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FA10 Associations

FA 2010 Key Associations

Actinic (solar) keratosis Squamous cell carcinoma
Acute gastric ulcer associated with CNS injury Cushing's ulcer (increased ICP stumulates vagal gastric secretions)
Acute gastric ulcers associated with severe burns Curling's ulcers (greatly reduced plasma volume results in sloughing of gastric mucosa)
Alternating areas of transmural inflammation and normal colon Skips lesions (Crohn's disease: autoimmune)
Aneurysm, dissecting Hypertension
Aortic aneurysm, abdominal and descending aorta Atherosclerosis
Aortic aneurysm, ascending Tertiary syphilis
Atrophy of mammilary bodies Wernicke's encephalopathy (thamine deficiency causing ataxia, ophthalmoplegia, and confusion)
Autosplenectomy (fibrosis and shrinkage) Sickle cell anemia (HbS)
Bacteremia/pneumonia (IV drug user) S. aureus
Bacteria associated with stomach cancer H. pylori
Bacterial meningitis (adults and elderly) S. pneumoniae
Bacterial meningitis (newborns and kids) Group B strep (newborns); S. pneumoniae/ N. menigitidis (kids)
Benign melanocytic nevus Spitz nevus (most common in first two decades)
Bleeding disorder with GpIb deficiency Bernard-Soulier disease (defect in platelet adhesion)
Brain tumors (adults) Supratentorial: mets > astrocytoma (including glioblastoma multiforme) > meningioma > schwannoma
Brain tumors (kids) Infratentorial : medulloblastoma (cerebellum) or supratentorial: craniopharyngioma (cerebrum)
Breast cancer Infiltrating ductal carcinoma (in the US, 1/9 women will develop breast cancer)
Breast mass 1. Fibrocystic change 2. Carcinoma (in postmenopausal women)
Breast tumor (benign) Fibroadenoma
Bug in debilitated, hospitalized pneumonia patient Klebsiella
Cardiac primary tumor (kids) Rhabdomyoma
Cardiac manifestations of lupus Libman-Sacks endocarditis (nonbacterial, affecting mitral)
Cardiac tumor (adults) 1. Metastasis 2. Primary myxoma (4:1 left to right atrium; "ball and valve")
Cardiomyopathy Dilated cardiomyopathy (40% are familial)
Cerebellar tonsillar herniation Arnold-Chiari malformation (often causes hydrocephalus)
Chronic arrhythmia Atrial fibrillation (associated with high risk of emboli)
Chronia atrophic gastritis (autoimmune) Predisposition to gastric carcinoma (can also cause pernicious anemia)
Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina DES exposure in utero
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia 21-hydroxylase deficiency
Congenital cardiac anomaly VSD
Congenital conjugated hyperbilirubinemia (black liver) Dubin-Johnson syndrome (inability of hepatocytes to secrete conjugated bilirubin into bile)
Constrictive pericarditis in developing world Tuberculosis
Coronary artery involved in thrombus LAD > RCA > LCA
Cretinism Iodine deficit/ hypothyroidism
Cushing's syndrome 1. Corticosteroid therapy 2. Excess ACTH secretion in pituitary
Cyanosis (early; less common) Tetraology of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, truncus arteriosus
Cyanosis (late; more common) VSD, ASD, PDA
Death in CML Blast crisis
Death in SLE Lupus nephropathy
Dementia 1. Alzheimer's disease 2. Multiple infarcts
Demyelinating disease Multiple sclerosis
DIC Gram-negative sepsis, obstetric complications, cancer, burn trauma
Dietary deficit Iron
Diverticulum in pharynx Zenker's diverticulum (diagnosed by barium swallow)
Ejection click Aortic/ pulmonary stenosis
Esophageal cancer Adenocarcinoma (US), Squamous cell carcinoma (worldwide)
Food poisoning S. aureus
Gene involved in cancer p53 tumor suppressor gene
Glomerulonephritis (adults) Berger's disease (IgA nephropathy)
Gynecologic malignancy Endometrial carcinoma
Heart murmur Mitral valve prolapse
Heart valve in bacterial endocarditis Mitral (rheumatic fever), tricuspid (IV drug user), aortic (2nd affected in rheumatic fever)
Helminth infections (US) 1. Enterobius vermicularis 2. Ascaris lumbricoides
Epidural hematoma Rupture of middle menigeal artery (arterial bleeding is fast)
Subdural hematoma Rupture of bridging veins (trauma; venous bleeding is slow)
Hemochromatosis Multiple blood transfusions (can result in CHF and increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma)
Hepatocellular carcinoma Cirrhotic liver (often associated with hepatitis B and C)
Hereditary bleeding disorder von Willebrand's disease
Hereditary harmless jaundice Gilbert's syndrome (benign congenital unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia)
HLA-B27 Ankylosing spondylitis, Reiter's syndrome, ulcerative colitis, psoriasis
HLA-DR3 or -DR4 Diabetes mellitus type 1, rheumatoid arthritis, SLE
Holosystolic murmur VSD, tricuspid regurgitation, mitral regurgitation
Hypercoagulability, endothelial damage, blood stasis Virchow's triad (results in venous thrombosis)
