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chapter8 psych

chapter 8 psych

QuestionAnswer
Lashley, with his interest in the role of the brain on memory, was a Monist.
Encoding & storage are separate processes.
why do i think retention is an active process because of the effects of decay.
sensory memory can retain an unlimited amount of information for a very short time.
What will tend to increase the amount of information that can be retained in short-term memory? chunking.
people tend to remember words that appear in the beginning and at the end of a list.
Out of the following what is true: the more time you spend studying the more you will remember, the less time you spend studying the more you will remember, the more different ways you think about something the more you are likely to remember it. the more ways you think about something, the more likely you are to remember it.
What is the best way to determine what a student knows? An essay test.
When children are interviewed about their recollections of possible sexual abuse, their reports are especially credible if involved adults have not discussed the issue with them prior to the interview.
The psychologist Jean Piaget constructed a vivid, detailed memory of a nursemaid's thwarting his kidnapping after hearing false reports of such an event. His experience best illustrates source amnesia.
Research on memory construction indicates that memories of past experiences are likely to be distorted by our current assumptions.
Sabrina went to the store. She remembered to buy all items by reminding herself that she needed food products and that she needed nonfood products that included school supplies and cleaning aids. Sabrina made effective use of hierarchical organization.
Although Arturo has looked at his watch thousands of times, he is unable to recall whether the watch features Arabic or Roman numerals. This is most likely due to a failure in encoding.
Semantic encoding is to visual encoding as ________ is to ________. meaning; imagery.
Arnold so easily remembers his old girlfriend's telephone number that he finds it difficult to recall his new girlfriend's number. Arnold's difficulty best illustrates proactive interference.
Using the mnemonic ROY G. BIV to remember the colors of the rainbow in the order of wavelength (red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, violet) illustrates the use of an acronym.
Elaine's memory of her Paris vacation is more positive today than it was last year just after she went. This best illustrates rosy retrospection
The self-reference effect best illustrates the value of semantic encoding.
Reading a romantic novel caused Consuela to recall some old experiences with a high school boyfriend. The effect of the novel on Consuela's memory retrieval is an illustration of priming.
An experiment demonstrated that people who were better at forgetting irrelevant word pairs were good at remembering relevant word pairs. Their forgetting was adaptive because it reduced interference
Which test of memory typically provides the fewest retrieval cues? recall.
Peterson and Peterson demonstrated that unrehearsed short-term memories for three consonants almost completely decay in as short a time as 12 seconds.
The importance of effortful processing for long-term retention is best illustrated by the testing effect.
The effortful processing of information can become automatic through practice.
Judy is embarrassed because she momentarily fails to remember a good friend's name. Judy's poor memory most likely results from a failure in retrieval.
In an experiment, students are asked to learn a large number of nonsense words. One group is given time to chunk the words, the other group is not. Those given time to chunk the words are in the _____. experimental.
In an experiment, students are asked to learn a large number of nonsense words. One group is given time to chunk the words, the other group is not. In this study, the independent variable is _____. If the students had time to chunk or not.
The _____ has a role in pairing the conditioned stimulus with the conditioned response. cerebellum.
Spontaneous recovery of classical conditioning indicates that the individual stored information about the relationship between two events, and their later lack of a relationship, in: long-term memory
Memory is not directly observable. Therefore it would be least interesting to: behaviorists.
The role of the hippocampus in memory would be most interesting to a: neuroscientist.
In the video, 'Living without Memory', brain scans indicate that Clive Wearing suffered the greatest loss of brain tissue in his ________ lobe. left temporal.
The ________ is responsible for implicit memory. cerebellum.
In the PsychSim 'Iconic Memory' activity, you were asked to observe a random group of nine letters flashed briefly on the screen. On this free recall memory task, an average college student is most likely to recall _______ of the letters. four.
Memory of your familiar old e-mail password may block the recall of your new password. This illustrates proactive interference.
When Tony is in a bad mood, he interprets his parents' comments as criticisms. When he's in a good mood, he interprets the same types of parental comments as helpful suggestions. This best illustrates that our emotional states influence the process of encoding.
Police interrogators have been trained to ask less suggestive and more effective questions to avoid the misinformation effect.
Kelsey could not remember the meaning of the term proactive interference. she remembered that the term appeared on the fourth line of a left-hand page in her textbook. Her memory of this incidental information is best explained in terms of automatic processing.
Some of the information in our ________ memory is encoded into ________ memory. iconic; short term.
An understanding of the distinction between implicit and explicit memories is most helpful for explaining infantile amnesia.
