Busy. Please wait.

Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 

show password


Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the email address associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know (0)
Know (0)
remaining cards (0)
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards

Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Chap - 22


medications used to reduce the number &/or severity of seizures in patients w/epilepsy anticonvulsants
defined as recurrent paroxysmal disorder of brain function characterized by sudden attacks of altered consciousness, motor activity, or sensory impairment epilepsy
based on type, severity, & cause of seizures treatment of epilepsy
most epilepsy is __ idiopathic
epilepsy can be associated with cerebrovascular disease, cerebral trauma, intracranial trauma, intracranial infection/fever, brain tumor, __ or __ intoxication; chemical imbalance
anticonvulsive medication is not indicated for fever, hypoglycemia, or electrolyte imbalance, which are examples of correctable epilepsy disorders
classifies seizures into 3 main categories International Classification of Epilepsies & Epileptic Syndromes
bilaterally symmetrical & without local onset; includes grand mal and absence seizures generalized seizure
complex symptomatology (temporal lobe/psychomotor seizures) partial seizures
seizures with insufficient data to classify unclassified
grand mal seizures are called tonic-clonic
characterized by loss of consciousness, falling, & generalized tonic-clonic muscle contractions; usually lasts 2-5 min; urinary/fecal incontinence may occur grand mal seizures
initial treatment of grand mal seizures includes __ preventing injury only
if seizures are so frequent that patient does not regain consciousness between seizures, condition is known as status epilepticus
medication treatment of choice for status epilepticus is __ __, or phenytoin, administered slowly IV diazepam (Valium)
sometimes __ __ is given for grand mal seizures IV phenytoin
absence epilepsy was previously called petit mal because of the absence of convulsions
characterized by 10-30 sec. loss of consciousness w/no falling & usually occur initially in children absence seizure
drug of choice for management of __ seizures is ethosuximide (Zarontin), and only effective for this type of epilepsy absence
used in treatment of absence seizures when suximide is ineffective clonazepam & valproic acid
sedation, dizziness/irritability, GI distress incl. anorexia, nausea, vomiting, or diarrhea, and rash & leukopenia are all __ __ of drugs for absence seizures side effects
__ __ w/drugs for absence epilepsy applies to hepatic/renal disease, pregnancy/lactation, and pancreatitis (w/valproate) extreme caution
stopping medications for absence seizures abruptly is contraindicated
caused by lesion in temporal lobe; symptoms: confusion, impaired understanding & judgment, staggering, purposeless movements, bizarre behavior, & unintelligible sounds, but no convulsions psychomotor seizures
__ seizures affect only one side of the body unilateral
some patients have __ __ __ combining more than one type mixed seizure patterns
it is important to observe/report __ & __ of seizures, as well as general responsiveness to medications type; length
__ __ of grand mal & psychomotor seizures usually consists of phenytoin, frequently combined w/phenobarbital or valproic acid, administered orally prophylactic treatment
the aim of drug therapy for epileptic patients is to prevent seizures without __ oversedation
side effects of phenytoin frequently __ with continued treatment decrease
sedation, ataxia, dizziness & headache; blurred vision, nystagmus & diplopia; gingivitis; GI distress incl. nausea, vomiting, anorexia, constipation or diarrhea; rash & dermatitis side effects of phenytoin
life-threatening condition affecting the skin in which cell death causes the epidermis to separate from the dermis; dermatitis associated w/phenytoin use Steven-Johnson syndrome
__ __ is a side effect of phenytoin use, and is treated with folic acid supplements megoblastic anemia
__ is a side effects from phenytoin use, treated with vitamin D supplement osteomalacia
__ is contraindicated, or to be used w/extreme caution, in patients w/kidney/liver disease, diabetes, CHF, bradycardia, heart block, hypertension, pregnant/lactating, hematological disease phenytoin
abrupt DC of phenytoin is contraindicated
used sometimes for partial, generalized, or mixed seizures carbamazepine
cardiac, hematological, kidney, & liver __ are all side effects from carbamazepine complications
carbamazepine with __ __ potentiates action & can increase risk of serious adverse effects grapefruit juice
children are frequently treated with phenobarbital alone, for febrile convulsions
the use of phenobarbital alone, in treatment of a child who is afebrile, is controversial because of cognitive impairment
there is evidence that phenobarbital, phenytoin, & carbamazepine may have an adverse effect on __ & __ in children behavior; cognition
primary advantage of newer formulations, of traditional anticonvulsants, is that there is an increased ease of __ & __ administration; tolerability
anticonvulsants that usually do not require laboratory monitoring of therapuetic levels; fewer overall adverse effects & interactions second-generation
second-generation anticonvulsants require a __ __ __ to avoid CNS adverse effects slow titration period
determination of given component in solution by adding a liquid reagent of known strength until given endpoint reached, indicating that the component has been consumed by reaction w/reagent titration
contraindicated in pregnancy/lactation; should not be abruptly discontinued 2nd-generation anticonvulsants
patients taking anticonvulsants should be instructed: caution w/driving/operating machinery until __ with the medication, because of __ or dizziness regulated; drowsiness
patients taking anticonvulsants should be instructed: careful __ __ until tenderness of gums subsides as treatment progresses oral hygiene
patients taking anticonvulsants should be instructed to always take medication on time & never __ a dose omit
__ __ from anticonvulsants can lead to status epilepticus abrupt withdrawal
patients taking anticonvulsants should be instructed to always wear __ __ at all time in case of accident Medic-Alert tag
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for partial/mixes seizures (psychomotor); brand name for carbamazepine Tegretol
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for partial/mixes seizures (psychomotor); brand name for carbamazepine extended release form Tegretol XR
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for absence seizures; brand name for clonazepam Klonopin
1st-generation anticonvulsant; Caution: possible to confuse w/Celexa/Celebrex; brand name for fosphenytoin Cerebyx
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for grand mal, psychomotor, or focal seizures; frequently combined w/phenobarb; brand name for phenytoin Dilantin
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for absence seizures; brand name for ethosuximide Zarontin
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for absence, partial, & tonic-clonic seizures; brand name for Valproic acid Depakene, Depakote, Depacon
1st-generation anticonvulsant; taken for absence, partial, & tonic-clonic seizures; only one dose/day extended release form; brand name for Valproic acid Depakote ER
2nd-generation anticonvulsant; taken for partial seizures; minimal drug interactions; >dose w/renal dysfunction; brand name for gabapentin Neurontin
2nd-generation anticonvulsant; taken for partial seizures; monitor liver function; Caution do not confuse w/Lamisil; brand name for lamotrigine Lamictal
2nd-generation anticonvulsant; taken for partial seizures; may affect cognitive function at high doses; brand name for topiramate Topamax
common side effects of phenytoin include GI distress, ataxia, & __ gingivitis
in absence epilepsy, convulsions are __ & there is a breif loss of consciousness w/no falling absent
types of generalized seizures include __ & absence grand mal
2nd-generation anticonvulsant Neurontin is indicated for treatment of __ seizures partial
an alternative medication sometimes used for partial, generalized, or mixes seizures is __ (Tegretol) carbamazepine
grand mal seizures usually last from two to __ minutes five
grand mal seizures are characterized by loss of consciousness, falling, & __ muscle contractions tonic-clonic
2nd-generation anticonvulsants have fewer side effects & drug interactions than __ medications 1st-generation
remove objects that may cause trauma, cushion head & turn it to the side, & loosen tight clothing; these are the steps to take initially in the treatment for grand mal seizures