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LOM Book Chapter 6

Language of Medicine Chapter 6 - Created by MTatHome.com

abdominal ultrasonography Sound waves beam into the abdomen and produce an image of abdominal viscera.
aphthous stomatitis Inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers; canker sores.
atresia Absence of a normal opening.
biliary atresia Congenital absence of the opening from the common bile duct into small intestine (duodenum).
bronchiectasis Abnormal widening of the bronchial tubes or their branches.
bronchospasm Sudden involuntary contraction of muscles in the walls of the bronchial tubes; occurs in asthma.
cecal volvulus Abnormal twisting of the cecum (first part of the colon).
celiac artery Bood vessel that carries blood to the abdominal organs from the aorta (largest artery).
cheilosis Abnormal condition of the lips.
cholangiectasis Abnormal widening or dilation of a bile vessel (bile duct).
cholangiography X-ray recording of bile vessels (ducts) using radiopaque contrast medium.
cholangiopancreatography X-ray recording of bile vessels (ducts) and the pancreas after administration of contrast material directly into bile and pancreatic ducts.
cholecystectomy Removal (excision, resection) of the gallbladder.
cholecystojejunostomy Formation of a new opening between the gallbladder and jejunum (second part of the small intestine); an anastomosis.
cholecystolithiasis Abnormal condition of stones in the gallbladder.
choledochal Pertaining to the common bile duct.
cholelithiasis Abnormal condition gallstone formation; in the gallbladder (cholecystolithiasis) or in the common bile duct (choledocholithiasis).
cholestasis Stoppage of bile flow.
colectomy Surgical removal (excision) of the colon (large intestine).
colonoscopy Visual (endoscopic) examination of the colon.
computed tomography Series of x-ray pictures showing cross-sectional, axial, or transverse images of internal organs.
dentalgia Pain in a tooth.
dysmenorrhea Painful menstrual flow.
dyspepsia Painful digestion; indigestion.
dysphagia Difficulty in swallowing.
esophageal atresia Congenital absence of the normal opening from the esophagus to the stomach.
gastric bypass Reducing the size of the stomach by diverting food into the jejunum (gastrojejunostomy); surgery to promote weight loss for extreme obesity (bariatric surgery).
gastroduodenal anastomosis New surgical opening between the stomach and duodenum.
gastroenteritis Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
gastrointestinal endoscopy Visual examination of the stomach and intestines (GI tract) using an endoscope; esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and sigmoidoscopy.
gastrojejunostomy New surgical connection (anastomosis) between the stomach and the jejunum (second part of the small intestine.
gastrostomy Creation of a new opening of the stomach to the outside of the body through an incision in the abdominal.
gingivectomy Removal of gum tissue.
glossopharyngeal Pertaining to the tongue and throat.
glycolysis Breakdown of sugar to release energy in body cells.
hematemesis Vomiting blood.
hemolysis Breakdown or destruction of blood, specifically red blood cells.
hemoptysis Spitting or coughing up blood as result of bleeding from any part of the respiratory tract.
hemorrhage Bursting forth or excessive flow of blood.
hemostasis Stopping or controlling the flow of blood.
hepatomegaly Enlargement of the liver.
herniorrhaphy Suture (stitching or sewing up) a hernia.
ileostomy New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.
labioglossopharyngeal Pertaining to the lips, tongue, and throat.
laparoscopy Visual (endoscopic) examination of the abdomen; minimally invasive surgery (MIS) of the abdomen.
lipase Enzyme to digest fat.
liver biopsy Removal of liver tissue (percutaneous or through the skin) followed by microscopic examination.
liver function tests Tests for the presence of enzymes and bilirubin in blood or serum (clear fluid that remains after blood has clotted). Examples are ALT (SGPT) and AST (SGOT), alkaline phosphatase, and serum bilirubin tests.
liver scan Detection of radioactivity in the liver (with imaging) after injecting radioactive material intravenously (into the bloodstream).
lower gastrointestinal series X-ray images of the colon and lower portion of the small intestine after injecting barium (radiopaque contrast material) into the rectum; barium enema.
lymphangiectasia Widening or dilatation of lymph vessels.
magnetic resonance imaging Magnetic waves and radio waves produce images of organs and tissues in all three planes of the body.
menorrhagia Excessive flow of blood during menstruation.
nasogastric intubation Insertion of a tube through the nose into the stomach; removal of postoperative secretion or to obtain gastric and intestinal contents for analysis.
odynophagia Painful swallowing.
oropharynx Central portion of the throat, just beyond the mouth.
palatoplasty Surgical repair of the palate (roof of the mouth).
pancreatic Pertaining to the pancreas.
paracentesis Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the abdomen or peritoneal cavity; abdominocentesis.
periodontal membrane Membrane that surrounds the tooth in the tooth socket.
polyphagia Excessive eating.
proctosigmoidoscopy Visual (endoscopic) examination of the anus, rectum, and sigmoid colon.
proptosis Forward protrusion of the eyeballs; exophthalmos.
pyloric stenosis Narrowing of the pyloric sphincter.
pylorospasm Sudden involuntary contraction of muscles at the pyloric sphincter.
rectocele Hernia of the rectum.
rhinoplasty Surgical repair of the nose.
sialadenectomy Removal (excision) of a salivary gland.
splenic flexure Downward bend of the colon on the left side of the body toward the descending colon.
steatorrhea Discharge of fat in the feces; malabsorption of fat results from intestinal disease.
stool culture Test for microorganisms, such as bacteria, in feces.
stool guaiac Test for detection of occult (hidden) blood in feces.
sublingual Pertaining to under the tongue.
Created by: mtathome