Welcome to StudyStack, where users create FlashCards and share them with others. Click on the large flashcard to flip it over. Then click the green, red, or yellow box to move the current card to that box. Below the flashcards are blue buttons for other activities that you can try to study the same information.
Test Android StudyStack App
Please help StudyStack get a grant! Vote here.
or...
Reset Password Free Sign Up

Free flashcards for serious fun studying. Create your own or use sets shared by other students and teachers.


incorrect cards (0)
correct cards (0)
remaining cards (0)
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the Correct box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the Incorrect box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

Correct box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards


Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

psychchapter4

QuestionAnswer
Do genes influence your response to the time change? Yes.
What do genes do? Control the construction of the amino acids.
Having an extra chromosome is associated with: Lower intelligence.
If you have one allele for blue eyes and one for brown. May have blue eyes.
Heritability estimates Indicate the correlation between differences in a trait and genetic differences.
Estimates of heritability may be Overestimated due to emergenesis.
In some species of fish, sex is not reflective of genetics.
The SRY gene determines how bent a protein is.
The thickness of a guys' muscles reflect an activational effect of testosterone.
the swelling of breasts and hips reflects the activational effects of estrogen.
Ovarian estrogen does not thicken brain cells because It does not leave the blood.
Frans avoids talking with food in his mouth because other people think it is crude and inappropriate. This best illustrates the impact of norms.
Women report that their friendships with women are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships with men. Men report that their friendships with men are ________ enjoyable and intimate than their friendships with women. more; less.
The gender gap in aggression is LEAST likely to pertain to ________ another person. spreading false rumors about.
Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart has most clearly increased scientific appreciation for the importance of ________ in personality development. genetic influences.
The unique temperaments of children evoke predictable responses from their caregivers. This best illustrates the ________ of nature and nurture. interaction.
Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by individualism.
The importance of romance in marriage relationships is most strongly emphasized in cultures characterized by individualism.
Our selective exposure to those life experiences that are best suited to our unique temperaments best illustrates the interaction of nature and nurture.
Identifying specific DNA sequences associated with the traits of anger and anxiety best illustrates a potential benefit of molecular behavior genetics.
Gender differences in heritable personality traits cannot necessarily be attributed to male-female genetic differences because heritable traits can be influenced by social environments.
Compared with women, men are ________ likely to feel comfortable about having casual sex with different partners and ________ likely to cite affection as a reason for their first sexual intercourse. more; less.
Men rape women much more frequently than women rape men. Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to explain this in terms of sex differences in reproduction capacity.
Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that part of the parietal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
Prenatal testosterone secretions exert one of their earliest influences on genes.
Cultural diversity best illustrates our adaptive capacities.
A baby girl receives a(n) X chromosome from her father & mother.
Compared with northern Europeans, people from Mediterranean cultures are more likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.
cautious attitude toward sexual encounters has proven to be more reproductively advantageous to women than to men because the birth process is time-consuming. This suggestion best illustrates the logic of a(n) ________ theory of sexual behavior. evolutionary perspective.
The capacity for long-term potentiation is limited by: the genome.
The ability to repress memories that are painful is almost universal in humans. This suggests that this ability is the result of: natural selection.
Unconditioned responses are more likely than conditioned responses to reflect the effects of: genes.
Which of the following is probably not a reflection of the genome? the serial position effect.
The primary distinction between Skinner's idea that language is the result of operant conditioning and Chomsky's idea that humans have an inborn predisposition to use language is the importance of: genes in the ability to use grammar.
Genes are similar to language in that both are: produce complex structures but are made up of relatively few components.
In theory mutations should increase the variability in people. This will result in a higher: range of behavior when looking at an affected trait.
You compare the individualism of people with two X chromosomes with people with an X and a Y chromosome by presenting them with a survey. You find that those with a Y chromosome are more likely to be individualist. What type of research have you done? an experiment.
Which of the following is most likely to be helpful to someone suffering from Gender role confusion and gender identity confusion? clinical psychologist.
Behavior genetics is one way to approach the _____ issue. nature-nurture.
Evolutionary psychologists believe that because of the different reproductive challenges experienced by men and women throughout the history of the human race women are usually attracted to dominant males, while males are usually attracted to females who appear to be young and healthy.
