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PSD-GI System

Chapter 12

abdomin/o celi/o lapar/o abdomen
an/o anus
appendic/o appendix
bil/i chol/e bile
bucc/o cheek
cheil/o lip
col/o colon/o colon
cyst/o bladder or sac
dent/i teeth
doch/o duct
duoden/o duodenum
enter/o small intestine
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
gingiv/o gum
gloss/o lingu/o tongue
hepato/o hepatic/o liver
herni/o hernia
ile/o ileum
inguin/o groin
jejun/o jejunum (empty)
lith/o stone
or/o stomat/o mouth
pancreat/o pancreas
peritone/o peritoneum
phag/o eat or swallow
proct/o anus and rectum
sial/o saliva
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon (resembles)
steat/o fat
-emesis (suffix) vomiting
Oral cavity cavity that receives food for digestion
salivary glands three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva; parotid, submandibular (submaxillary), and the sublingual glands
cheeks lateral walls of the mouth
lips fleshy structures surrounding the mouth
palate structure that forms the roof of the mouth; divided into the hard palate and the soft palate
uvula small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate
tongue muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and secured by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum
gums tissue covering the processes of the jaws
teeth hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating (chewing)
pharynx throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and for air traveling to the larynx
esophagus muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx tot he stomach
stomach sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus
cardiac sphincter opening from the esophagus to the stomach (sphincter = band)
pyloric sphincter opening from the stomach into the duodenum
small intestine smaller tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach
duodenum first portion of the small intestine
jejunum second portion of the small intestine
ileum third portion of the small intestine
large intestine larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation
cecum first part of the large intestine
vermiform appendix worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function; may help to resist infection (vermi = worm)
colon portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction or shape
ascending colon portion of the colon that extends "upward" from the cecum
transverse colon portion of the colon that extends "across" from the ascending cecum
descending colon portion of the colon that extends "downward" from the transverse colon
sigmoid colon portion of the colon (resembling an "S" in shape) that terminates at the rectum
rectum distal (end) portion of the large intestine
rectal ampulla dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal
anus opening of the rectum to the outside of the body
feces waste formed by the absorption of water in the large intestine; usually solid
defecation evacuation of feces from the rectum
peritoneum membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity and consisting of the parietal layer; (lining the abdominal wall) and the visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)
peritoneal cavity space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum
omentum an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs
liver organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion
gallbladder receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in the liver
pancreas gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food
biliary ducts ducts that convey bile; include the hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts
hypochondriac regions upper lateral regions beneath the ribs
epigastric region upper middle region below the sternum
lumbar regions middle lateral regions
umbilical region region of the navel
inguinal regions lower lateral groin regions
hypogastric region region below the navel
anorexia loss of appetite (orexia = appetite)
aphagia inability to swallow
ascites accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ascos = bag)
buccal in the cheek
diarrhea frequent loose or liquid stools
constipation infrequent or incomplete bowel movements characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass (constipo = to press together)
dyspepsia indigestion (pepsis = digestion)
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
eructation belch
flatulence gas in the stomach or intestines (flatus = a blowing)
halitosis bad breath (halitus = breath)
hematemesis vomiting blood
hematochezia red blood in stool (chezo = defecate)
hepatomegaly enlargement of the liver
hyperbilirubinemia excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood
icterus jaundice yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood jaundice = yellow
melena dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood
nausea feeling sick in the stomach
steatorrhea feces containing fat
sublingual hypoglossal under the tongue
ankyloglossia tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum
cheilitis inflammation of the lip
esophageal varices swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage
esophagitis inflammation of the esophagus
gastritis inflammation of the stomach
gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus
gingivitis inflammation of the gums
glossitis inflammation of the tongue
parotiditis parotitis inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps
peptic ulcer disease (PUD) sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the GI system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria (pept/o = to digest)
gastric ulcer ulcer located in the stomach
duodenal ulcer ulcer located in the duodenum
pyloric stenosis narrowed condition of the pylorus
sialoadenitis inflammation of salivary gland
stomatitis inflammation of the mouth
anal fistula an abnormal, tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum (fistula = pipe)
appendicitis inflammation of the appendix
colitis inflammation of the colon (large intestine)
ulcerative colitis chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations
colorectal polyps benign tissue growths on the mucous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous and likely to develop into malignancy
pediculated polyp projected on a stalk (ped/o = foot)
sessile polyp lying flat on the surface (sessilis = low growing)
diverticulum an abnormal side pocket in the GI tract; usually related to a lack of dietary fiber
diverticulosis presence of diverticula in the GI tract, especially the colon
diverticulitis inflammation of diverticula
dysentery inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools; most often caused by bacteria or protozoa (ex. amebic dysentery)
enteritis inflammation of the small intestine
hemorrhoid swollen, twisted vein (varicosity) in the anal region (haimorrhois = a vein likely to bleed)
hernia protrusion of a part from its normal location
hiatal hernia protrusion of a part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm
inguinal hernia protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region
incarcerated hernia hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction
strangulated hernia hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous
umbilical hernia protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)
ileitis inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine
intussusception prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part (intus = within; suscipiens = to take up)
peritonitis inflammation of the peritoneum
proctitis inflammation of the rectum and the anus
volvulus twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction (volvo = to roll)
cholangitis inflammation of the bile ducts
cholecystitis inflammation of the gallbladder
choledocholithiasis presence of stones in the common bile duct
cholelithiasis presence of stones in the gallbladder or bile ducts
cirrhosis chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue; most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency (cirrho = yellow)
hepatitis inflammation of the liver
hepatitis A inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water
hepatitis B inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids
hepatitis C inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted by exposure to infected blood; this strain is rarely contracted sexually
pancreatitis inflammation of the pancreas
biopsy (Bx) removal and microscopic study of tissue for pathological examination
incisional biopsy removal of a portion of a lesion
excisional biopsy removal of an entire lesion
needle biopsy percutaneous removal of tissue or fluid using a special, hollow needle (ex. for liver biopsy)
endoscopy examination within body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the GI tract to detect abnormalities and to perform procedures such as biopsy, excision of lesions, and therapeutic interventions
colonoscopy examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope
proctoscopy examination of the rectum and anus with a proctoscope
sigmoidoscopy examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope
esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum w/ a flexible endoscope for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes, such as biopsy, excision of lesions, removal of swallowed objects, dilation of obstructions, stent placement, measures to
capsule endoscopy examination of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and then swallowed; images are transmitted to a waist-belt recorder and then downloaded onto a computer for assessment of possible abnormalities.
