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Westward Expansion 5

Why did the policies of the federal government change towards the Native Americans. The policies changed because because the whites wanted more land.
The Indian policy from colonial times through the mid 19th century was to _____________. drive Native Americans inland as whites moved westward.
What policy pushed the Native Americans across the Mississippi River to the Indian Territory in the 1830's? The Removal Policy.
What area was known as the Indian Territory in the 1830's? Oklahoma.
When the Removal Policy pushed the Native Americans across the Mississippi River, what was this called? The Trail of Tears.
During the Civil War, the Native American of the West were mostly_______ ______. left alone.
Why were the Native American not left alone after the Civil War? Federal policy changed in the postwar period as a result of the transcontinental railroad, the discovery of rich mineral deposits on some reservations, and continued movement of white settlers to the West.
Why did some tribes go to war against the settlers and the soldiers who supported them? The riflemen/sharpshooters decimated (killed off) the buffalo, and they were pushed onto smaller and smaller reservations.
These wars were known as________. The Indian Wars.
What happened as a result of the Indian Wars? Native Americans were massacred (mass killings).
What happened as a result of the Sand Creek Massacre of 1864? Native American women and children were massacred.
What did the treaties between the U.S. government and Native American tribes do? Grant the Native Americans reservations in their tribal lands and recognize tribal land ownership.
Were the treaties between the Native Americans and the U.S honored by the government? No.
what happened when gold was found in the Black Hills on a reservation? The Native Americans were forced off their land.
What was the name of the tribe that was forced off their land in the Black Hills? The Lakota Sioux.
Who was the leader of the Lakota Sioux? Sitting Bull.
What event created public support for a much larger military force that crushed Native American resistance in the area? The Battle of Little Bighorn, or "Custer's Last Stand" in 1876 between the Native Americans and the U.S. army.
Why did a Native American tribe flee to Canada? They fled to Canada instead of being moved off of their traditional lands in Oregon to Idaho to make way for white settlers.
What Native American tribe fled to Canada? Nez Perce
Who led the Nez Perce tribe in1 1877? Chief Joseph.
What happened to the Nez Perce when they fled? They were surrounded by the U.S. Army.
Why did the Nez Perce surrender? They surrendered when they were promised to be allowed to return to Oregan.
Was they promise for the Nez Perce to be returned to Oregan kept? No.
What eventually happened to the Nez Perce? The tribe was taken to a reservation in Oklahoma.
Plains Indians of the Southwest known as the _____ also attempted to resist. Apaches
Who was the leader of the Apaches? Geronimo
What happened to Geronimo? He was captured and returned to a reservation.
What happened to other Native American tribes who tried to resist? They were broken.
Some Native Americans escaped the reservation and attempted to ___________________________. restore their old way of life.
What happened to the Native American who escaped the reservation to restore their old way of life? They were surrounded by the U.S. Army at Wounded Knee, South Dakota in 1890.
When did the U.S. army surround the escaped Native Americans at Wounded Knee, South Dakota? In 1890
How many Native American men, women, and children were massacred (mass killing)by the U.S. army? 300
What were the Native Americans doing when they wer massacred? They were attempting to give up their weapons.
Why were the Native Americans escaping? They were resisting against the reservation policy.
What ended the Native American resistance to the reservation policy? The massacre of Native Americans at Wounded Knee,South Dakota in 1890.
Was life on the reservation easy? No.
Native Americans were forced from their tribal homelands to _____________________________. Much less desirable lands whre their culture was not adapted.
How were the way of life for the Plains Indians changed after being moved to less desirable lands? They could no longer provide enough food for their families because their traditional way of life depended on hunting buffalo.
Who promised to supply the Native Americans with food? The United States Government.
Were the Native Americans supplied with food? NO.
Why did the U.S government not supply the food? The Burea of Indian Affairs were corrupt(dishonest).
_____,______, and ______ were prevalent on the reservations. Poverty, starvation, and despondency(no hope or courage)
Who was concerned with about the Native Americans and the unfairness of treaties broken by the U.S. government? The reformers of the 19th century.
What did the reformers believe? They believed that if Native Americans would give up their tribal traditions and adopt the ways of the white man they would prosper.
What is the Dawes Severalty Act, 1877? A federal policy that took the tribal lands of the reservation and divided itup into farms for individual Native American families.
Did the whites and Native Americans agee on land ownership? No.
How did how the whites and Native Americans view of land ownership differ? Whites believed the land belonged to individuals, but the Native Americans believed it belong to the whole group.
What eventually happened to the farms owned by the Native Americans? The farms failed, and the land was lost to the white man.
Reformers believed that Native American children should_________________________. learn the ways of the white man.
What happened to the Native American children? They were taken away from their families and sent to boarding schools farway(ex. The Carlisle School in Pennsylvania).
What were the Native American children taught at the boarding schools? They were taught to behave like white children and how to speak English.
Were the traditions and values of the Native American culture honored in the late 19th century and first half of the 20th century? No.
What has happened as a result of the civil rights movement among Native Americans in the late 1960's Their culture is being preserved and their rights honored.
Life on many reservations is still ______, and many Native Americans live in ___________. difficult, poverty
Created by: cwmsc