In the “John/Joan” case, childhood doctors assumed that gender identity is heavily influenced by ______. The final outcome of this case indicated that gender identity is heavily influenced by ______. nurture; nature.
Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar temperaments.
The home environment most clearly has a greater influence on children's ________ than on their ________. religious beliefs; personality traits.
A genetically female child who receives excess testosterone during prenatal growth is subsequently likely to develop more aggressive behavior patterns than most girls.
The preservation of innovation best illustrates the survival value of culture.
The capacity to screen and select human fertilized eggs for such desirable personality traits as friendliness and emotional stability is one of the potentials of molecular genetics.
Adopted children grow up to be more self-giving than average.
female children exposed to excess testosterone during prenatal development subsequently exhibit more “tomboyish” behaviors than most girls. To avoid overestimating the influence of prenatal hormones on these behaviors, we should note that these children may be treated more like boys because they frequently look masculine.
Mr. Eskenazi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi's contribution to the gender typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by social learning theorists.
People's reactions to our genetic dispositions constitute part of our environment.
In everyday behavior, men are LESS likely than women to smile at others.
The impact of our cultural backgrounds on the development of our personal values best illustrates the influence of the environment.
A behavior geneticist would be most interested in studying hereditary influences on personality traits.
At about eight months of age, people across the world start to ________ strangers; as adults, they prefer the company of those whose attributes are ________ to their own. fear; similar.
Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that developmental processes are highly similar among people raised in different cultures.
Compared with children raised in Westernized cultures, children in many Asian cultures grow up with a strong sense of social connectedness.
The ability to provide would-be parents with information regarding their fetus' risk for a learning disorder is a potential benefit of molecular behavior genetics.
Flashbulb memories are probably the result of: an interaction between genes and experience.
The processes of encoding, storage and retrieval are likely to reflect: an interaction between genes and the environment.
DNA is important for determining the distinction between: primary and conditioned reinforcers.
DNA determines the _____ Broca's area. structure and function of.
A study compares identical twins with fraternal twins to determine the heritability of body weight. What is the dependent variable in this study? body weight.
You compare of people with two X chromosomes people with an X and a Y chromosome by bringing them into the lab and presenting them with a survey. You find that those with a Y chromosome are more likely to be individualist. In other words, there was a statistically significant difference between the groups.
A counseling psychologist would be interested in: gender role.
Researchers have discovered that we often are attracted to those with whom we spend a great deal of time. This factor of romantic attraction is called proximity.
Individualism is to collectivism as ________ is to ________. independence; interdependence.
gender similarities and differences are products of a continuous interplay among genetically predisposed traits, culturally shaped roles, and personally constructed expectations and assumptions. The professor's emphasis best illustrates a biopsychosocial approach
Carlos was born with cataracts in both eyes. Even though they were removed when he was 5, his lack of visual experiences during early childhood makes it likely that he has experienced degenerations of the neural connections in the visual reception areas of the brain.
Those who defend evolutionary psychology against criticism are most likely to suggest that evolutionary principles generate testable predictions.
Pat is normally very restless and fidgety, whereas Shelley is usually quiet and easygoing. The two children most clearly differ in temperaments.
The male answer syndrome suggests that males are less likely than females to demonstrate social modesty.
Compared to environmentally impoverished rats, those rats housed in enriched environments experienced a dramatic increase in the number of their synapses.
The remarkable academic and vocational successes of the children of refugee “boat people” from Vietnam and Cambodia best illustrate the importance of family environment.
Exceptionally inhibited and fearful infants tend to become introverted adolescents. This best illustrates the long-term stability of temperament.
We are likely to ________ the personality similarities among children in the same family, and we are likely to ________ the personality similarities between parents and their children. overestimate; overestimate.
Research on brain development suggests that repeated learning experiences seem to strengthen neural connections at the location that processes the experiences.
Male self-identity is to ________ as female self-identity is to ________. independence; interdependence.
Parents in Westernized cultures are more likely than parents in Asian cultures to encourage children to value nonconformity.
Compared with women, men are more likely to perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come on.
Because Marla is the first girl in her fourth-grade class to sexually mature, she is sometimes teased and rejected by her classmates. Marla's sense of social isolation and embarrassment result from the interaction of nature and nurture.