Karl and Dee had a joyful wedding ceremony. After their painful divorce, however, they began to remember the wedding as a somewhat hectic and unpleasant event. Their recollections best illustrate the nature of memory construction.
Explicit memory is to ________ as implicit memory is to ________. hippocampus; cerebellum.
Ebbinghaus discovered that the rate at which we forget newly learned information is initially rapid and subsequently slows down.
Our assumptions about the past often influence the form in which information is retrieved from long-term memory. This fact is most relevant to appreciating the importance of automatic processing.
We are more likely to remember the words “typewriter, cigarette, and fire” than the words “void, process, and inherent.” This best illustrates the value of imagery.
The integration of new incoming information with knowledge retrieved from long-term memory involves the activity of working memory.
Associative learning and long-term memory are facilitated by: repetition.
Because he can see the effects, a behaviorist would be interested in the effects of rehearsal on: hippocampus.
Forgetting that a false memory of a childhood hand injury originated from an act of imagination best illustrates source amnesia.
When a particular pattern of neural activation is repeated enough times in short-term memory, it produces a change in the synaptic structure of the participating neurons. This is called consolidation.
The process of interference can lead to a failure in storing, encoding, or retrieval? any of the above.
The importance of effortful processing for long-term retention is best illustrated by the testing effect.
_____ is one way to increase the odds of developing an operant response and the odds that something will be stored in memory. repetition.
Research reports of repression and recovered memories indicate that extremely stressful life experiences are especially likely to be well-remembered.
The ability to learn something without any conscious memory of having learned it suggests the need to distinguish between implicit memory and explicit memory.
After learning the combination for his new locker at school, Milton is unable to remember the combination for his year-old bicycle lock. Milton is experiencing the effects of retroactive interference.
By incorporating errors originating from a hypnotist's leading questions, “hypnotically refreshed” memories often illustrate the misinformation effect.
Mood-congruent memory refers to the effect of emotional states on the process of retrieval.
A person who has trouble forgetting information, such as the Russian memory whiz S, often seems to have a limited capacity for abstract thinking.
Wei Dong was asked to memorize a long list of words that included “ship, effort, professor, and inquire.” He later recalled these words as “boat, work, teacher, and question.” This suggests that the four original words had been encoded semantically.
When memory researcher Elizabeth Loftus was an adolescent, her uncle incorrectly insisted that as a child she had found her own mother's drowned body. Loftus herself later falsely recollected finding the body. This best illustrates the misinformation effect.
Priming is to retrieval as ________ is to encoding. rehearsal.
Memory acquisition is to memory retention as ________ is to ________. encoding; storage.
After being asked to remember three consonants, participants in a study by Peterson and Peterson counted aloud backward by threes to prevent rehearsal.
Chess masters can recall the exact positions of most pieces after a brief glance at the game board. This ability is best explained in terms of chunking.
Our inability to remember information presented in the seconds just before we fall asleep is most likely due to encoding failure.
Rabbits fail to learn a conditioned eye-blink response when the ______ is temporarily deactivated during the process of training. cerebellum.
When an eyewitness to an auto accident is asked to describe what happened, which test of memory is being used? recall.
Proactive and retroactive interference would be expected to ____ of words remembered in a list. reduce the modal number.
The effect of long-term potentiation on memory would be most interesting to a: neuroscientist.
The technique used by the PsychSim 'Iconic Memory' activity to demonstrate the full extent of your iconic memory (sensory visual memory) is called partial report.
Cerebellum is to ________ memory as hippocampus is to ________ memory. implicit; explicit.
After attending group therapy sessions for adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, Karen mistakenly remembered details from others' traumatic life stories as part of her own life history. This best illustrates the dangers of source amnesia.
The title of a song is on the tip of Gerard's tongue, but he cannot recall it until someone mentions the songwriter's name. Gerard's initial inability to recall the title was most likely caused by retrieval failure.
The fact that our preconceived ideas contribute to our ability to process new information best illustrates the importance of semantic encoding.
Proactive and retroactive interference contribute most strongly to the serial position effect.
A flashbulb memory would typically be stored in ________ memory. long-term.
Short-term memory is slightly better for auditory information than for visual information.
The occasional memory failures of older adults to recall recently learned information can be best explained in terms of the greater difficulty older people have with retrieval
Incest survivors who lack conscious memories of their sexual abuse may sometimes be told that they are simply in a stage of “denial” and “repression.” This explanation for their lack of abuse memories emphasizes retrieval failure.
Retroactive interference involves the disruption of memory retrieval.
