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chapter7psych

psych chapter 7

QuestionAnswer
When the Zantays eat dinner, the family dog begs for food. Sometimes, but not often, the children give in to the dog's begging and pass their pet a tasty morsel. You would be most justified in predicting that the dog is going to be quite persistent in its begging in the future.
Every Saturday morning, Arnold quickly washes the family's breakfast dishes so that his father will allow him to wash his car. In this instance, washing the car is a(n) positive reinforcer.
Criminal behavior is most likely to be deterred by punishment that is swift
Rhesus macaque monkeys are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys. This best illustrates the impact of observational learning.
It's easier to train a pigeon to peck a disk for a food reward than to flap its wings for a food reward. This illustrates the importance of ________ in learning. biological predispositions
Four-year-old Della asks her mother for a special treat every time they go to the grocery store. At first her mother granted every request, but now she does so less consistently. Research suggests that Della will continue to ask for a treat nearly every time she goes to the store.
Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of cognitive processes.
An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of classical conditioning.
How would I know that you learned something. Quiz scores.
A radio dj announces how much $ is in a jackpot. Every day randomly selected residents are called and asked to identify the amount, and thereby win it. Those who keep track of the jackpot amount are most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. variable-interval
Jacinda has a glass of wine after work because it relieves her anxiety. Her wine drinking is likely to continue because it is followed by a ________ reinforcer. negative
An integrated understanding of associative learning in terms of genetic predispositions, culturally learned preferences, and the predictability of certain associations is most clearly provided by a biopsychosocial approach.
A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n) conditioned response.
Children are especially likely to behave aggressively after viewing TV violence in which an attractive person commits justified violence that causes no visible pain or harm.
A Company included its employees in a profitsharing plan where workers get semi-annual bonuses based on the company's profits. Since this plan was initiated, worker productivity has nearly doubled. This productivity increase is best explained in terms of operant conditioning.
After his mother smiles, Jimmy's request for a snack is reinforced. But if his mother is not smiling, his subsequent request for a snack is not reinforced. By indicating that Jimmy's request for a snack will be reinforced, the mother's smile is a discriminative stimulus.
Modeling and observational learning would be interesting to which perspective of psychology? Cognitive
Mirror neurons would be interesting to which perspective of psychology? Neuroscience
Latent learning would be of most interest to a: Cognitive neuroscientist.
one group of rats is reinforced for pressing the bar, the other is not. a record is taken for 10 minutes of how many times rats in each group press the bar. In this study, the ____ should be higher for those rats reinforced for pressing the bar. Mean number of bar presses
When the moon is high in the sky, it appears ______ than when it is just above the horizon. smaller
Continuous reinforcement produces ________ learning and ________ extinction. fast; fast
In the maze learning simulations, most people make ________ turns on their ________ run. fewer wrong; second
Studies of latent learning highlight the importance of cognitive processes.
Both the receipt of monetary rewards and the suspension of monetary fines most clearly serve as ________ reinforcers. conditioned
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule. variable-ratio
We are most likely to imitate the behavior of models if we observe that their actions are followed by reinforcement.
Which of the following is an unconditioned response? sweating in hot weather
Jacqueline is sexually aroused by the sight of her handsome boyfriend but not by the sight of her equally handsome brother. This best illustrates the value of discrimination.
After his mother smiles, Jimmy's request for a snack is reinforced. But if his mother is not smiling, his subsequent request for a snack is not reinforced. By indicating that Jimmy's request for a snack will be reinforced, the mother's smile is a discriminative stimulus.
Most of the TV shows that 9-year-old Fred watches involve violence. This is most likely to lead Fred to perceive the injuries of victims of violence as less severe.
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates higher-order conditioning.
Children of abusive parents often learn to be aggressive by imitating their parents. This illustrates the importance of observational learning.
When grocery shopping with his mother, 4-year-old Hakim sometimes throws temper tantrums if his mother refuses his requests for a particular snack food. Parent-training experts would suggest that his mother should continue shopping while ignoring Hakim's tantrums.
Which of the following is most clearly an operant behavior? whining.
Megan doesn't see a connection between how hard she works and the size of her raise. She puts little effort into her job. This illustrates the importance of___in operant conditioning. cognitive processes
Spontaneous recovery refers to the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.
Cats received a fish reward whenever they maneuvered themselves out of an enclosed puzzle box. With successive trials, the cats escaped from the box with increasing speed. This illustrates the law of effect.
A doctor cleaned Natacha's skin with rubbing alcohol prior to each of a series of painful rabies vaccination shots. Which of the following processes accounts for the fact that Natacha currently becomes fearful every time she smells rubbing alcohol? classical conditioning
The cognitive map is inconsistent with which approach to the study of psychology? Behaviorism.
Latent learning is inconsistent with which approach to the study of psychology? Behaviorism.
