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Neurology

Anatomy of the Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
The central nervous system (CNS) contains the brain and the spinal cord
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) contains the cranial nerves and the spinal nerves
The largest part of the CNS is the brain
The brain is located within the cranium
The brain is surrounded by three layers of membranes called the meninges
The largest and most obvious part of the brain is the cerebrum
The "gray matter" of the brain is called the cerebral cortex
The brain is divided into right and left halves. Each half is called a hemisphere
The only connection between the right and left halves of the brain is the corpus callosum
Each hemisphere of the brain is divied into lobes
The speech center of the brain is in the frontal lobe
The lobe that analyzes information about touch, temperature, vibration, and pain is the parietal lobe
The lobe of the brain that analyzes sensory information about hearing is the temporal lobe
The lobe of the brain that analyzes information about vision is the occipital lobe
The object that is located near the center of the cerebrum and acts as a relay station for the brain is the thalamus
The object that is located directly beneath the thalamus and coordinates the heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration is the hypothalamus
The four interconneced cavities within the brain are known as ventricles
The clear, colorless fluid that cushions and protects the brain and spinal cavity is the cerebrospinal fluid
The column of tissue that begins in the center of the brain and coninues inferiorly until it meets the spinal cord is the brain stem
The brainstem is composed of the midbrain, the pons, and the medulla oblongata
The most superior part of the brainstem that keeps the brain conscious is the midbrain
The separate rounded section of the brain that lies inferior and posterior to the cerebrum that helps the body to maintain balance and coordination is the cerebellum
The outermost layer of the meninges is the dura mater
The second weblike layer of the meninges is the arachnoid
The innermost layer of the meninges is the pia mater
The long narrow column of neural tissue within the spinal cavity is called the spinal cord
The PNS contains 12 pairs of cranial nerves
A rapid, involuntary muscle reaction that is controlled by the spinal cord is called a reflex
An individual nerve cell is called a neuron
The neural tissue that performs specialized tasks to help neurons do their work and whose name literally means "nerve glue" are called neuroglia
The system that controls voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles is the and whose abbreviation is SNS is the somatic nervous system
The system that control the involuntary contractions of cardiac muscle in the heart as well as the smooth muscle of organs is the autonomic nervous system
The part of the system that is active when the body is resting, sleeping or eating is the parasympathetic division
The part of the system that is active when the body is active or exercising is called the sympathetic division
The multiple branching structures at the beginning of a neuron are called dendrites
The chemical messenger that travels across a synapse to bind with a receptor in the neuron is called a neurotransmitter
The space between two neurons is called a synapse
The combining form "crani/o" means cranium
The combining form "cav/o" means cavity
The combining form "nerv/o" means nerve
The combining form that means "outer aspects" is peripher/o
The combining form "cerebr/o" means cerebrum
The combining form that means "cortex (outer region) is cortic/o
The combining form "fiss/o" means splitting
The prefix that means "one-half" is hemi-
The suffix that means "sphere; ball" is -sphere
The combining form "front/o" means front
The combining form that means "wall of a cavity" is pariet/o
The combining form "somat/o" means body
The combining form "sens/o" means sensation
The combining form that means "sense of taste" is gustat/o
The combining form that means "temple (side of the head)" is tempor/o
The combining form that means "sense of hearing" is audit/o
The combining form that means "sense of smell" is olfact/o
The combining form that means "occiput(back of the head)" is occipit/o
The combining form that means "sight, vision" is vis/o
The combining form "thalam/o" means thalamus
The prefix that means "below, deficient" is hypo-
The combining form that means "spine; backbone" is spin/o
The combining form "cerebell/o" means cerebellum
The combining form "mening/o" means meninges
The combining form that means "dura mater" is dur/o
The combining form that means "spider; spider web" is arachn/o
The suffix that means "resembling" is -oid
The prefix that means "below, underneath, less than" is sub-
The combining form "opt/o and ocul/o" mean eye
The prefix that means "three" is tri-
The combining form that means "cochlea (of the inner ear) is cochle/o
The combining form that means "wandering; vagus nerve" is vag/o
The combining form "pharyng/o" means throat
The combining form "gloss/o" means tongue
The combining form that means "starlike structure" is astr/o
The suffix that means "cells that provide support" is -glia
The combining form that means "nerve" is neur/o
The combining form that means "scanty; few" is olig/o
The combining form that means "branching structure" is dendr/o
The prefix that means "together; with" is sym-
The combining form "pathet/o" means suffering
The suffix that means "growth; formed substance" is -plasm
The combining form that means "to send across or through" is transmitt/o
The combining form "encephal/" means brain
Loss of the ability to communicate verbally or in writing is known as aphasia
Partial or total loss of memory is called amnesia
Pain in the head, otherwise known as headache, is called cephalagia
Paralysis of one half of the body is called hemiplegia
The combining form "pleg/o" means paralysis
The combining form that means "area of dead tissue" is infarct/o
The suffix that means "condition of weakness" is -paresis
The term known as "condition of weakness in one half of body" is hemiparesis
A deep state of unconsciousness and unresponsiveness is called coma
Traumatic injury to the brain that causes an immediate loss of consciousness is called a concussion
The medical term for bruise is contusion
Difficulty reading and writing words even though visual acuity and intelligence are normal is called dyslexia
Inflammation and infection of the brain caused by a virus is known as encephalitis
The combining form "epilept/o" means seizure
A patient with epilespy is said to be epileptic
A sensitivity or fear of light is called photophobia
The suffix -cephalus means head
The combining form that means "water;fluid" is hydr/o
Inflammation of the meninges of the brain is called meningitis
The medical term for the common term "water on the brain" is hydrocephalus
A congenital abnormality of the neural tube of the spine that causes an opening in the vertebral column of the newborn is called spina bifida
The temporary loss of consciousness otherwise known as fainting is called syncope
The medical term for dizziness is vertigo
Brief, involuntary episodes of falling asleep during the daytime while engaged in activity is called narcolepsy
The combining form that means "stupor; sleep" is narc/o
The medical term "herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP)" is commonly known as a slipped disk
The combining form that means "bone marrow; spinal cord" is myel/o
The suffix -cele means hernia
A patient who is paralyzed in all four extremities is known as a quadriplegic
A patient who is paralyzed in two parts of a pair of extremities is known as a paraplegic
Pain in a nerve is known as neuralgia
Any type of disease of injury to a nerve is known as neuropathy
Inflammation or infection of a nerve is called neuritis
Abnormal sensations of tingling, burning or pinpricks that are felt on the skin is called parasthesia
Created by: GKSMS97 on 2010-06-28



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