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AICP for 11/2010

Timeline of Questions for AICP

QuestionAnswer
Philadelphia, 1701 Designed by William Penn, the plan was that Philadelphia would be like an English rural town instead of a city. City's roads were designed with a grid plan
Washington DC, 1710 Designed by Pierre L Enfant, DC featured radial streets, applying principles of monumental design.
Savannah, GA 1733 James Oglethorpe designed the city featuring a central public square.
Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the rectangular land survey of the Northwest Territory, subdividing land into townships of six square miles. The ordinance was the first standard for the subdivision of land in the United States.
Detroit ,MI 1807 Judge Woodward developed a plan for Detroit to become a series of interlocking hexagons. The plan was never fully realized.
Central Park New York 1851 Frederick Law Olmsted Sr. and Calvert Vaux designed Central Park in New York City.
George Perkins Marsh (1801-1882) Marsh was considered by some to be one of America's first environmentalists. In 1864 he wrote Man and Nature arguing that deforestation could lead to desertification. He was an ecologist and inspired the conservationist movement.
USGS 1879 Charged with "classification of the public lands, and examination of the geological structure, mineral resources, and products of the national domain." Driven by need to inventory lands added to the US by Louisiana Purchase in 1803. King 1st director
John Wesley Powell (1834-1902) 2nd USGS director Champion of conservation and preservation, believing American's needed to maximize and make the best use of resources. He led the first exploration of the Upper Colorado River and the Grand Canyon
Hull House, Chicago 1889 Founded by Jane Addams-was one of first settlement houses in U.S. and grew into one of the largest, with facilities in 13 buildings. Attracted educated middle-class people to live in poor urban neighborhoods to provide social and educational services.
How the Other Half Lives 1890 Written by Jacob Riis, a photojournalist who documented the squalid living conditions in the New York City slums.
General Land Law Revision Act 1891 In 1891, the General Land Law Revision Act was passed by Congress. This Act provided the President of the United States with the power to create forest preserves by proclamation.
Homestead Act 1892 Permitted settlers to claim 160-acre parcels of public land on the condition that they reside on the land for five consecutive years.
John Muir (1838-1914) American Naturalist who valued nature for its spiritual and transcendental qualities. Founded Sierra Club in 1892. Muir was a preservationist and Pinchot was a conservationist. Able to convince Roosevelt to conserve Yellowstone
City Beautiful Movement 1893 Leaders believed creating a beautiful city would inspire residents to lead virtuous lives. result was the creation of Beaux-Arts style civic centers. first model civic center was White City created by Daniel Burnham in Chicago in 1893.
World's Columbian Exposition 1893 Daniel Burnham designed the fairgrounds in Chicago using principles of the City Beautiful movement. The fair came to be known as the "White City" because of the bright white painted buildings.
Garden Cities of Tomorrow 1898 Written by Ebenezer Howard, promotes the concept of garden cities in part to overcome the social inequalities and economic inefficiencies of urban areas.
Garden City Movement 1898 A Garden City is self-contained, with a population of 32,000 and a land area of 6,000 acres. A Garden City would house 30,000 people on 1,000 acres, with remaining land and population in farming areas.
McMillan Plan of 1901 City beautiful plan for Washington DC in 1901. The commission was inspired by the original 1791 plan for the city by architect Pierre Charles L'Enfant which was never fully realized.
Theodore D. Roosevelt (1858-1919) conservationist. "I recognize the right and duty of this generation to develop and use the natural resources of our land but I do not recognize the right to waste them, or to rob, by wasteful use, the generations that come after us."
Letchworth, England 1903 First English Garden City.
Pelican Island 1903 Established by an executive order of President Theodore Roosevelt on March 14, 1903 to protect the Brown Pelican, Pelican Island was the first national wildlife refuge in the United States.
Gifford Pinchot (1865-1946) First director of the USFS from 1905 to 1910. Pinchot coined the term conservation ethic and advocated for both the preservation and scientific management of natural resources.
US Forest Service 1905 Formed in 1905 under what is now the Department of Agriculture to administer the nations forests and grasslands. Gifford Pinchot was the first chief forester.
Denver's Parks and Railways System 1906 Charles Mulford Robinson and George Kessler designed Denver's parks and parkway's system.
First National Conference on City Planning 1909 The conference, held in Washington DC in 1909, brought together the leaders of the housing and city planning movements.
1909 Chicago Plan The plan, co-authored by Daniel Burnham and Edward Bennett, featured waterfront parks and prominent civic buildings, applying the principles of the City Beautiful Movement.