Secondary hypertention Renal disease
Hypoparathyroidism Thyroidectomy
Hypopituitarism Adenoma
Infection in blood transfusion Hepatitis C
Kidney stones 1. Calcium = radiopaque 2. Struvite (ammonium) = radiopaque (formed by urease-positive organisms such as Proteus vulgaris or Staphylococcus) 3. Uric acid = radiolucent
Late cyanotic shunt (late L->R becomes R->L) Eisenmenger's syndrome (caused by ASD, VSD, PDA; results in pulmonary hypertension/polycythemia)
Liver disease Alcoholic liver disease
Lysosomal storage disease Gaucher's disease
Male cancer Prostatic carcinoma
Malignancy associated with noninfectious fever Hodgkin's lymphoma
Malignant skin tumor Basal cell carcinoma (rarely metastasizes)
Mental retardation 1. Down syndrome 2. Fragile X syndrome
Mets to bone Breast, lung thyroid, testes, prostate, kidney
Mets to brain Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney (renal cell carcinoma), GI
Mets to liver Colon, gastric, pancreatic, breast, and lung carcinomas
Mitral valve stenosis Rheumatic heart disease
Motor neuron disease ALS
Myocarditis Coxsackie B
Neoplasm (kids) 1. ALL 2. Cerebellar medulloblastoma
Nephrotic syndrome (adults) Membranous glomerulonephritis
Nephrotic syndrome (kids) Minimal change disease (associated with infections/vaccinations; treat with corticosteroids)
Obstruction of male urinary tract BPH
Opening snap Mitral stenosis
Opportunistic infection in AIDS Pneumocystis jiroveci (formerly carinii) pneumonia
Organ receiving mets Adrenal glands (due to rich blood supply)
Organ sending mets Lung > breast, stomach
Osteomyelitis S. aureus
Osteomyelitis in patients with sickle cell disease Salmonella
Osteomyelitis with IV drug use Pseudomonas
Ovarian metastasis from gastric carcinoma or breast cancer Krukenberg tumor (mucin-secreting signet-ring cells)
Ovarian tumor (benign) Serous cystadenoma
Ovarian tumor (malignant) Serous cystadenocarcinoma
Pancreatic tumor Adenocarcinoma (head of pancreas)
Pancreatitis (acute) EtOH and gallstones
Pancreatitis (chronic) EtOH (adults), cystic fibrosis (kids)
Palient with ALL /CLL /AML /CML ALL: child, CLL: adult > 60, AML: adult > 60, CML: adult 35-50
Patient with Hodgkin's disease Young male (except nodular sclerosis type: female)
Pelvic inflammatory disease Neisseria gonorrhoeae (monoarticular arthritis)
Philadelphia chromosome t(9;22) (bcr-abl) CML (may sometimes be associated with ALL/AML)
Pituitary tumor 1. Prolactinoma 2. Somatotropic "acidophilic" adenoma
Pneumonia, hospital acquired Klebsiella
Primary amenorrhea Turner's syndrome (XO)
Primary bone tumor (adults) Multiple myeloma
Primary hyperaldosteronism Adenoma of adrenal cortex
Primary hyperparathyroidism 1. Adenomas 2. Hyperplasia 3. Carcinoma
Primary liver cancer Hepatocellular carcinoma (also known as hepatoma)
Pulmonary hypertension COPD
Recurrent inflammation/thrombosis of small/medium vessels in extremities Buerger's disease (strongly associated with tobacco)
Renal tumor Renal cell carcinoma: associated with von Hippel-Lindau and adult polycystic kidney disease; paraneoplastic syndromes (erythropoietin, renin, PTH, ACTH)
Right heart failure due to a pulmonary cause Cor pulmonale
S3 (protodiastolic gallop) ↑ ventricular filling (L → R shunt, mitral regurgitation, LV failure [CHF])
S4 (presystolic gallop) Stiff/hypertrophic ventricle (aortic stenosis, restrictive cardiomyopathy)
Secondary hyperparathyroidism Hypocalcemia of chronic kidney disease
Sexually transmitted disease Chlamydia
SIADH Small cell carcinoma of the lung
Site of diverticula Sigmoid colon
Site of metastasis 1. Regional lymph nodes 2. Liver
Sites of atherosclerosis Abdominal aorta > coronary > popliteal > carotid
Stomach cancer Adenocarcinoma
Stomach ulcerations and high gastrin levels Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma of duodenum or pancreas)
t(14;18) Follicular lymphomas (bcl-2 activation)
t(8;14) Burkitt's lymphoma (c-myc activation)
t(9;22) Philadelphia chromosome, CML (bcr-abl hybrid)
Temporal arteritis Risk of ipsilateral blindness due to thrombosis of ophthalmic artery
Testicular tumor Seminoma
Thyroid cancer Papillary carcinoma
Tumor in women Leiomyoma (estrogen dependent)
Tumor of infancy Hemangioma
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (adults) Pheochromocytoma (usually benign)
Tumor of the adrenal medulla (kids) Neuroblastoma (malignant)
Type of Hodgkin's Nodular sclerosis (vs. mixed cellularity, lymphocytic predominance, lymphocytic depletion)
Type of non-Hodgkin's Diffuse large cell
UTI E. oli, Staphylococcus saprophylicus (young women)
Viral encephalitis HSV
Vitamin deficiency (U.S.) Folic acid (pregnant women are at high risk; body stores only 3- to 4-month supply)
Created by: megankirch