Studies designed to compare the effects of fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules are, for the most part, examples of: basic research.
In the 'Cognitive Maps' module, ______ are shown to rely on cognitive maps in order to locate the nearly invisible water sources in their desert habitat. elephants.
After watching the model interact with the Bobo doll (in Bandura's famous experiment), the children in the experimental group attacked the bobo doll.
A single acquisition trial may be sufficient for classical conditioning when the US is a very powerful stimulus.
An executive in works with his door closed. Every hour he opens the door. The workers learned to work hard during the five minutes before and while the door is open. Their work pattern is typical of responses that are reinforced on a ________ schedule. fixed-interval
The predictability rather than the frequency of CS-US associations appears to be crucial for classical conditioning. This highlights the importance of ________ in conditioning. cognitive processes
On the first day of class, Professor Wallace tells her geography students that pop quizzes will be given at unpredictable times throughout the semester. Clearly, studying for Professor Wallace's surprise quizzes will be reinforced on a ________ schedule. variable-interval.
A child's learned fear at the sight of a hypodermic needle is a(n) conditioned response.
A geometric figure is most likely to become sexually arousing if presented shortly before an appropriate US.
After pigs learned to pick up and deposit wooden coins in a piggy bank, the pigs subsequently dropped the coins repeatedly and pushed them with their snouts. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. biological predispositions
If a shock always is preceded by a tone, and then sometimes also is preceded by a light that accompanies the tone, a rat will react with fear to the tone but not to the light.
Watching the night sky for shooting stars is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. variable-interval
Which of the following is the best example of a conditioned reinforcer? applause for an excellent piano recital.
Extinction occurs when a ________ is no longer paired with a ________. CS; US
Because Saleem was spanked on several occasions for biting electric cords, he no longer does so. Saleem's behavior change best illustrates the value of operant conditioning.
An organism learns associations between events it does not control during the process of classical conditioning.
A slow but steady rate of operant responding is associated with the ________ schedule of reinforcement. variable-interval
The removal of electric shock is to the receipt of money as ________ is to ________. primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
The more often Matthew is scolded following a temper tantrum, the more frequently he loses his temper. In this case, the scolding serves as a ________ for Matthew's temper tantrums. positive reinforcer
Which of the following perspectives would not be interested in the differences in the effects of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules? Psychodynamic
Mirror neurons would be interesting to which perspective of psychology? Neuroscience
one group of rats is reinforced for pressing the bar in a skinner box, the other is not. After two hours, a record is taken for 10 minutes of how many times rats in each group press the bar. In this study, the rats that are reinforced Are in the experimental group.
Studies designed to compare the effects of fixed interval and fixed ratio schedules are, for the most part, examples of: Basic research.
In the video 'Pavlov's Discovery of Classical Conditioning', Pavlov conditions a dog to salivate to the sound of a ticking metronome
In the 'Operant Conditioning' simulation, the experiment in which you reinforced various rats for pressing a bar, the reinforcement was intermittent
Dan and Joel, both 4-year-olds, have been watching reruns of “Superman” on television. Joel's mother recently found the boys standing on the garage roof, ready to try flying. What best accounts for the boys' behavior? observational learning
Mr. Schneider frequently tells his children that it is important to wash their hands before meals, but he rarely does so himself. Experiments suggest that his children will learn to preach the virtues of cleanliness but not practice cleanliness.
Pets who learn that the sound of an electric can opener signals the arrival of their food illustrate classical conditioning.
Positive punishment ________ the rate of operant responding, and negative punishment ________ the rate of operant responding. decreases; decreases.
After he was spanked on several occasions for spilling his milk at a restaurant, Colin became afraid to go to the restaurant. In this case, spanking was a(n) ________ for Colin's fear. unconditioned stimulus
After learning to fear a white rat, Little Albert responded with fear to the sight of a rabbit. This best illustrates the process of generalization.
Socially responsive toddlers who readily imitate their parents tend to become preschoolers with a strong internalized conscience. This best illustrates the impact of observational learning.
After one chimpanzee sees a second chimp open a box that contains a food reward, the first animal opens a similar box with great speed. This best illustrates observational learning.
An experimenter plans to condition a dog to salivate to a light by pairing the light with food. The dog will learn to salivate to the light most quickly if the experimenter presents the light a half-second before the food.
In classical conditioning, the ________ signals the impending occurrence of the ________. CS; US
Compared to nonabused children, those who have experienced a history of abuse show a stronger brain-wave response to an unfamiliar but angry-looking face. This best illustrates generalization.
Animals tend to revert from newly learned habits to their biologically predisposed behaviors. This is an example of instinctive drift.
She'll be paid $2000 for painting. The fact that she is increasingly unlikely to quit painting as she nears completion of the job best illustrates that operant behavior is strongly influenced by ________ reinforcers. immediate.
