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Physiology Exam 04

QuestionAnswer
What are the seven functions of the skeletal system? support, protection, movement (leverage), mineral storage, energy storage, red and white blood cell formation (hemopoiesis)
What is the term for red and white blood cell formation? hemopoiesis
What does the skeletal system consist of? connective tissue comprising the bones, cartilage and ligaments
What does each bone contain? connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, cartilage, connective tissue coverings
Is each bone an organ? yes
Why is the skeletal system a system? because it consists of bones which are each their own organs
What divisions make up the skeletal system? axial and appendicular skeleton
What is the axial skeleton? the central skeletal system consisting of the head, neck, ribs, and spine
What is the appendicular skeleton? the extended limbs of the skeletal system such as the arms, legs, and hips
How many bones are in the axial skeleton? 80 bones
How many bones compose the face? 14 bones
How many bones compose the cranium? 8 bones
How many bones compose the skull? 22 bones (facial and cranial bones)
How many bones make up the auditory ossicles? 6 bones
How many bones compose the vertebral column? 26 bones
How many bones compose the thoracic region? 25 bones
How many bones compose the ribs? 24 bones
How many bones compose the appendicular skeleton? 126 bones
How many bones compose the carpals? 16 bones
How many bones compose the metacarpals? 10 bones
How many bones compose the phalanges? 28 bones
How many bones compose the tarsals? 14 bones
How many bones compose the metatarsals? 10 bones
How many bones are there in the body? 206 bones
Give an example of a long bone. humerus
Give an example of a short bone. trapezoid, wrist bone
Give an example of a flat bone. sternum
Give an example of an irregular bone. vertebra
Give an example of a sesamoid bone. patella
Where are the sutural bones? in between the frontal and parietal bones
What regions of the bone are important for growth and remodeling? the endosteum and periosteum
Where is the periosteum located? on the external surface of the bone
What is the periosteum made of? connective tissue
What is the periosteum continuous with? tendons and connective tissue of joints
How is the periosteum embedded in bones? through the Sharpey's fibers
What are the two layers of the periosteum? the outer fibrous and the inner cellular of progenitor (stem) cells (osteogenic cells that give rise to osteoblasts)
Where is the endosteum located? on the inner surfaces of bone including the marrow cavity, trabecullae of spongy bone, and the canals of compact bone
What does the endosteum contain? osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, and some osteoclasts (important for bone growth)
What composes the connective tissue? extracellular matrix and the cells
What composes the extracellular matrix? the ground substance and the fibers
What does the ground substance contain? organic and inorganic components
What type of fibers are found in bones? collagen fibers
What types of cells are found in bones? osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
What cells are important in bone remodeling? osteoblast and osteoclasts
What cells build bone? osteoblasts
What cells break down bone? osteoclasts
What do osteogenic cells develop into? osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do? form the bone matrix
What do osteocytes do? maintain bone tissue
What do osteoclasts do? function in resorption, or the breakdown in bone tissue
What do osteoclasts have on their inferior border? ruffled border
When is bone remodeled? continuously through life
What is the term for the break down of bone? bone resorption
What is the term for the build up of bone? bone formation
What is the combination of bone resorption and formation? turn over rate of bone
What is the other term for osteogenic cells? osteoprogenitor cells
What are osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells? stem cells
What are osteogenic cells formed from? mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue)
What is unique about osteogenic cells? they are the only bone cells that divide
Describe the cycle of osteogenic cells. They go through mitosis to become daughter osteogenic cells then go through differentiation to become osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do? build bone (bone formation)
How do osteoblasts form? they synthesize the organic components of the matrix
What do osteoblasts initiate? calcification
What are the seven functions of the skeletal system? support, protection, movement (leverage), mineral storage, energy storage, red and white blood cell formation (hemopoiesis)
What is the term for red and white blood cell formation? hemopoiesis
What does the skeletal system consist of? connective tissue comprising the bones, cartilage and ligaments
What does each bone contain? connective tissue, blood vessels, nerves, lymph vessels, cartilage, connective tissue coverings
Is each bone an organ? yes
Why is the skeletal system a system? because it consists of bones which are each their own organs
What divisions make up the skeletal system? axial and appendicular skeleton
What is the axial skeleton? the central skeletal system consisting of the head, neck, ribs, and spine
What is the appendicular skeleton? the extended limbs of the skeletal system such as the arms, legs, and hips
How many bones are in the axial skeleton? 80 bones
How many bones compose the face? 14 bones
How many bones compose the cranium? 8 bones
How many bones compose the skull? 22 bones (facial and cranial bones)
How many bones make up the auditory ossicles? 6 bones
How many bones compose the vertebral column? 26 bones
How many bones compose the thoracic region? 25 bones
How many bones compose the ribs? 24 bones
How many bones compose the appendicular skeleton? 126 bones
