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Chabner Ch11 Vocabul

Cardiovascular System - Vocabulary

aorta largest artery in the body.
arteriole small artery.
artery largest type of blood vessel; carries blood "a"way from the heart to all parts of the body.
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) specialized muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them.
atrioventricular node (AV node) specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) through the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
atrium pl-atria one of two upper chambers of the heart.
capillary smallest blood vessel. materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillaries walls.
carbon dioxide (CO2) gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart, and then to the lungs for exhalation.
coronary arteries blood vessels that branch from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
deoxygenated blood blood that is oxygen-poor.
diastole relaxation phase of the heartbeat.
electrocardiogram record of the electricity flowing through the heart. the electricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
endocardium innermost lining of the heart.
endothelium innermost lining of the blood vessels.
mitral valve valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve.
murmur abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.
myocardium muscular, middle layer of heart.
normal sinus rhythm heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.
oxygen gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells.
pacemaker (sinoatrial node) specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. an artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic apparatus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
pericardium double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
pulmonary artery artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
pulmonary valve valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary vein one of the two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulse beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
septum pl-septa partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
sinotrial node (SA node) pacemaker of the heart.
sphygmomanometer instrument to measure blood pressure.
systemic circulation flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues.
systole contracting phase of the heartbeat.
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps.
valve structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
vein thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. veins contain valve to prevent backflow of blood.
vena cava pl-venae cavae largest vein in the body. the superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
ventricle one of two lower chambers of the heart.
venule small vein.
acute coronary unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.
angina (pectoris) chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. it prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death.
auscultation listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
beta-blocker drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrythmias. it blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
biventricular pacemaker device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that more blood is pumped out of the heart.
bruit abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.
calcium channel drug used to treat angina and hypertension. it dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
cardiac arrest sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death.
cardiac tamponade pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
claudication pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begin, but absence of pain at rest.
digoxin drug that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat.
embolus pl-emboli clot or other substance that travels to a distant location and suddenly blocks a blood vessel.
infarction area of dead tissue.
nitrates drugs used in the treatment of angina. they dilate blood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
nitroglycerin nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina.
occlusion closure of a blood vessel due to blockage.
pericardial friction rub scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
petechiae small, pinpoint, hemorrhages.
statins drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodstream.
thrill vibration felt over an area of turmoil in blood flow (as a blocked artery).
vegetations clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.
palpitations uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PCVs).
patent open.
Created by: mahepath