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Psy 203 Ch 2

QuestionAnswer
What is the name of the new cell formed by the process of fertilization? zygote
What is the basic unit of genetic information? gene
The male reproductive cell is called a(n) sperm
The female reproductive cell is called the ovum
About an hour or so after the sperm enters the ovum, the two gametes suddenly fuse, becoming one cell called a zygote
The potential for vast diversity of human beings primarily resides in the nature of the processes that underlie __________ cell division gamete
. The blueprints for creating a person are stored and communicated in our genes
Name the substance that genes are composed of that determines the nature of each cell in the body and how it will function DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
What is the name of the rod-shaped portions of DNA that are organized in 23 pairs? chromosomes
The ____ chromosomes in the new zygote contain the genetic blueprint that will guide cell activity for the rest of the individual’s life 46
who are genetically identical are called ________ twins monozygotic
. Any differences in future development of monozygotic twins can be attributed only to _________ factors environmental
Twins who are produced when two separate ova are fertilized by two separate sperm at roughly the same time are called ________ twins dizygotic
Which of the following are likely to have multiple births? all
The 23rd pair of chromosomes in males contains the ___- shaped chromosome XY
The fact that the ______determines the gender of the child is leading to the development of techniques that will allow parents to increase the chances of choosing the child’s gender man’s sperm
The one trait that is expressed when two competing traits are present is called dominant
An observable trait is labeled a phenotype
The underlying combination of genetic material present (but not outwardly visible) in an organism is called genotype
What is the term applied to studying the effects of heredity on psychological characteristics and behavior? behavioral genetics
What is the profession that focuses on helping people deal with issues relating to inherited disorders? genetic counseling
What is the process in which high-frequency sound waves scan the mother’s womb to produce an image of the unborn baby, whose size and shape can then be assessed? ultrasound sonography
What is used to find genetic defects and involves taking samples of the hair-like material that surrounds the embryo? chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
. What is the more invasive test that can be employed if blood tests and ultrasound have identified a potential problem or if there is a family history of inherited disorders? chorionic villus sampling (CVS)
Which test is most often performed at 8-11 weeks & involves inserting a catheter into the substance of the placenta and removing 10-15 mg of tissue, which is cleaned of maternal uterine tissue & then grown n a culture so that a karyotype can be made amniocentesis
Which test examines the embryo or fetus during the first 23 weeks of pregnancy by means of a fiber-optic device inserted through the cervix? embryoscopy
Which test procedure is recommended if either parent carries Tay-Sachs, spina bifida, sickle-cell, Down syndrome, muscular dystrophy, or Rh disease? amniocentesis
Which test is used to detect Down syndrome by collecting blood from the umbilical cord after the 18th week of pregnancy? fetal blood sampling (FBS)
What procedure is used to detect abnormalities in the first trimester of pregnancy, and involves high-frequency transvaginal probes and digital visual processing? sonoembryology
Which procedure produces a visual image of the uterus, fetus, and placenta? sonogram
Which procedure uses very high frequency sound waves to detect structural abnormalities or multiple pregnancies, measure fetal growth, judge gestational age, and evaluate uterine abnormalities? ultrasound sonography
Which testing procedure uses high frequency sound waves and is used as an adjunct to other procedures such as amniocentesis? ultrasound sonography
Huntington’s disease typically does not appear until people reach what age? 40s
What is the procedure where cells are taken from an embryo and then replaced after the defective genes they contain have been repaired? germ line therapy
Nature has provided the potential to carry out various kinds of “natural experiments” in the form of twins
The closer the genetic link between two individuals, the greater the correspondence between their IQ scores
Which “Big Five” personality trait refers to the degree of emotional stability an individual characteristically displays? neuroticism
What trait reflects the tendency to be a masterful, forceful leader who enjoys being the center of attention, and has been found to be strongly associated with genetic factors? social potency
What trait reflects the tendency to strictly endorse rules and authority, and has been found to be strongly associated with genetic factors? traditionalism
The developmental psychologist ________ speculated that the underlying temperament of a given society, determined genetically, may predispose people in that society toward a particular philosophy. Kagan
Along with schizophrenia, all of the psychological disorders below have been shown to be related, at least in part, to genetic factors. Which of the following disorders is least likely to have a genetic factor, according to the text? anxiety
What is the process by which a sperm and an ovum join to form a single new cell? fertilization
From puberty until menopause, a female will ovulate about every ____ days. 28
An adult male typically produces several _____ sperm a day. hundred million
The first, and the shortest, stage of the prenatal period is called the ______ stage. germinal
A conduit between the mother and fetus, this organ provides nourishment and oxygen via the umbilical cord placenta
What is the stage that begins at about 8 weeks after conception and continues until birth? fetal stage
What is the term for a developing child from 8 weeks after conception until birth? fetus
The hormone __________ is produced in ________, which some scientists speculate may lead to differences in male and female brain structure, and later variations in gender-related behavior(s). androgen; males
What is the term for the procedure in which a woman’s ova are removed from her ovaries, and a man’s sperm are used to fertilize the ova in a laboratory? in vitro fertilization
A spontaneous abortion is also known as miscarriage
When a pregnancy ends before the developing child is able to survive outside of the mother’s womb, this is called spontaneous abortion
What is the term for a mother voluntarily terminating a pregnancy? abortion
What is the term for an environmental factor that produces birth defects? teratogen
Older mothers are considerably more likely to give birth to children with Down syndrome
Women who become pregnant during ________ are more likely to have premature deliveries adolescence
The onset of ______ (German measles) in the mother prior to the 11th week of pregnancy is likely to cause serious consequences including blindness, deafness, heart defects, or brain damage in the baby rubella
What disease, when contracted by a pregnant woman, increases the possibility that the fetus may develop a birth defect? chicken pox
What could be considered the best option for women who experience depression during pregnancy? nondrug-based psychotherapeutic intervention
What prescriptions, when taken by women before they were aware they were pregnant, could also cause fetal damage? birth control
What illegal drug, when used during pregnancy, can restrict the oxygen that reaches the fetus and lead to infants who are irritable, nervous, and easily disturbed? marijuana
What illegal substance, when used by pregnant women, led to an epidemic of thousands of “crack babies”? cocaine
What illegal substance, when used by pregnant women, produces an intense restriction of the arteries causing a sig reduction in the flow of blood and oxygen to the fetus, & increases the risks of fetal death & a number of birth defects & disabilities? cocaine
Children of mothers who are addicted to _____ may be born addicted to the drug and may suffer through the pain of withdrawal cocaine
What is the disorder caused by the pregnant mother consuming substantial quantities of alcohol during pregnancy, potentially resulting in mental retardation and delayed growth in the child? fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Mothers who use smaller amounts of alcohol during pregnancy place their children at risk of fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
A child displays some, although not all, of the problems of fetal alcohol syndrome due to the mother’s consumption of alcohol during pregnancy. The child was born with fetal alcohol effects (FAE)
__________ reduces the oxygen content and increases the carbon monoxide of the mother’s blood. This quickly reduces the oxygen available for the fetus. Further, the respiration rate slows and speeds up its heart. Nicotine and toxins appear in the blood. Smoking cigarettes
Created by: Jessica Waninger Jessica Waninger on 2010-08-26



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