Wacker's Manual if the Plan of Chicago 1912 In 1912, Walter Moody published Wacker's Manual of the Plan of Chicago, adopted as an eighth-grade textbook by the Chicago Board of Education. This is the first known formal instruction in city planning below the college level.
Grand Central Station New York 1913 Constructed between 1903 and 1913.
Woodrow Wilson US President (1913-1921)
Cities in Evolution 1915 Written by Patrick Geddes-was an essay on the growth of cities emphasizing preservation of historical traditions, involvement of people in their own betterment and rediscovery of past traditions of city building.
Patrick Geddes considered by some to be the father of regional planning.
New York City Zoning Resolution 1916 first zoning ordinance in the US was enacted in New York primarily to stop massive buildings such as the Equitable Building from preventing light and air from reaching the streets below. Drafted by attorney Edward Bassett.
First Full Time Planner 1916 Harland Bartholomew was the first full time planner employed by an American City, St. Louis. He developed many of the early comprehensive plans.
National Park Service 1916 Under the Department of the Interior, the National Park Service was established in 1916 to preserve and conserve natural resources, parks and historic sites.
First President of the AIP 1917 Frederick Law Olmsted, Jr. was the first president of the AIP, which was the forerunner of the AICP.
French Quarter (Vieux Carre) 1921 Designated the first historic preservation commission in 1921 with the purpose of preserving the commercial tourism value of the area.
Warren G. Harding US President (1921-1923)
First Regional Planning Commission 1922 Established in LA, the 1922 regional planning commission was the first in the US.
First Off-Street Parking Requirements 1923 The first off-street parking requirements were developed in Columbus Ohio in 1923.
Calvin Coolidge US President (1923-1929) First Issue of City Planning 1925 In 1925, the American City Planning Institute and the National Conference on City Planning published the first issue of City Planning, the predecessor to the current Journal of the American Planning Association.
Cincinnati Plan 1925 Alfred Bettman and Ladislas Segoe, was the first to be officially adopted by a major American City. It was broader than previous plans, including information about housing, recreation, garbage, schools and financing.
Concentric Ring Theory 1925 Ernest Burgess-urban areas grew outward as a series of concentric rings. center of town will have highest number of customers so it is profitable for retail. Manufacturing will pay less for land as they are only interested in access of workers.
First Limited Access Highway 1926 Designed by Robert Moses, and constructed in 1926, the Bronx River Parkway in Westchester County, NY was the first limited access highway.
Metro Water Dist. Of So. CA 1927 Formed in 1927, the water district was created to build and operate the Colorado River Aquaduct.
Regional Survey of New York and Its Environs 1928 Viewed land use as a function of accessibility
Radburn, NJ 1928 Designed by Stein and Wright, the city was inspired by Ebenezer Howard's Garden City Concept. It was the forerunner in the New Deal's Greenbelt Towns.
Regional Plan for New York and Its Environs 1929 The plan included explanation by Clarence Perry of the neighborhood unit concept. The plan designed neighborhoods based on a distance that people can comfortably walk, about 160 acres.
Herbert Hoover US President (1929-1933)
Charleston, SC 1931 First city to enact a Historic Preservation Ordinance, which can protect landmarks, entire historic districts or both and typically regulate the design of new construction as well as changes to existing structures.
Disappearing City 1932 Frank Lloyd Wright, in his book Disappearing City, presented his vision of the landscape in which each home was situation on at least an acre of land and someone in each household owned a car.
Central Place Theory 1933 developed by Walter Christaller-explains the size and spacing of cities. The theory states that there is a minimum market threshold to bring a firm to a city and there is a maximum range people are willing to travel to receive goods and services.
TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority) 1933 The TVA is a political entity, created to provide for unified and multipurpose rehabilitation and redevelopment of the Tennessee Valley, America's most famous experiment in river-basin planning.
Civilian Conservation Corp. 1933 FDR formed the Civilian Conservation Corp. as a public work relief program for men. The purpose was to releave high unemployment stemming from the great depression and to focus on natural resource conservation. Ended in 1942
Franklin D. Roosevelt US President (1933-1945)
Public Works Administration 1933 used the construction of public works projects as a means of providing employment, stabilizing purchasing power and improving the public welfare.
Ginnie Mae 1934 The Government National Mortgage Association guarantees investors timely payment of principal and interest loans, does not buy or sell loans. The Government owned corporation is within HUD.