Cross-cultural research on human development indicates that person-to-person differences within cultural groups are larger than the differences between groups.
Girls typically play in ________ groups than do boys and, during their teens, girls spend ________ time with friends than do boys. smaller; more.
An aggressive person may not always behave aggressively. This may reflect the effects of _____ on this behavior. shaping.
An evolutionary psychologist might be interested in noting: the role of the hippocampus in memory as people age.
Evolutionary psychology may explain observational learning as the result of: natural selection.
An evolutionary psychologist might be interested in: the similarities and differences between human and monkey thought processes.
Evolutionary psychologist might be interested in: how language develops, from babbling through whole sentences.
There is typically a high _____ between one's gender identity, gender role and gender type. correlation.
people with two X chromosomes with that of people with an X and a Y chromosome by bringing them into the lab and presenting them with a survey. You find that those with a Y chromosome are more likely to be individualist. What would the result look like? the median individualist score would be higher for those with a Y chromosome than those who do not have one.
The role of DNA, genes and the genome in behavior would be most interesting to: an evolutionary psychologist.
Charles Darwin noticed that many species of animals had developed characteristics with no survival value. His theory that these characteristics had evolved to attract a mate is called sexual selection.
Evolutionary psychology has been criticized most often because it depends too much on hindsight explanations of human behavior.
Chromosomes are located within human bone cells.
An evolutionary psychologist would be likely to suggest that human preferences for sweet-tasting foods are genetically predisposed.
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to attribute gender differences in attitudes toward casual sex to the fact that men have ________ than do women. greater reproduction potential.
A child's temperament is likely to be stable over time.
If a genetic predisposition to fear darkness contributes to reproductive success, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates natural selection.
If a genetically based attraction to beautiful people contributes to survival, that trait will likely be passed on to subsequent generations. This best illustrates natural selection.
Research most clearly suggests that personality traits are more strongly influenced by genes than by home environment.
Social roles are especially likely to be central to people's self-identity in ________ cultures. collectivist.
Adoptive parents are most likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children. political attitudes.
Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by individualism.
Brittla spends a lot of money on cosmetics and expensive clothing in order to attract a desirable mate. According to evolutionary psychologists, Brittla's behavior is a product of genetic predispositions.
Compared with Asian parents, North American parents today place less emphasis on obedience and less emphasis on family loyalties.
The diversity of human traits is enabled by our shared adaptive capacity.
Parents should not take too much blame for the failures and shortcomings of their children because parental behavior is only one of many factors that influence children's' behavior.
Genetic influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing ________ with ________. identical twins raised together; fraternal twins raised together.
Flashbulb memories are probably the result of: an interaction between genetics and experience.
Some individuals develop cognitive maps more readily than others. This may be explained by: differences in the genome.
Evolutionary psychology may explain observational learning as the result of: natural selection.
A heritability estimate is most akin to; a correlation coefficient.
Behavior genetics is consistent with which approach to psychology? biopsychosocial.
Behavior genetics and evolutionary psychology are different: perspectives.
Compared with men, women are more likely to talk with others to explore relationships.
Parents can most effectively increase their influence on their children by helping to selection their children's neighborhoods and schools.
Compared with men, women experience a greater risk of eating disorders.
The belief that boys are more independent than girls is a gender schema.
The impact of genes on observable traits can vary in different environments. Thus, genes are said to be self-regulating.
Children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of gender typing.
The practice of covering your mouth when you cough best illustrates the impact of norms.
men are more likely than women to initiate casual sex because this has historically served to be a more successful reproductive strategy for men than for women. The professor's suggestion best illustrates a(n) ________ theory. evolutionary.
Prenatal testosterone secretions exert one of their earliest influences on brain organization.
Lacking any exposure to language before adolescence, a person will never master any language due to the ________ of unemployed neural connections. pruning.
Evolutionary psychologists have suggested that men are ________ likely than women to prefer mates with a fertile-looking appearance and ________ likely than women to prefer mates with wealth and social status. more; more.
Compared with northern Europeans, people from Mediterranean cultures are less likely to be emotionally expressive and less likely to be punctual.
Compared with many Asian and African parents, today's Westernized parents are more likely to teach their children to value personal independence.
A researcher who assesses the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n) behavior geneticist.
