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Orgnztion of Body

Levels of Organization chemicals, cells, tissue, organ, organs system, Body as a whole
structures associated with integumentary system hair, nails, sweat gland and oil glands
what are the 10 body systems? skeletal, muscle, nervous, endocrine, cardiovascular,lymphatic,respiratory,digestive,urinary, reproductive
purpose of integumentary system? protect,support and movement
purpose of skeletal system? framework of body,shape, movement, protect organs,produce blood cells
skeletal system 2 types of bones? APPENDICULAR(126)... arms, legs, pectorial girdle, pelvic girdle AXIAL(80)...skull,rib cage, vertebral column
Bone Structure is made of? Tissue
Classifications of bone shape, flat, irregular
examples of flat bones? ribs, skull
examples of irregular bones vertebral column, pelvic girdle
2 types of bone marrow? red and yellow
where is red marrow found? end of long bones, center of other bones,
functions of red marrow? store calcium, produce new blood cells
where is yellow marrow found? interior of long bones
what does yellow marrow consist of? mainly lip/o (fat)
Function of muscular system? assist with movement, support of structure
types of muscle? smooth, cardiac, skeletal
what organs are made of smooth muscle? stomach, rectum, colon
layers of muscle? endomysium, perimysium, epimysium tendon
tendon attaches muscle to bone
endomysium deepest layer
perimysium encases endomysium
epimysium inner most layer
are smooth and cardiac muscle movements voluntary or involuntary? Involuntary
skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary? voluntary
what makes the nervous system? brain, spinal cord, nerves
special sensory organs? ears, eyes, tastebuds, organs of smell
cerebrospinal fluid (csf) fluid protecting the nerves
cerebrum largest part of brain, divided in left and right
diencephalon area between lobes of cerebrum and brain stem
brain stem connects cerebrum and diencephalon
cerebellum smallest section, located behind cerebrum
Types of neurons? afferent, efferent, interneurons
afferent neurons receivers
efferent neurons carry msgs to muscles and glands
interneurons relays clear meessage w/in the CNS
structure of neuron dendrite, cell body(nucleus), axon
dendrite fingerlike, sends msg to nucleus
cell body(nucleus) gathers and processes info
axon delivers messages
endocrine system produces hormones to regulate body activity, growth,food utilization and reproduction
endocrine glands thyroid, pituitary, adrenal
types of hormones? amino acids, steroids
negative feedback controls hormones, hormones released to stop a function
positive feedback caused by stimuli to release hormone to promote more
homeostasis body in balance, "staying the same"
pituitary gland regulates other glands. master gland
lymphatic system aids in absorbtion of digested fats
cardiovascular system carries waste materials away from tissue to points where they can be eliminated
lymphatic organs tonsils, thymus, and spleen
respiratory system to take in air and conduct it to areas designated for gas exchange
digestive system teeth, mouth, tongue, esphogus, stomach, large and small intestines, colon, rectum
urinary system 2 kidneys, 2 ureters, 1 bladder, 1 urethra
GH growth hormone
TSH thyroid-stimulating hormone
PRL prolactin -milk production
FSH follicle-stimulating hormone
ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone -stimulates adrenal gland
layers of the eye sclera, chorid, retina
sclera outer layer, white of eye, protects eye
chorid middle layer, iris, regulates amt of light entering eye
retina inner layer, made of rods/cones,
rods light sensitive
cones function in bright light
sections of ear external, middle, inner
pinna directs soundwaves into the ear
tympanic membrane eardrum,vibrates as sound enters the ear
3 types of bones in ear malleous, incus stapes
cochlea receptors for hearing
dorsal cavity contains cranial cavity, spinal cavity
ventral cavity thoracic cavity, abdominal cavity, pelvic cavity, diaphragm
elevation movement of the shoulder upward
depression movement of the shoulder down
protraction forward neck movement
retraction backward neck movement
eversion foot movement outward
inversion foot movement inward
adduction leg movement inward
abduction leg movement outward
dorsiflexion foot movement up
plantar flexion foot movement down
extension arm straight forward
hyperextension hand upward
flexion hand downward, lower leg bent backward
extension lower leg straight
circumduction arm circles
rotation wrist circles
supination palm out
pronation palm in
steroids fat hormone
amino acid proteins
cranial nearer to head
caudal nearer to sacral region
medial nearer to imaginary plane(midline)
lateral farther from midline
proximal nearer to origin(joint) of a structure
distal farther from the point of origin of structure
catabolism breaking down of nutrients to yield energy
anabolism repair of tissue
urinary system rids body of waste and excess water
reproductive system production of offspring
endocardium innermost layer of heart wall
myocardium middle of heart wall
epicardium outermost layer of heart wall
right atrium location upper right chamber
right ventricle location lower right chamber
left atrium upper left chamber
left ventricle lower left chamber
phases of respiraion pulmonary ventilation, external exchange, internal exchange
Created by: meduser