US Resettlement Administration 1935 Rexford Tugwell-new deal program relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by federal gov. responsible for New Towns program,developed three cities based on ideas (greenbelt towns):Greendale, WI;Greenhills, OH;and Greenbelt, MD
The Radiant City of 1935 Le Corbusier- city was composed mainly of skyscrapers for very high density development, surrounded by commonly owned parks. He promoted large scale grids of arterial street, supper blocks with high rise towers and individual zones for different uses.
Works Progress Administration (WPA) 1935 The program continued and extended relief programs, offering work to the unemployed by spending money on a wide variety of programs including highway and building construction, slum clearance and rural rehabilitation.
Urbanism as a Way of Life 1938 Louis Wirth argued for urbanism as the prevailing way of life and claimed that the density of cities influences the behavior of people and their relationships.
Fannie Mae 1938 The Federal National Mortgage Association is a stockholder-owned corporation. The corporation's purpose is to purchase and securitize mortgages in order to ensure that funds are consistently available to the institutions that lend money to home buyers.
Sector Theory 1939 Homer Hoyt proposed the sector theory, the idea that urban areas developed by sectors, which form along communication and transportation routes.
Grand Coulee Dam 1941 built under the auspices of the US Bureau of Reclamation on the Columbian River in WA. It is the largest concrete structure in the US and the largest electric power producing facility in the US.
Multiple Nuclei Theory 1945 Developed by Chauncey Harris and Edward Ullman, proposed that urban areas grow by progressive integration of a number of separate nuclei, which become specialized and differentiated. a city contains more than one center around which activities revolve.
Harry S. Truman US President (1945-1953)
Baby Boomers 1946 US Population born between 1946 and 1964
Park Forest, IL 1947 Park Forest was the first privately financed, completely planned community ever built in the US. It was a post WWII planned suburb with a range of housing types.
Levittown, NY 1947 Developed by Alfred and William Levitt (Levitt and Son's) Levittown was the first truly mass-produced suburb and is widely regarded as the archetype for postwar suburbs throughout the country.
Housing and Home Finance Agency 1947 All federal housing programs were consolidated under this agency, the predecessor to HUD.
Atlanta Metropolitan Council 1949 The Council was the first regional planning agency.
National Trust for Historic Preservation 1949 The trust is a private, nonprofit membership organization dedicated to saving historic places and revitalizing America's communities.
Urban Renewal 1949-1973 used eminent domain to assemble, clear and rebuild sites which were then sold or leased to private developers at market value. Urban renewal demolished entire neighborhoods and displaced low-income residents.
Dwight D. Eisenhower US President (1953-1961)
Kentucky Urban Growth Boundary 1958 Lexington and Fayette County enacted the first urban growth boundary in 1958.
William Whyte (1917-1999) Whyte wrote several books relating to social life and urban space. His book The Last Landscape in 1959 coined the term "greenway".
The Science of Muddling Through 1959 Charles Lindblom-first introduces the concept of incremental planning. argues that people make their plans and decisions in an incremental manner and that people accomplish goals through a series of successive, limited comparisons.
Image of the City 1960 Kevin Lynch-reported that users understood their surroundings in consistent and predictable ways, forming mental maps with five elements: paths, edges, perceived boundaries, and landmarks,
Bid Rent Theory 1960 Proposed by William Alonso, the theory refers to how the price and demand on real estate changes as the distance towards the Central Business District (CBD) increases.
Megalopolis 1961 Jean Gottman-a book about the 300 mile long urban area between Boston and Washington D.C.
John F. Kennedy US President (1961-1963)
Death and Life of Great American Cities 1961 written by Jane Jacobs advocating for a mix of uses, short blocks and pedestrian-scale development to create vibrant cities and increased safety.
Rachel Carson (1907-1964) Wrote Silent Spring in 1962 about conservation and the environmental problems caused by pesticides leading to a nationwide ban on DDT and other pesticides.
Reston, VA 1962 A post WWII New Town established by the Fairfax County Board of Supervisors. The town was designed as a full scale, self contained New Town, located 18 miles from DC.
Columbia, MD 1963 Columbia was a New Town built by James Rouse, featuring some class integration and the neighborhood unit principle.
Lyndon B. Johnson US President (1963-1969)
The Urban General Plan 1964 This was the first comprehensive planning textbook, written by T.J. Kent, Jr.
Housing and Urban Development 1965 Created HUD as a cabinet level agency. Robert Weaver was the first secretary of HUD and the first African-American cabinet member. HUD established rent subsidy programs, granted low interest home loans and provided subsidy for public housing projects.
