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Chap - 6


there is no __ __ __ in administration of medications margin of error
it is possible for a small error in ___ to seriously harm a patient arithmetic
requires a working knowledge of basic arithmetic & meticulous care w/all calculations safe dosage preparation
check whether all measurements in same system, complete necessary calculations, & check accuracy/have someone else verify should be done when the dosage ordered differs from dosage on hand
two methods of calculating dosage basic calculation & ratio/proportion
requires only simple arithmetic; desired dosage over on-hand dosage x quantity of on-hand dose basic calculation
requires ability to determine an unknown, X; known unit of measure:known equivalent = desired unit of measure:unknown equivalent ratio & proportion
describes a relationship between 2 numbers ratio
consists of 2 ratios that are equal proportion
always __ each term in the equation label
the terms of each ratio must be in the same sequence
multiply the __ first and then the means extremes
take extra care with decimals
__ fractions to decimals convert
round off decimals to one decimal place
less than 1/2 tablets, more than 2 tablets, or more than 2mL for injection are unusual dosage that should always be question because they are not within the normal limits
neonate's __ __ is more permeable blood-brain barrier
neonate's total body water contributes a __ __ of his body weight greater percentage
in neonates renal function & some enzyme systems need for drug __ & __ are not fully developed absorption; metabolism
when preparing drug dosages for children it is important to always refer to recommended dosages as listed in drug inserts, PDR, or AHFS Drug Information
recommended dosages of drugs are often expressed in the references as a number of __ per unit of body weight, per unit of time. milligrams
there is no formula to guide in safe __ dosage geriatric
never leave the __ __ naked decimal
never place a decimal point and a __ after a whole number zero
avoid using decimals whenever __ __ can be used as alternatives whole numbers
if you have difficulty interpreting spelling of drug name or number used for dosage, or dosage seems inappropriate always question the order
when compared to a dosage for a typical adult, medications prescribed for children or older adults the dosage is likely to be smaller
a healthcare worker calculated that the patient should be administered 15.9mg the actual amount that will be ministered is 16mg
a calculated dosage should always be __ __ one decimal point round up
primary ethical principle of health care workers when calculating, preparing, & administering medications "First, do no harm"
pediatric dosages of medication are calculated based on the child's weight in kilograms
if a health care worker has difficulty interpreting the spelling/dosage of prescribed medication, it is their __ & __ __ to always ? physician/prescribing authority about the order legal & ethical responsibility
due to many medications being dispensed in unit dose form, a health care worker need to learn to calculate drug dosages because a specific patient dosage may differ that dosage on hand
it is important to place a zero before a decimal point in order to prevent medication errors