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Anthropology Ch. 1

Ch. 1

anthropology The study of humankind in all times and places.
applied anthropology The use of anthropological knowledge and methods to solve practical problems, often for a specific client.
archaeology The study of human cultures through the recovery and analysis of material remains and environmental data.
bioarchaeology The archaeological study of human remains emphasizing the preservation of cultural and social processes in the skeleton.
biocultural Focusing on the interaction of biology and culture.
cultural anthropology The study of customary patterns in human behavior, thought, and feelings. It focuses on humans as culture–producing and culture–reproducing creatures. Also known as social or sociocultural anthropology.
cultural resource management A branch of archaeology tied to government policies for the protection of cultural resources and involving surveying and/or excavating archaeological and historical remains threatened by construction or development.
culture A society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior.
culture–bound Theories about the world and reality based on the assumptions and values of one’s own culture.
discourse An extended communication on a particular subject.
doctrine An assertion of opinion or belief formally handed down by an authority as true and indisputable.
empirical based on observation of the world rather than on intuition or faith
ethnocentrism The belief that the ways of one’s own culture are the only proper ones.
ethnography A detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork.
ethnology The study and analysis of different cultures from a comparative or historical point of view, utilizing ethnographic accounts and developing anthropological theories that help explain why certain important differences or similarities occur among groups.
fieldwork The term anthropologists use for on–location research.
forensic anthropology Applied subfield of physical anthropology that specializes in the identification of human skeletal remains for legal purposes.
globalization Worldwide interconnectedness, evidenced in global movements of natural resources, trade goods, human labor, finance capital, information, and infectious diseases.
holistic perspective A fundamental principle of anthropology: that the various parts of human culture and biology must be viewed in the broadest possible context in order to understand their interconnections and interdependence.
hypothesis A tentative explanation of the relation between certain phenomena.
informed consent Formal recorded agreement to participate in research; federally mandated for all research in the United States and Europe.
linguistic anthropology The study of human languages–looking at their structure, history, and relation to social and cultural contexts.
medical anthropology A specialization in anthropology that combines theoretical and applied approaches from cultural and biological anthropology with the study of human health and disease.
molecular anthropology A branch of biological anthropology that uses genetic and biochemical techniques to test hypotheses about human evolution, adaptation, and variation.
paleoanthropology The study of the origins and predecessors of the present human species; the study of human evolution.
participant observation In ethnography, the technique of learning a people’s culture through social participation and personal observation within the community being studied, as well as interviews and discussion with individual members of the group over an extended period of ti
physical anthropology The systematic study of humans as biological organisms; also known as biological anthropology.
primatology The study of living and fossil primates.
theory In science, an explanation of natural phenomena, supported by a reliable body of data.
Created by: jmaris289