laparoscopy examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope for diagnostic purposes and/or to perform surgery
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) nonionizing imaging technique for visualizing the abdominal cavity to identify disease or deformity in the GI tract
radiography x-ray imaging used to detect a condition or anomaly within the GI tract
endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, biliary ducts, & pancreas; includes use of instruments to obtain tissue samples, extract biliary stones, relieves obstructions, etc.
upper GI series x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, & duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium; barium is the most commonly used medium
barium swallow x-ray of the esophagus only; often used to locate swallowed objects
fluoroscopy x-ray imaging with a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion (ex. during a barium swallow)
small bowel series x-ray examination of the small intestine; generally done in conjunction with an upper GI series
lower GI series (barium enema) x-ray imaging of the colon after administration of an enema containing a contrast medium
cholangiogram x-ray image of the bile ducts; often performed during surgery
cholecystogram x-ray image of the gallbladder obtained after oral ingestion of iodine
computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen cross-sectional x-ray imaging of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the GI tract
sonography ultrasound imaging
abdominal sonogram ultrasound image of the abdomen to detect disease or deformity in organs and vascular structures (ex. liver, pancreas, gallbladder, spleen, and aorta)
endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) images produced using a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to evaluate abnormalities of the upper and lower GI tracts and adjacent structures (ex. biliary ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas)
stool culture and sensitivity (C&S) isolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease-causing organisms; if organisms are present, the drugs to which they are sensitive are listed
stool occult blood study chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the GI tract
abdominocentesis puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid
abdominal paracentesis puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (ex. fluid accumulated in ascites)
anal fistulectomy excision of an anal fistula
anastomosis union of two hollow vessels; a technique used in bowel surgery
appendectomy excision of a diseased appendix
bariatric surgery treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines; procedures include restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food (baros = weight; iatric = pertains to tx)
cheiloplasty repair of the lip
cholecystectomy excision of the gallbladder; common treatment for symptomatic gallbladder disease (ex. cholelithiasis, cholecystitis, and cholangitis)
laparoscopic cholecystectomy excision of the gallbladder through a laparscope
colostomy creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus, allowing stool to bypass a diseased portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructiions
esophagoplasty repair of the esophagus
gastrectomy partial or complete removal of the stomach
gastric resection partial removal and repair of the stomach
gastroenterostomy formation of an artificial opening b/w the stomach and small intestine; often performed at the time of gastrectomy to route food from the remainder of the stomach to the intestine; also performed to repair a perforated duodenal ulcer
glossectomy excision of all or part of the tongue
glossorrhaphy suture of the tongue
hemorrhoidectomy excision of hemorrhoids
hepatic lobectomy excision of a lobe of the liver
herniorrhaphy hernioplasty repair of a hernia
ileostomy surgical creation of an opening on the abdoment to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges; performed after removal of the colon, such as to treat chronic inflammatory bowel diseases (ex. ulcerative colitis)
laparoscopic surgery abdominal surgery using a laparoscope
laparotomy incision into the abdomen
pancreatectomy excision of the pancreas
polypectomy excision of polyps
proctoplasty repair of the anus and rectum
gastric lavage oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment, such as to remove blood clots from the stomach or to monitor bleeding (lavage = to wash)
nasogastric (NG) intubation insertion of a tube through the nose and into the stomach for various purposes, such as to obtain a gastric fluid specimen for analysis
antacid drug that neutralizes stomach acid
antiemetic drug that prevents or stops vomiting
antispasmodic drug that decreases motility in the GI tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea
cathartic drug that causes movement of the bowels; also called a laxative
Created by: tailenol