The ability to recall memories is dependent on _____. The ability to recognize answers is dependent on _____. genes, genes.
Some individuals develop cognitive maps more readily than others. This may be explained by: differences in the genome.
Individualism and collectivism are probably learned through: observational learning.
Which of the following might be an operational definition of gender? the characteristics that are used to differentiate male from female.
A heritability estimate is most akin to; a correlational coefficient.
Evolutionary psychology is consistent with which approach to psychology? biopsychosocial.
Studies of individualism versus collectivism would be most interesting to someone using the biopsychosocial approach.
In the video 'Do Parents Matter? Peer Influence', Judith Harris notes that peers have a strong impact on the development of children's language accents.
Although identical twins have been shown to have some amazing psychological similarities, one should be cautious about attributing these similarities to genetic factors because any two strangers are likely to share a string of coincidental similarities.
Compared with men, women are ________ likely to agree to go to bed with a stranger and ________ likely to perceive simple friendliness as a sexual come-on. less; less.
Gender differences in verbal fluency are consistent with evidence that part of the frontal lobes is thicker in women than in men.
The tendency to classify various occupations as masculine or feminine has often led men and women to limit themselves to an unnecessarily restricted range of career options. This best illustrates the impact of gender schemas.
Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are ________ similar in neuroticism and ________ similar in risk of divorcing. less; less.
When his mother offered to play leapfrog with him, Jorge protested, “I'm not going to play a girl's game!” Jorge's reaction best illustrates the impact of gender schemas.
Genes provide the code for the production of proteins.
You find that identical twins have very similar semantic codes, more so than fraternal twins. This suggests that such coding is: heritable.
That we tend to remember information, and not where that information came from, is a reflection of: the genome.
Gender role is likely to reflect the effects of: operant conditioning.
The study of learning typically: emphasizes the importance of environment over genetics.
Because it is heritable, the size of Wernicke's area: is more similar in identical twins than it is in fraternal twins.
That nonhuman species do not speak as we do suggests that _____ may influence the ability to use language. genes.
That nonhuman species do not speak as we do suggests that _____ may have had a role in the ability to use language. natural selection.
A study compares identical twins with fraternal twins to determine the heritability of body weight. What is the independent variable in this study? type of twin.
The study of the role of genes in behavior is most closely tied to which of the following approaches to psychology? functionalism.
Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted reproductive success.
It is most likely that in many cultures women's leadership responsibilities have been limited by their gender roles.
Professor Shankar believes that her students' most important personal characteristics are those that distinguish them as uniquely different from most other people. Her attitude best illustrates one of the consequences of individualism.
Compared with men, women are more likely to talk with others to explore relationships.
The heritability of a specific trait will be lowest among genetically similar individuals who have been raised in dissimilar environments.
When male and female student research assistants at Florida State University sexually propositioned an attractive person of the opposite sex, their invitations were accepted by half or more of the men but virtually no women.
Which of the following would you MOST likely observe on extended visits to foreign countries? more men than women engaged in fistfights.
People are most likely to notice the impact of environmental influences on behavior when confronted by cultural diversity.
Genes influence ____ whereas experience influences _____. the processes of memory, the contents of memory.
Environmental influences on personality traits are most clearly highlighted by comparing identical twins raised together with identical twins raised apart.
Dante is healthier than his twin brother because he developed with a better placental barrier against viruses. This best illustrates the impact of ________ on development. prenatal environment.
Compared with those in cultures that value individualism, people in collectivist cultures are especially likely to value personal modesty.
Evolutionary psychologists are most likely to be criticized for providing hindsight explanations for human behaviors.
Elton responds to his daughter's fistfight with, “Good girls don't fight!” but when his son has a fistfight he says, “Did you win?!” The role of Elton's reactions in the gender typing of his children would be of most direct interest to social learning theorists.
Critics of evolutionary psychology are most likely to suggest that it underestimates the impact of cultural expectations on human sexual behavior.
Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in temperament.
Evolutionary psychologists would be most likely to predict that children are more likely to be valued by their biological fathers than by their stepfathers.
An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender norms, sex-related hormones, and individual expectations regarding gender-appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by a biopsychosocial approach.