Conditioning (both classical and operant) and memory: Do not require awareness.
The most widely accepted model of how memory works was proposed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin and is called the _______ model of memory. three-stage
Which of the following is the most accurate description of our memories? They are reconstructed from fragments of information collected at the time of encoding.
Research on memory construction indicates that false memories often feel as real as true memories.
Remembering how to solve a jigsaw puzzle without any conscious recollection that you can do so best illustrates ________ memory. implicit
An address for obtaining tickets flashes, &the image disappears before Sergei has a chance to write it. To his surprise, however, he has retained a momentary mental image of the five-digit zip code. His experience best illustrates ________ memory. iconic
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure best illustrates motivated forgetting.
In considering the seven sins of memory, misattribution is to the sin of ________ as blocking is to the sin of ________. distortion; forgetting
Children can better remember an ancient Latin verse if the definition of each unfamiliar Latin word is carefully explained to them. This best illustrates the value of semantic encoding.
The day after Kirsten was introduced to 13 people at a business luncheon, she could recall the names of only the first 4 people to whom she had been introduced. Her effective recall of these particular names best illustrates the benefits of rehearsal
When asked how they felt 10 years ago regarding marijuana issues, people recalled attitudes closer to their current views than to those they actually reported a decade earlier. This best illustrates memory construction.
The famous Ebbinghaus forgetting curve indicates that how well we remember information depends on how long ago we learned that information.
Negative recall primed by distressing emotions most clearly illustrates mood-congruent memory.
It's evening and we're mentally replaying the day's events. We picture our facial expressions as we listened to a friend's tale of woe. Because we were unable to see these expressions at the time, our recall illustrates memory construction.
In an experiment, students are asked to learn a large number of nonsense words. One group is given time to chunk the words, the other group is not. The ______ being tested is that chunking will increase the ____ of remembered words. Hypothesis, median number
Studies designed to find ways to improve semantic coding as a way to increase memory for events would probably be considered: Applied research
Iconic memory (sensory visual memory) partially recreates an experiment conducted by George Sperling.
The quest for a physical basis of memory involves a search for a memory trace.
Memory of facts is to ________ as memory of skills is to ________. explicit memory; implicit memory.
When people are asked to recall a list of words they had earlier memorized, they often substitute synonyms for some of the words on the original list. This best illustrates the effects of semantic encoding.
Your relative success in recalling various items one day after you first heard them listed in order is likely to illustrate a primacy effect.
You ask the men and women taking introductory psychology to recall what they were wearing the first time they went out with someone special to them now. Not surprisingly, the results of this _____ indicate that there is a sex difference in _____ memory. Experiment, implicit.
According to the Roediger and McDermott study in 'Trusting Your Memory', most people perform better on ________ tasks than on ________ tasks. recognition; recall
One way to increase the amount of information stored in short-term memory is to use the technique of chunking.
The paired associates task included in this PsychSim 'Forgetting' activity demonstrates proactive interference.
In considering the seven sins of memory, transience is to the sin of ________ as suggestibility is to the sin of ________. forgetting; distortion
Long-term potentiation a neural basis for learning and memory.
Shortly after hearing a list of items, people tend to recall the last items in the list especially quickly and accurately. This best illustrates a recency effect.
Superior memory for rap lyrics that include the most rhymes best illustrates the value of acoustic encoding.
The 'Living without Memory' video highlights the tragic experience of a renowned musician, Clive Wearing. The destruction of Clive's ________ is primarily responsible for his severe memory impairment. hippocampus
_______ memory is affected when a person's hippocampus alone is damaged. Explicit
You ask the men and women to recall what they were wearing the first time they went out with someone special to them now. Not surprisingly, the results of this _____ indicate that there is a sex difference in _____ processing. experiment, automatic.
The greatest interference occurs when old and new material are similar to each other.
Compared false memories, true memories are more likely to contain detailed information.
Craik and Tulving experimentally demonstrated that people effectively remember seeing a specific word after they decide whether that word fits into an incomplete sentence. This research highlighted the effectiveness of semantic encoding.
Some information in our fleeting ________ is encoded into short-term memory. sensory memory.
Working memory can hold information for up to 30 seconds.
Explicit memory is to long-term memory as iconic memory is to ________ memory. sensory.
Stress hormones promote stronger memories by increasing the amount of glucose.
Frequent pairings of an unconditioned stimulus with a ______ produce learning. Frequent pairings between _____ and objects facilitates the recall of those objects. Conditioned stimulus, peg words or other images.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-10-02



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