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camera features

the numerical exposure index of a photographic film under the system adopted by the International Standardization Organization, used to indicate the light sensitivity of the film's emulsion. iso
permits you to take an exposure meter reading from part of a scene and to keep the reading to apply it to the entire composition. AE LOCK
Abbreviation for “Autofocus” AF
Smoothing the edges of objects in a digital image to reduce the appearance of "stair steps". ANTI-ALIASING
A circle-shaped opening in a lens through which light passes to strike the film. The aperture is usually created by an iris diaphragm that is adjustable, enabling the aperture to be made wider or narrower, thereby letting in more or less light. APERTURE
The now defunct film speed rating system of the USA Standards Institute, which was formerly called the American Standards Association - hence the acronym “ASA”. The ASA system has been replaced by the more universal ISO system. ASA
it is the light-sensitive device in many digital cameras (and scanners) that captures the image CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICE (CCD)
the range of difference between highlights and shadow areas in an image. Many factors affect an image’s contrast, including the degree of development and the contrast grade of the paper on which an image is printed. contrast
The relative opacity (blackness) of an area of a negative, a transparency or a print. DENSITY
The range of distance in a scene that appears to be in focus and will be reproduced as being acceptably sharp in an image. Depth of field is controlled by the lens aperture. DEPTH OF FIELD
Light that is scattered and spread out as opposed to specular light. Diffused light is softer than direct light, with shadows that are less sharply-defined (lower contrast) DIFFUSED LIGHT
Zoom effect in some digital cameras that is not true (optical) zoom, but is instead an enlargement of the information from the center of the CCD or CMOS (image sensor). DIGITAL ZOOM
A unit of measure of the refractive power of a lens. DIOPTER
Exposing the same film frame twice. A typical double-exposure shows the same subject twice in the same image. DOUBLE-EXPOSURE
The range between the lightest and darkest areas of an image. Also known as Tonal Range. DYNAMIC RANGE
Electronic Flash, artificial light. EF
Exposure value EV
(1) Exposure occurs when light is permitted to strike film - i.e. when the film is exposed to light. (2) Exposure is the total amount of light striking the film or other photographic material. can be combination of shutter speed and aperture EXPOSURE
Deliberately changing the exposure settings recommended by a light meter in order to obtain proper exposure. EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
A number that indicates a film's effective speed. EXPOSURE INDEX
(ƒ-number) A number that expresses a lens’ light-transmitting ability - i.e. the size of the lens opening. f-NUMBER(f-stop)
High speed film, i.e. film that is more sensitive to light, meaning less light is needed to obtain a properly-exposed image. FAST FILM
A lens that has an aperture that opens particularly wide, making it able to gather more light than a slower lens at its widest aperture. FAST LENS
Flash that is used in a supplementary manner to fill in a subject’s shadow area with light, thereby reducing contrast. Also known as “flash fill” and “fill-in flash.” FILL FLASH
A transparent cellulose nitrate or cellulose actetate composition made in thin, flexible strips or sheets and coated with a light-sensitive emulsion for taking photographs. FILM
The place in a camera where the film is located in readiness for it to be exposed to light. FILM PLANE
A measurement of film’s sensitivity to light, generally in numerical terms of an ISO exposure index - e.g. ISO 100. More sensitive (faster) films have higher ISO numbers and require less exposure in order to make a properly-exposed picture. FILM SPEED
Describes an extreme wide-angle lens that has an angle of view exceeding 100 - sometimes more than 180 - and that renders a scene as highly distorted. FISHEYE
Is the distance between the focal point of a lens and the film plane when the lens is focused at infinity. FOCAL LENGTH
The central or principal point of focus. FOCAL POINT
The area of a scene that is closer than the subject. FOREGROUND
Minute crystals of silver halides in the light-sensitive emulsion of film that react when exposed to light, turning black, are called “grains.” GRAIN
Light falling on a surface INCIDENT LIGHT
Distance from the camera that is far enough away that any object at or beyond it will be reproduced sharply when the lens is focused on its infinity setting. INFINITY
Intentional over-exposure or underexposure is known as increasing or decreasing exposure. INTENTIONAL OVER- or UNDER-EXPOSURE
Film speed is designated by a single, almost universally-accepted common system developed by the International Organization for Standardization which uses the initials “ISO” before the film-speed number - e.g. ISO 100. ISO
Also called "main light." The principal source of light on a subject or a scene, usually in reference to a studio light. KEY LIGHT
The part of film at the beginning of a roll that will not be exposed to make an image but is used to attach the film to the camera’s take-up spool. LEADER
An accessory that attaches as a collar to the front of a lens to prevent stray light from striking the surface of the lens, and thereby causing flare. LENS HOOD
The widest aperture at which a lens can be set. A lens with a fast speed has a very wide maximum aperture, such as ƒ/1.4, for example, and transmits more light than a lens with a slow lens speed, such as ƒ/8. LENS SPEED
An instrument used to measure the amount of light reflected from or falling on a subject. The measurement is usually expressed in shutter speed and aperture combinations that will render an acceptable exposure. (Also known as an "Exposure meter.") LIGHT METER
A lens with the ability to focus from infinity to extremely closely, allowing it to capture images of tiny objects in frame-filling, larger-than-life sizes. MACRO LENS
Opaque material (usually thin plastic) placed in front of the lens like a filter to block some of the light entering a lens. MASK
Technique of combining in a single photographic composition elements from various sources, such as parts of different photographs. MONTAGE
This is the grainy look you find in a digital image caused by image artifacts. NOISE
A true zoom effect unlike a digital camera's digital zoom. OPTICAL ZOOM
Expose a photographic emulsion to more than light than is necessary for proper exposure. (lighter) OVER-EXPOSE
Technique that involves taking a picture while moving the camera at a relatively slow shutter speed. It is almost always used when tracking a moving object, such as a race car, as it travels across the film plane. PANNING
Turning the outer ring reduces or increases the filter’s effectiveness. The polarizer absorbs glare, reducing or eliminating reflections and darkening blue skies. POLARIZING FILTER
The degree of hue in color as perceived subjectively. SATURATION
A movable cover for an opening. In photography, that opening is the lens - more specifically, the aperture. SHUTTER
A measure of the sensitivity to light of a photographic emulsion. SPEED
A type of exposure meter with an acceptance angle of 1 degree or less used to obtain reflected light readings of a small area of a scene. SPOT METER
Created by: Cnandy