Albert Bandura's classic “Bobo doll” experiments demonstrated the importance of _______ in the shaping of young children's behavior through ________ learning. model; observational.
An experimenter reinforces correct responses with either candy or a smile. He then measures how fast research participants learn a difficult series of responses. In this study, the: Dependent variable is how rapidly the subjects learn to respond correctly.
one group of rats is reinforced for pressing the bar in a skinner box, the other is not. After two hours, a record is taken for 10 minutes of how many times rats in each group press the bar. In this study, the rats that are not reinforced Are in the control group.
The children in the control group in the original Bobo doll experiment did not observe an aggressive model attack a Bobo doll.
Male Japanese quail became sexually aroused by a red light that was repeatedly associated with the presentation of a female quail. The sexual arousal triggered by the red light was a CR
Makayla developed an intense fear of flying five years ago when she was in a plane crash. The fact that today she can again fly without distress indicates that her fear has undergone extinction.
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as ________ is to ________. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
Purchasing state lottery tickets is reinforced with monetary winnings on a ________ schedule. variable-ratio.
Which of the following is LEAST likely to be considered an important component of effective student instruction involving the use of interactive software? respondent behavior
Nikki has learned to expect the sound of thunder whenever she sees a flash of lightning. This suggests that associative learning involves cognitive processes.
The infant Albert developed a fear of rats after a white rat was associated with a loud noise. In this example, fear of the white rat was the CR.
Mason, a stockbroker, runs two miles every day after work because it reduces his level of stress. Mason's running habit is maintained by a ________ reinforcer. negative.
Research on the role of cognitive processes in learning indicates that the strength of a conditioned response depends primarily on the ________ of the CS-US association. predictability.
Rats easily learn to associate nausea-producing radiation treatments with novel tastes.
Five-year-old Trevor is emotionally disturbed. To get him to speak, his teacher initially gives him candy for any utterance, then only for a clearly spoken word, and finally only for a complete sentence. The teacher is using the method of shaping
Rates of operant responding are ________ for fixed-ratio than for fixed-interval schedules; they are ________ for variable-ratio than for variable-interval schedules. higher; higher
one group of rats is reinforced for pressing the bar in a skinner box, the other is not. After two hours, a record is taken for 10 minutes of how many times rats in each group press the bar. In this study, the dependent variable is The number of times the rats press the bar during the 10 minutes of recording.
Latent learning would be of most interest to a: cognitive neuroscientist.
In the 'Classical Conditioning' simulation, in which you were to condition a participant to blink her eye whenever she heard a certain tone, the US was a(n) puff of air.
In Aldous Huxley's Brave New World, infants develop a fear of books after books are repeatedly presented with a loud noise. In this fictional example, the loud noise is a(n) unconditioned stimulus.
To quickly teach a dog to roll over on command, you would be best advised to use immediate reinforcers rather than delayed reinforcers.
The taste of food and relief from a headache are both ________ reinforcers. primary.
The fact that learning can occur without reinforcement is most clearly demonstrated by studies of latent learning.
After getting a slight burn from the spark of a flickering campfire, Julie became afraid of getting close to lighted gas stoves. This best illustrates the adaptive value of generalization.
A pigeon is consistently reinforced with food for pecking a key after seeing an image of a human face, but not reinforced for pecking after seeing other images. By signaling that a pecking response will be reinforced, the image of a human face is a(n) discriminative stimulus.
Blake is a carpet installer who wants to be paid for each square foot of carpet he lays rather than with an hourly wage. Blake prefers working on a ________ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-ratio.
Studies designed to compare the effects of operant and classical conditioning are, for the most part, examples of: Basic research.
Children can learn to be kind and helpful through observing prosocial behavior, an important aspect of Socialization.
The cognitive perspective would be likely to emphasize that classical conditioning depends on an organism's expectation that a US will follow a CS.
Glancing at the television in the next room in hopes of seeing the beginning of the evening news is likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. fixed-interval.
Which of the following is an example of a respondent behavior? blushing when embarassed.
Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates generalization.
Dogs conditioned to salivate to stimulation of the thigh also begin to salivate when stimulated on other body parts. This best illustrates The CR is suppressed.
By learning to repeat responses that facilitate escape from a puzzle box, cats demonstrate what Thorndike called the law of effect.
In an example of classical conditioning in which a child fears a doctor, the CS was the presence of a doctor.
A psychologist would be most likely to use ________ to determine whether nonverbal organisms can perceive different colors. shaping
Conditioning is the process of learning associations.
A choppy stop-start pattern of operant responding is associated with the ________ schedule of reinforcement. fixed-interval.
Desensitization and imitation are two factors that contribute to the violence-viewing effect.
If rats are allowed to wander through a complicated maze, they will subsequently run the maze with few errors when a food reward is placed at the end. Their good performance demonstrates latent learning.
