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anthropology ch 2


cultural adaptation A complex of ideas, activities, and technologies that enable people to survive and even thrive in their environment.
cultural relativism The idea that one must suspend judgment of other people’s practices in order to understand them in their own cultural terms.
enculturation The process by which a society’s culture is passed on from one generation to the next and individuals become members of their society.
ethnic group People who collectively and publicly identify themselves as a distinct group based on cultural features such as common origin, language, customs, and traditional beliefs.
ethnicity This term, rooted in the Greek word ethnikos (“nation”) and related to ethnos (“custom”), is the expression of the set of cultural ideas held by an ethnic group.
gender The cultural elaborations and meanings assigned to the biological differentiation between the sexes.
infrastructure The economic foundation of a society, including its subsistence practices and the tools and other material equipment used to make a living.
pluralistic society A society in which two or more ethnic groups or nationalities are politically organized into one territorial state but maintain their cultural differences.
social structure The rule–governed relationships–with all their rights and obligations–that hold members of a society together. This includes households, families, associations, and power relations, including politics.
society An organized group or groups of interdependent people who generally share a common territory, language, and culture and who act together for collective survival and well–being.
subculture A distinctive set of ideas, values, and behavior patterns by which a group within a larger society operates, while still sharing common standards with that larger society.
superstructure A society’s shared sense of identity and worldview. The collective body of ideas, beliefs, and values by which members of a society make sense of the world–its shape, challenges, and opportunities–and understand their place in it.
Created by: jmaris289