How many bones compose the carpals? 16 bones
How many bones compose the metacarpals? 10 bones
How many bones compose the phalanges? 28 bones
How many bones compose the tarsals? 14 bones
How many bones compose the metatarsals? 10 bones
How many bones are there in the body? 206 bones
Give an example of a long bone. humerus
Give an example of a short bone. trapezoid, wrist bone
Give an example of a flat bone. sternum
Give an example of an irregular bone. vertebra
Give an example of a sesamoid bone. patella
Where are the sutural bones? in between the frontal and parietal bones
What regions of the bone are important for growth and remodeling? the endosteum and periosteum
Where is the periosteum located? on the external surface of the bone
What is the periosteum made of? connective tissue
What is the periosteum continuous with? tendons and connective tissue of joints
How is the periosteum embedded in bones? through the Sharpey's fibers
What are the two layers of the periosteum? the outer fibrous and the inner cellular of progenitor (stem) cells (osteogenic cells that give rise to osteoblasts)
Where is the endosteum located? on the inner surfaces of bone including the marrow cavity, trabecullae of spongy bone, and the canals of compact bone
What does the endosteum contain? osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, and some osteoclasts (important for bone growth)
What composes the connective tissue? extracellular matrix and the cells
What composes the extracellular matrix? the ground substance and the fibers
What does the ground substance contain? organic and inorganic components
What type of fibers are found in bones? collagen fibers
What types of cells are found in bones? osteogenic cells, osteoblasts, osteocytes, and osteoclasts
What cells are important in bone remodeling? osteoblast and osteoclasts
What cells build bone? osteoblasts
What cells break down bone? osteoclasts
What do osteogenic cells develop into? osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do? form the bone matrix
What do osteocytes do? maintain bone tissue
What do osteoclasts do? function in resorption, or the breakdown in bone tissue
What do osteoclasts have on their inferior border? ruffled border
When is bone remodeled? continuously through life
What is the term for the break down of bone? bone resorption
What is the term for the build up of bone? bone formation
What is the combination of bone resorption and formation? turn over rate of bone
What is the other term for osteogenic cells? osteoprogenitor cells
What are osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells? stem cells
What are osteogenic cells formed from? mesenchyme (embryonic connective tissue)
What is unique about osteogenic cells? they are the only bone cells that divide
Describe the cycle of osteogenic cells. They go through mitosis to become daughter osteogenic cells then go through differentiation to become osteoblasts
What do osteoblasts do? build bone (bone formation)
How do osteoblasts form? they synthesize the organic components of the matrix
What do osteoblasts initiate? calcification
How does calcification in osteoblasts work? takes calcium from the blood and deposits it within the matrix by exocytosis
What is an osteocyte? mature bone cells
What are osteocytes involved in? maintenance of bone (not remodeling)
What is the function of osteoclasts? break down bone (bone resorption)
What do osteoclasts release to break down bone? proteolytic enzymes and acids that degrade collagen and release minerals to blood
What do osteoclasts release to the blood? minerals
Where are osteoclasts derived from? myloid stem cells (not osteogenic cells)
What makes up the ground substance? glycoproteins and negatively charged molecules
What is a glycoprotein? sugar (glucose) and protein
What do negatively charged molecules in the ground substance do? trap water
What makes up the organic components of bone's extracellular matrix? the ground substance and collagen fibers
What are collagen fibers? fibrous protein arranged in a helical form
What are the functions of collagen fibers? very resistant to pulling forces; provide flexibility and a framework for deposition of calcium salts
What makes up the inorganic components of the extracellular matrix? water and hydroxyapatite
How much water is in the extracellular matrix? 25%
What is hydroxyapatite? calcium phosphate and calcium hydroxide (and other minerals)
How does the extracellular matrix form? salts (hydroxyapatite) are deposited around the collagen fibers, and as the hydroxyapatite condenses, other inorganic salts and ions precipitate within the matrix (nature of crystals enhances deposition of inorganic ions
What does collagen provide to the bone? flexibility
What do minerals provide to the bone? firmness (strength)
What happens if you soak bone in weak acid (vinegar) the acid removes minerals from the bone, causing the bone to become rubbery
What happens if you apply proteolytic enzymes (denature protein) to bone? removes collagen from bone, causing the bone to become brittle
What does bone need for maximum strength and flexibility? collagen and minerals
What leads to rickets? inorganic component deficient (calcium deficiency due to lack of vitamin D since vitamin D plays a large role in regulating plasma calcium levels)
What leads to scurvy? organic component deficient (problem with collagen synthesis due to vitamin C deficiency leading to brittle bones that can fracture easily)
What are the two types of bones? compact and spongy
How is spongy bone organized? irregular lattice of small beams called trabeculae, with osteocytes housed in lacunae
Where is spongy bone located? the epiphyses of long bones, surrounding marrow cavities, and in flat, short, or irregular bones
What is another name for growth hormone (hGH)? somatotropin
Created by: sillandr on 2010-10-04



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