Generation X US Population born between 1965 and 1976
Economic Development Administration (EDA) 1965 Provides grants to economically-distressed communities to generate new employment, help retain existing jobs and stimulate industrial and commercial growth.
Design with Nature 1969 This book was written by Ian McHarg and encouraged environmentally conscious approach to land use. It used transparent map overlays which were the predecessor to the use of GIS today.
NEPA 1970 The act requires an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIS) for federally funded actions that have the potential to significantly impact the environment. It acknowledged the importance of an open and public decision-making process.
Freddie Mac 1970 established to keep money flowing to mortgage lenders in support of home ownership and rental housing. Freddie Mac buys mortgages on the secondary market, pools them, and sells them as mortgage-backed securities to investors on the open market.
Arcosanti in Arizona 1970 Developed by the architect Paulo Soleri, the project is an experimental town designed using the concept of arcolology (architecture and ecology). Soleri seeks to demonstrate that architecture can be coherent with the natural environment.
EPA 1970 The Environmental Protection Agency was formed to enforce environmental laws, such as the Clean Air Act.
AIP Code of Ethics In 1971, AIP adopted a Code of Ethics for professional planners.
Landsat 1972 Landsat is the longest running enterprise for acquisition of imagery of Earth from space.
A Theory of Transactive Planning 1973 John Friedmann-where the planner meets with individuals in the community to discuss issues. Through a process of "mutual learning" the planner shares technical knowledge, while the citizen provide community knowledge.
Section 8 Housing 1974 The Housing Choice Voucher Program requires recipients of Section 8 to pay only 30 percent of their income towards housing, the Federal Government pays the rest.
Gautreaux Program 1976 The program, in Chicago, allowed public housing residents and people on public housing waiting lists to use Section 8 vouchers to rent places in the suburbs, not only in the central city.
First AICP Exam In 1977 the first exam for AIP membership was administered.
Generation Y US Population born between 1977 and 2000, also known as the Echo Boom.
Jimmy Carter US President (1977-1981)
APA Created In 1978, the American Planning Association was created through a merger of AIP and ASPO.
The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces 1980 Authored by William Whyte in 1980, the book is a study of factors that contribute to the success of urban spaces, including: abundance of public spaces, active street life and the ability to purchase food and drink.
CERCLA (Superfund) 1980 created to protect people, families, communities from heavily contaminated toxic waste sites that have been abandoned. It created liability for persons discharging waste, taxed polluting industries for a trust fund, can be applied retroactively
Land Evaluation and Site Assessment (LESA) 1981 LESA is a rating system developed by NRCS and USDA to assess the suitability of parcels for continued agricultural use. It includes environmental, economic, social and geographic features.
Ronald Reagan US President (1981-1989)
Seaside Florida 1982 Seaside is often cited as an example of successful implementation of New Urbanism. The development has walkable neighborhoods, mixed use development, grid street patterns, rear parking for commercial structures and minimal side and front setbacks.
Low Income Housing Tax Credit 1986 tax credit created under the Tax Reform Act of 1986-gives incentives for utilization of private equity in development of affordable housing. It enabled nonprofit housing organizations to raise housing construction funds by selling tax credits
Stewart B. McKinney Act 1987 The act established a federal definition of homelessness and provided assistance to homeless people. It was the first legislative response to homelessness and established the continuum of care.
City as Growth Machine 1987 Proposed by John Logan and Harvey Molotch, the theory relates urban development to those elite members of the community who control the resources and have business and political interests that benefit from the development.
Radical Planning 1987 Proposed by Thomas Friedmann, radical planning takes the power away from the government and gives it to the people. In this process, citizens get together and develop their own plans.
George H. W. Bush US President (1989-1993)
HOPE VI 1992 HUD plan to revitalize public housing projects into mixed-income developments. largely based on New Urbanism and concept of Defensible space.
Bill Clinton US President (1993-2001)
Empowerment Zones 1994 Federal funds were made available to distressed urban areas, providing incentives such as property tax reductions, sales tax reductions wage tax credits and low interest financing to jumpstart investment. End in 12/31/2009
Wetlands Reserve Program 1996 The program offers financial incentives for landowners to protect, restore, and enhance wetlands on their property. The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) administers the program with funding from the Commodity Credit Corporation.
George W. Bush US President (2001-2009)
Created by: nikole80 on 2010-09-28



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