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MMB Stats CH 1

Ch 1 Larson

Data consist of information coming from observations, counts, measurements, or responses.
Statistics the science of collecting, organizing, analyzing, and interpreting data in order to make decisions.
Population the collection of all outcomes, responses, measurements, or counts that are of interest.
Sample a subset of a population.
Parameter a numerical description of a population characteristic.
Statistic a numerical description of a sample characteristic.
Descriptive statistics the branch of statistics that involves the organization, summarization, and display of data.
Inferential statistics the branch of statistics that involves using a sample to draw conclusions about a population. A basic tool in the study of inferential statistics is probability.
Qualitative data consist of attributes, labels, or nonnumerical entries.
Quantitative data consist of numerical measurements or counts.
Nominal level of measurement qualitative only. Data at this level are categorized using names, labels, or qualities. No mathematical computations can be made at this level.
Ordinal level of measurement qualitative or quantitative data. Data at this level can be arranged in order, or ranked, but differences between data entries are not meaningful.
Interval level of measurement data that can be ordered, and you can calculate meaningful differences data entries. At this level, a zero entry simply represents a position on a scale; the entry is not an inherent zero.
Ratio level of measurement data that are similar to data at the interval level, with the added property that a zero entry is an inherent zero. A ratio of two data values can be formed so that one data value can be meaningfully expressed as a multiple of another.
Observational study a method of gathering data in which a researcher observes and measures the characteristics of interest of part of a population but does not change existing conditions.
Experiment a method of gathering data in which a researcher applies a treatment to part of the population and then observes and measures the responses of interest of part of a population.
Control group the part of the population to which no treatment is applied in an experiment.
Experimental units the subjects involved in an experiment.
Placebo a harmless, unmediated treatment given to subjects in an experiment; it is made to look like the real treatment.
Simulation a method of gathering data that uses a mathematical or physical model to reproduce the conditions of a impractical, expensive, or dangerous situation or process.
Survey a method of gathering data which is an investigation carried out by asking people questions by interview, mail, or telephone.
Confounding variable occurs when an experimenter cannot tell the difference between the effects of different factors on a variable.
Placebo effect occurs when a subject reacts favorably to a placebo when in fact he or she has been given no medicate treatment at all.
Blinding a technique where the subject does not know whether he or she is receiving a treatment or placebo.
Double-blind experiment neither the subject nor the experimenter knows if the subject is receiving a treatment or a placebo. The experimenter is informed after all the data have been collected.
Randomization a process of randomly assigning subjects to different treatment groups in an effort to obtain unbiased results.
Completely randomized design subjects are assigned to different treatment groups through random selection.
Blocks groups of subjects with similar characteristics.
Randomized Block design subjects are divided into blocks with similar characteristics, and then within each block they are randomly assigned to treatment or control grops.
Matched pairs design subjects are paired up according to a similarity. One subject in the pair receives one treatment while the other subject receives a different treatment.
Replication repetition of an experiment using a large group of subjects to improve the validity of experimental results.
Census a count or measure of the entire population.
Sampling a count or measure of a representative part of the population.
Sampling error the difference between the results of sampling and those of the population.
Random sample every member of the population has a equal chance of being selected.
Simple random sample every possible sample of the same size has the same chance of being selected.
Stratified sample a sampling technique used when it is important to have members from each segment or the population; the population is divided into subsets that share a similar characteristic and some members of each group are randomly selected for the study.
Cluster sample a sampling technique used when the population falls into naturally occurring subgroups, each sharing similar characteristics; the populations is divided into groups and then all members of one or more groups are selected for the study
Systematic sample a sampling technique in which each member the population is assigned a number, a starting point is randomly selected, and sample members are chosen at regular intervals from the starting number.
Convenience sample a sampling technique that often leads to biased studies because it consists or only available members of the population. This method is not recommended.
Created by: Mrs. Brogan