Evolutionary psychology would be most helpful for understanding the ________ human aggression. reproductive advantages of
The prevalence of genetically predisposed traits that have a reproductive advantage is best explained in terms of natural selection.
The labels “easy,” “difficult,” and “slow-to-warm-up” are used to refer to differences in an infant's temperament.
An African butterfly that is green in the summer turns brown in the fall thanks to a temperature-controlled genetic switch. This best illustrates that genes are self-regulating.
Research on brain development suggests that repeated learning experiences seem to strengthen neural connections at the location that processes the experiences.
`The heritability of a specific trait will be greatest among genetically dissimilar individuals who have been raised in similar environments.
When Mr. Thompson lived overseas for a year, he was very surprised at how much respect he received from people simply because he was an older person. His sense of surprise suggests that he had NOT previously lived in a culture characterized by collectivism.
Which of the following is probably not a reflection of the genome? the serial position effect.
The primary distinction between Skinner's idea that language is the result of operant conditioning and Chomsky's idea that humans have an inborn predisposition to use language is the importance of: Genes in preparing the ability to use grammar.
In theory mutations should increase the variability in people. This will result in a higher: Range of behavior when looking at the level of an affected trait.
The nature-nurture issue is directly addressed by: behavior genetic analysis of behavior.
In a group discussion, women are ________ likely than men to express support for others' opinions. As group leaders, women are ________ likely than men to promote a democratic leadership style. more; more.
The principles of evolutionary psychology would suggest that parents are genetically predisposed to experience the strongest grief over the deaths of their adolescent sons.
As compared to women, men are typically more socially independent and less interested in religion.
Those who suggest that choices we make today determine what our future will be like are emphasizing the importance of human responsibility.
According to evolutionary psychologists, our predisposition to overconsume fatty junk foods illustrates that we are biologically prepared to behave in ways that promoted the ________ of our ancestors. reproductive success
It has been suggested that our sensitivity to peer influence is genetically predisposed because it has facilitated the process of human mating. This suggestion best illustrates an evolutionary perspective.
On extended visits to foreign countries, you would be most likely to observe more men than women in political leadership positions.
Depending on environmental conditions, specific genes can be either active or inactive.
People have always responded so positively to Alyssa's good looks that she has developed a socially confident and outgoing personality. This best illustrates the interaction of nature and nurture.
As people progress through adulthood, women become more assertive and men become more empathic.
The genome is the complete set of genetic material in an organism's chromosomes.
Evolutionary psychologists emphasize that environmentally adaptive behaviors are those that have promoted reproductive success.
Religious and ethnic diversity are most likely to be appreciated in a culture characterized by individualism.
An infant boy was raised as a girl following a botched circumcision. During adolescence, the child ________ boys and ________ the assigned female identity. wanted no part of kissing; did not accept
The processes of encoding, storage and retrieval are likely to reflect: an interaction between genes and the environment.
Behavior genetics is one way to approach the _____ issue. nature-nurture issue.
Critics of evolutionary psychology would be most likely to suggest that it has difficulty accounting for differences in the behavior patterns of Asians and Americans.
Those who inappropriately attribute children's troubling personality traits to inadequate parental nurture should be reminded of the importance of genetic predispositions.
Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart has most clearly increased scientific appreciation for the importance of ________ in personality development. genetic influences.
Ginger wants to marry someone who will provide financial security for her children. Evolutionary psychologists would most likely attribute Ginger's motivation to genetic predispositions.
Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to parental influences.
In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is more likely to contribute to a child's English language accent.
Critics of evolutionary psychology would be most likely to suggest that it has difficulty accounting for differences in the behavior patterns of Asians and Americans.
Those who inappropriately attribute children's troubling personality traits to inadequate parental nurture should be reminded of the importance of genetic predispositions.
Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart has most clearly increased scientific appreciation for the importance of ________ in personality development. genetic influences.
Ginger wants to marry someone who will provide financial security for her children. Evolutionary psychologists would most likely attribute Ginger's motivation to genetic predispositions.
Children raised in the same family are not especially likely to have similar personalities. This most clearly implies that we should be cautious about attributing personality to parental influences.
In comparison to parental influence, peer influence is more likely to contribute to a child's English language accent.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-10-21



bad sites Copyright ©2001-2014  StudyStack LLC   All rights reserved.