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Chabner Ch10 Vocabul

Nervous System- Vocabulary

acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
afferent nerve carries message toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying).
arachnoid membrane middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord. the Greek arachne means spider.
astrocyte type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries.
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
axon microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
blood-brain barrier blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
brainstem lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata.
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
cell body part of nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system (CNS) brain and the spinal cord.
cerebellum posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrum largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
cranial nerves twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and nexk (except the vagus nerve).
dendrite microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
dura mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. latin for "hard mother".
efferent nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
ependymal cell glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps form cerebrospinal fluid.
ganglion pl- ganglia collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
glial cell (neuroglial cell) supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nerves impulses. examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
gyrus pl-gyri sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortex; convolution.
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalmus; controls sleep, appetite, body temperature, and secretions from the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongata part of the brain just above the spinal
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
microglial cell phagocytic glial cell that removes wastes products from the the central nervous system.
motor nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
myelin sheath covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. Myelin speeds impulse conduction along axons.
nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
neuron nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
neurotransmitter chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. it stimulates or inhibits another cell, which can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. examples of neurotransmitters are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotinin.
oligodendroglial cell glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. also called oligodendroctye.
parasympathetic nerves involuntary, autonomic nerves that regulate normal body functions
parenchyma essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or organ system. the parenchyma of the nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and neurons.
peripheral nervous system nervous outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia mater thin, delicate inner membrane of the meninges.
plexus pl- plexuses large, interlacing network of nerves. examples are lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial (brachi/o means arm)plexuses. the
pons part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain (latin pons means bridge). it is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
receptor organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on to afferent nerves. the skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
sciatic nerve nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower leg, and foot. sciatica is pain or inflammation along the course of the nerve.
sensory nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from a receptor; afferent nerve.
spinal nerves thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
stimulus pl-stimuli agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stroma connective and supporting tissue of an organ. glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
sulcus pl-sulci depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in time of stress.
synapse space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells. from the Greek synapsis, a point of contact.
thalamus main relay center of the brain. it conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed through the thalamus to appropriate centers in the cerebrum. latin thalamus means room.
vagus nerve tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi,lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. "wanders" into the abdominal and thoracic cavities.
ventricles of the brain canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
absence seizure minor (petit mal) form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings.
aneurysm enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke).
astroctyoma malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells).
aura peculiar symptom or sensation occurring before the onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure.
dementia mental decline and deterioration.
demyeination destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in multiple sclerosis).
dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease.
embolus Clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel.
gait manner of walking.
ictal event pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulsion of an epileptic seizure.
occlusion blockage.
palliative relieving symptoms but not curing them.
thymectomy removal of the thymus gland ( a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest); used as treatment for myasthenia gravis.
TIA transient ischemic attack.
tic involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic of Tourette syndrome.
tonic-clonic seizure major (grand mal) convulsive seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.
Created by: mahepath