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Bens pharmacology

Primitive uses Warding off evil spirits
Middle Ages Chinese and egyptians began using them
Renaissance Began classifying drugs
Modern Medicine Complex science, chemicals. 1975: 900 drugs, 2005: 11,000 drugs.
Plant sources Alkaloids(C,H,N,O), Glycosides(cmpnds of sugar units & a nonsugar component), Gums(plant exudates and polysaccharides), Resins(complex substancesw of semisolid or solid plant exudates), Oils(highly viscous liquids: volitle oils, fixed oils)
Animal sources Secretions from animals: pancreatic enzymes, insulin, cod liver oil
Mineral sources Metallic and Nonmetallic
Chemical sources synthetic: mixed chemicals togetherSemi-synthetic: start w/natural product(animal) then modify it.
Oral Route By mouth; liquids: solutions, syrups, elixirs, tinctures, suspensions, emulsions.Solids: tablets, capsules, spansules, troches or lozenges.
Topical Route given via skin, cornea, mucus membranes of eye, mouth, nose, rectum, vagina or urethra. Most applied for the local effect.
Parenteral Route Injected of infused: intradermal, subcutaneuos, intramuscular, intravenuos, intraarterial, intrathecal, intraarticular.
Excipients used in drugs color additives, flavoring agents, binders, coating agents, fillers, sweetening agents, preservatives, disintegrators, diluents, lubricants.
drug forms that should NOT be crushed or chewed enteric-coated tablets, sustained released forms. Often have the following suffixes attached to the drug names: Dur, SR, CR, SA, Contin, LA, CTR, EC or EN, MR/Retard, Dur/Dural, XL.
Scored tablets: may be broken along the scored line but should not be crushed or chewed.
Drug Classification by name: Chemical used for chemists
Drug classification by name: Generic, nonproprietary name, the official name Selected by U.S. drug council. can be patented for 17 years. Not Capitalized.
Drug Classification by name: trade name, brand name, proprietary name Original drug. Capitalized.Sells the same drug under many different names.
Drug Marketing(direct to consumer) 2 year ban for new drugs assigned by congress.
Ansaid A NonSteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug
Asendin amoxapine; antidepressant whose name suggests that spirits "ascend" or rise with its use.
Astroglide vaginal lubricant; "Astro" is a combining form meaning of a star(astral body) and you can figure out the rest - "glide me to the stars."
Atropine of Tincture of Belladonna Italian for "beautiful lady." Italian women would either ingest leaves of the deadly nightshade plant(from which atropine is derived) or they would rub their eyes with after preparing an extract of the plant to induce mydriasis or dilated pupils
Bacitracin antibiotic produced by Tracy I strain of bacillus subtilis
Barbiturate In 1863 a german chemist named Adolf Baeyer synthesized a chemical by combining maloic acid and urease. The 2 substances were obtained from urine specimens of his favorite waitress named Barbara(he named the drug after her).
calcimar Calcitonin: literally means "calcitonin from the sea." the drug is obtained from salmon whose calcitonin is compatible with humans.
Dismiss Meclizine: dismisses dizziness.
Halcion named for a mythical bird. The bird was believed to have the capacity to calm the wind and sea. As an adjective, halcyon means tranquil or peaceful.
Insulin Hormone that controls blood sugar, insulin, is produced from little clumps of cells in the pancreas. They are known as islands scattered through the tail end of the pancreas. The name insulin originates from the latin word insula, meaning island.
Lasix Furosemide: derived from the duration of its effects, LASting approximatedly SIX hours.
Lobec Muscle relaxant and pain reliever for, you guessed it, the low back.
Morphine named for the ancient god of sleep and dreams, Morpheus. the patient feelse as if he is "Wrapped in the arms of Morpheus" after a dose of morphine.
Premarin conjugated quine estrogen: is an abbreviation for 3 words - PREgnat MARe's urINe. The estrogen is extracted from the urine of a pregnant horse.
Influence blood clotting Anticoagulants: Therapeutic classification(what is being treated)
Lower blood cholesterol Antilipemics: Therapeutic classification(what is being treated)
Lower Blood pressure Antihypertensives: Therapeutic classification(what is being treated)
Restore normal cardiac rhythm Antidysrhythmics: Therapeutic classification(what is being treated)
Treat angina Antianginals: Therapeutic classification(what is being treated)
Lower plasma volume Diuretic: Pharmacologic Classification(how the drug acts)
Block heart calcium channels Calcium channel blocker: Pharmacologic Classification(how the drug acts)
Block hormonal activity Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor: Pharmacologic Classification(how the drug acts)
Dilate peripheral blood vessels Vasodilator: Pharmacologic Classification(how the drug acts)
Prototypes: drug to which all others in a class are compared. It is common practice to select a singl drug from a class and compare all meds in the class to this representative med.
Legal Drug classifications: Prescription must include Must include: client name, date prescribed, Rx symbol, name and dose, quantity to dispense, client directions, refill instructions, prescriber name.
Legal Drug classifications: Prescription standing orders: Include all but the client's name but have other specifying data
Legal Drug classifications: Prescription meds are subdivided into controlled and non-controlled drugs.
Legal Drug classifications: Non-prescription or over the counter(OTC) drugs do not require prescription and are meant for minor conditions
Legal Drug classifications: Orphan drugs Useful in the treatment of rare diseases and not considered a good financial investment.
Legal Drug classifications: Herbal and dietary supplements are not considered drugs, are not marketed to treat conditions, and are not subject to regulatory processes.
Indications: conditions for which a drug is given
Contraindications: Situations in which a drug should not be given.
Absolute contraindications: Drug must not be given under any cirumstance d/t fatal consequences.
relative contraindications: Drugs should not be given unless beneifts outweigh risks.
Adverse Effects: Unwanted, undesirable and possibly harmful side effects even when dose is within limit.
Side Effects: Effects either beneficial, deleterious, inconsequential, pleasant or unpleasant that are secondary to the desired effect.
Untoward Effects: Adverse, unwanted, unpleasant or dangerous effects.
Development of new drugs: Chemical testing Completed in laboratory. Strength and purity of drug.
Development of new drugs: Biological testing done on at least 2 species of mammals(m&f) and in vitro(cells/tissues from animals and humans). Uses of the drug, toxic effects, appropriate dosages, saftey, efficiency/kinetics.
Development of new drugs: Clinical testing Done on people(5-10 years)
Clinical testing Phase I study 6 months-1 year) 20-80 volunteers, 1 time dose, about 60% pass.
Clinical testing Phase II study (2-5 years) used in disease, hundreds of volunteers w/disease, about 60% pass.
Clinical testing Phase III study (2-4 years) 1000 to 5000 w/disease, effectiveness/safety/dose, double-blind (placebo), 95% pass.
Clinical testing Phase IV study Post marketing study. Sponsored, longevity.
Clinical testing: expedited drug approval can give out to dying of drug looks good enough early on in the testing.
Pediatric Rule FDA requires that companies assess the safetly and effectiveness of drugs in pediatric patients if the drug will likely be used in children.
Administration of medication:5 rights Right drug, Right dose, Right Client, Right Time, Right Route. (DDCTR: Dumb Dogs Can't Train Right)
Created by: bsternecker