Because of the discomfort and embarrassment associated with his childhood bed-wetting, Andrew becomes nervous whenever he senses an urge to urinate. If genital arousal subsequently makes Andrew unusually anxious, this would best illustrate generalization.
You would be most likely to use operant conditioning to teach a dog to retrieve sticks and balls.
Asking women for dates is most likely to be reinforced on a ________ schedule. variable-ratio
Because his football coach frequently yells at him for swearing, Antonio now becomes anxious when he's near his coach. The coach is a(n) ________ for Antonio's anxiety. conditioned stimulus
Months after she was raped, Courtney's heart pounds with fear merely at the sight of the place where she was attacked. The location of her attack is most likely a(n) ________ for Courtney's anxiety. conditioned stimulus.
To assess whether Mrs. Webster had Alzheimer's disease, researchers conditioned her to blink in response to a sound that signaled the delivery of a puff of air directed toward her face. In this application of classical conditioning, the sound was a CS
A real estate agent showed Gavin several pictures of lakeshore property while they were eating a delicious, mouth-watering meal. Later, when Gavin was given a tour of the property, he drooled with delight. For Gavin, the lakeshore property was a CS
Primary reinforcers reflect the effects of _____, whereas conditioned reinforcers reflect the effects of _____. nature, nurture.
The more often a response is reinforced, the more likely it is that that behavior will be repeated. In other words, there should be a _____ between the number of reinforcements and the frequency of a behavior. positive correlation.
In Bandura's Bobo doll study, children watched a film of an adult acting aggressively. Then when left alone in a playroom, the children were more likely to play with guns and act aggressively.
If you conditioned a participant to blink her eye whenever she heard a certain tone, an eye blink would most likely be scored as a ________ when it preceded the ________. CR; US
The transmission of cultural fads and fashions best illustrates the impact of obervational learning.
For purposes of effective child-rearing, most psychologists favor the use of reinforcement over punishment.
An experimenter reinforces correct responses with either candy or a smile. He then measures how fast research participants learn a difficult series of responses. In this study, the: Independent variable is type of reinforcement; primary or conditioned.
Which schedule of reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction? variable-interval.
If you learn the way from home to school as a specific sequence of right and left turns, you have learned by means of chained associations.
Positive punishment is the introduction of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior and negative punishment is the withdrawal of a(n) ________ stimulus following a behavior. aversive; pleasant
Using rewards to bribe people to engage in an activity they already enjoy is most likely to inhibit intrinsic motivation.
Laurie's thumbsucking has become habitual because she feels less anxious when she sucks her thumb. This best illustrates the process of operant conditioning.
Teaching a miniature poodle to balance on a ball. Initially, he gives the poodle a treat for approaching the ball, then only for placing its front paws on the ball, and finally only for climbing on the ball. The trainer is using the method of successive approximations.
Associating a conditioned stimulus with a new neutral stimulus can create a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus. This best illustrates higher-order conditioning.
A Skinner box is a(n) chamber containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a reward.
Myron quit gambling after he lost over a thousand dollars betting on horse races. This best illustrates the effects of punishment.
Classical conditioning occurs most rapidly when the learner perceives the ________ to cause the ________. CS; US
Operant response rates remain highest when individuals anticipate that their behavior will actually lead to further reinforcement. This best illustrates the importance of ________ in operant conditioning. cognitive processes.
You work hard to earn every point in this class. This is powered by___. Operant conditioning.
To be learned, behavior must last___ Until tested.
Genetics affect____. What you can learn and how easily you can learn.
Pavlov feeds his dogs after they hear a buzzer. Initially, the buzzer works as____. Nothing.
Pavlov feeds his dogs after they hear a buzzer. What is the dog's salivation after the buzzer but before food called? Conditioned response.
Pavlov feeds his dogs after they hear a buzzer. What is the dog's salivation to the food called? Unconditioned response.
Pavlov feeds his dogs after they hear a buzzer. What is the food? Uncondtioned stimulus.
Pavlov feeds his dogs after they hear a buzzer. What is the buzzer? Conditioned stimulus.
Which of the following is a reinforcement? Doing well after studying or not studying, or doing badly after studying or not studying? All of the above.
What's an example of negative reinforcement? Not getting an F after not studying.
What's an example of positive reinforcement? Getting an A on an exam after studying.
FR refers to what type of schedule? Consistent, response based.
What's an example of observational learning? Reading your book to find an answer.
Consistent reinforcement and consistent pairing of stimuli tend to result in: Rapid acquisition and rapid extinction.
Why is red used for red lights and stop signs? To take advantage of generalization.
Slowing down when you are about to receive a speeding ticket is____, and slowing down after receiving a speeding ticket is_____. avoidance, escape.
Created by: heartxshpedxbox3 on 2010-09-23



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