protection
Which of the following is greater? The number of reported cases of gonorrhea last year.
A patient presents with fever and extensive lesions of the labia minora. Her VDRL test was negative. What is the most likely treatment? Acyclovir
A 25-year-old male presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Which of the following will be most useful for a rapid diagnosis?
A 25-year-old male presented with fever, malaise, and a rash on his chest, arms, and feet. Diagnosis was made based on serological testing. The patient then reported that he had an ulcer on his penis two months earlier. What stage of disease is the patien Secondary
A pelvic examination of a 23-year-old female showed vesicles and ulcerated lesions on her labia. Cultures were negative for Neisseria and Chlamydia; the VDRL test was negative. Which treatment is appropriate? ) Surgery
Which of the following pairs is matched? Gonorrhea  gram-negative cocci Chancroid  gram-negative rod Gardnerella  clue cells Syphilis  gram-negative spirochete
Chapter 26 Ends Chapter 25 begins
Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea is usually preceded by Use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.
Which of the following does not produce a gastrointestinal disease due to an exotoxin? Staphylococcus aureus
Amoebic dysentery and bacillary dysentery differ in the Mode of transmission. Appearance of the patient's stools. Etiologic agent.
Which of the following is diagnosed by the presence of flagellates in the patient's feces? Giardiasis
In humans, beef tapeworm infestations are acquired by Ingesting cysticerci in the intermediate host.
Acute gastroenteritis that occurs after an incubation period of 2 to 3 days is probably caused by Salmonella
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched Taenia infestation  humans are the definitive host Trichinellosis  humans eat larva of parasite Pinworm infestation  humans ingest parasite's eggs Hookworm infestation  parasite bores through skin
Which of the following organisms is most likely to be responsible for periodontal disease? Gram-negative cocci
Typhoid fever differs from salmonellosis in that in typhoid fever The symptoms are due to infection of the gallbladder.
A vaccine to provide active immunity to serum hepatitis is being prepared from Pooled gamma globulin.
Which of the following causes an infection of the liver Hepatitis A virus
Epidemics of bacterial infections of the digestive system are transmitted by Food. Water. Milk. The respiratory route.
Which of the following pairs is correctly matched? Salmonella endotoxin  coagulates blood Vibrio enterotoxin  secretion of Cl-, CO32-, and H2O Aflatoxin  liver cancer
Bacterial intoxications differ from bacterial infections of the digestive system in that intoxications Have shorter incubation times.
With which of the following substrates can Streptococcus mutans make a capsule? Sucrose
Most bacteria associated with the teeth and gums are Facultative anaerobes.
A 38-year-old man had onset of fever, chills, nausea, and myalgia. On April 29, he had eaten raw oysters. On May 2, he was admitted to a hospital because of a fever of 39°C and two circular necrotic lesions on the left leg. He had alcoholic liver disease. Vibrio vulnificus
All of the following are gram-negative rods that cause gastroenteritis Clostridium. Escherichia. Salmonella. Shigella.
Acute gastroenteritis that occurs after an incubation period of 4 to 24 hours is probably caused by Staphylococcus aureus
Following a county fair, 160 persons complained of gastrointestinal symptoms. Symptoms included diarrhea (84%), abdominal cramps (96%), nausea (84%), vomiting (82%), body aches (50%), fever (60%; median body temperature = 38.3°C); median duration of illness 6 days (range 10 hr to 13 days).
fecal samples should be cultured for all of the following Salmonella. Shigella. Campylobacter. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.
assume the samples were culture-negative. The next step is Blood cultures.
Miscellaneous Q &A For all of these chapters
All of the following statements regarding Treponema pallidum are true shape - spirochete Gram reaction - gram-nonreactive transmission - sexually ransmission - open lesion on hands
All of the following are reportable sexually transmitted diseases Gonorrhea. AIDS. Syphilis.
Most cases of complicated cystitis are caused by Proteus
complication of gonorrhea Sterility Pelvic inflammatory disease Arthritis
Which of the following pairs are matched for syphilis incubation period - three weeks,chancre - indolent, flu like syndrome - secondary phase
Which of the following statements regarding neonatal syphilis Transmitted through placenta during 5th month, 25% of the cases die in utero, Late lesions resemble gummas.
Which of the following statements regarding the Rapid Plasma Reagin test for syphilis is Reacts with Wasserman antibodies of patient.
symptoms of gonorrhea in males dysuria purulent discharge urethral stricture chronic prostatiti
A major cause of septic arthritis in adults is Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Most cases of posttransfusion hepatitis are caused by Hepatitis C virus.
Which of the following does produce a gastrointestinal disease that includes production of an exotoxin Escherichia coli Vibrio cholerae Shigella dysenteriae
Treatment of gonorrhea ampicillin - for penicillin sensitive strains, ceftriaxone - effective against incubating syphilis. ceftriaxone - pharyngeal gonorrhea.
Chemoprophylaxis for meningitis caused by Neisseria includes rifampin
Which of the following is diagnosed by the presence of flagellates in the patient's feces Giardiasis
The most common cause of traveler's diarrhea is probably Escherichia coli.
Which of the following can be transferred from an infected mother to her fetus across the placenta Cytomegalovirus inclusion disease
Treatment of superficial candidiasis includes miconazole (topical), nystatin (oral)
Systemic mycoses include all of the following Blastomyces. Coccidioidomycosis. Histoplasmosis. Cryptococcosis
Treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Urinary Tract Infections includes Carbenicillin
A primary symptom of this disease is a spasmodic coughing ccompanied by a rapid intake of air. Complications include a collapsed lung and convulsions. This disease is Pertussis
Which of the following is not a characteristic of P. aeruginosa Gram-positive rods
Which of these is caused by herpes virus? Chickenpox Shingles fever blisters
Legionnaire's disease Transmission is by droplet. An atypical pneumonia. A gram negative rod. Air conditioning units implicated in infection.
The most common etiology for shigellosis in the northern USA is Shigella sonnei
Transmission of shigellosis is primarily by humans to humans
The etiologic agent of chickenpox human herpes virus 3
Probably the most common cause of infantile diarrhea is Enteropathogenic E. coli
This organism ranks second to E. coli as a cause of uncomplicated cystitis Proteus
The etiologic agent of fever blisters . human herpes virus 1
This organism is a common cause of nosocomial pneumonia Klebsiella pneumoniae
This antibiotic is used for UTI caused by Proteus mirabilis Ampicillin
What is the recommended treatment for syphilis benzathine Pen G
Explain the difference between healthy and convalescent carriers healthy-no symptoms but shedding organism. convalescent-no longer has disease but still shedding organaism.
What two factors are associated with Pseudomonas Urinary Tract Infections nosocomial and instrumentation
List the major opportunistic bacterial, fungal, protozoan, and viral diseases used to define AIDS. Mycobacterium avium complex Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia Toxoplasmosis Herpes simplex and herpes zoster
Bacteriophages have what basic shape T or binal shape
Created by: RShanne on 2010-10-24



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