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PCC MP 111 Test 4


-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-graphy process of recording
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
-asthenia weakness, debility
-blast embryonic cell
-cyte cell
-pathy disease
-phylaxis protection
-genesis forming, producing, origin
brady- slow
end- within
endo- in, within
extra- outside
peri- around
tachy- rapid
trans- through, across
an- without
aniso- unequal, dissimilar
hypo- under, below
mono- one
ana- without, not
dys- bad
hyper- excessive, above normal
hypo- below normal, under
meta- change beyond
neo- new
aden/o gland
adenoid/o adenoids
agglutin/o clumping, gluing
immun/o immune, immunity
phag/o swallowing, eating
splen/o spleen
tonsill/o tonsils
thym/o thymus gland
blast/o embryonic cell
carcin/o cancer
cauter/o heat, burn
chem/o chemical, drug
cry/o cold
hist/o tissue
leiomy/o smooth muscle
leuk/o white
mut/a genetic change
onc/o tumor
rhabdomy/o striated muscle
sarc/o flesh
angi/o vessel
vascul/o vessel
aort/o aorta
arteriol/o arteriole
arteri/o artery
atri/o atrium
cardi/o heart
hemangi/o blood vessel
phleb/o vein
ven/o vein
scler/o hardening
sphygm/o pulse
thromb/o blood clots
ventricul/o ventricle
bas/o base
chrom/o color
eosin/o dawn (rose color)
erythr/o red
granul/o gramule
hem/o blood
hemat/o blood
kary/o nucleus
leuk/o white
nucle/o - nucleus
lymph/o lymph
morph/o form, shape, structure
myel/o bone marrow, spinal cord
phag/o swallowing, eating
poikil/o varied, irregular
reticul/o net, mesh
sider/o iron
arteriole A minute artery, especially one that, at its distal end, leads into a capillary; the smallest of the arteries.
atrium Upper chamber of the heart.
capillary Any of the microscopic blood vessels that connect the ends of the smallest arteries with the beginnings of the smallest veins where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged.
ischemia A decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
metabolism The sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism.
pulmonary circulation Circulation of blood through a network of vessels from the heart to the lungs for the oxygenation of blood and then back to the heart again.
pulse The regular, recurrent, expansion and contraction of an artery that corresponds to each beat of the heart..
septum A wall, or partition dividing two cavities.
sinoatrial node Area in the right atrium that generates electrical impulses that cause the muscle fibers of both atria to contract; also known as the pacemaker of the heart.
systemic circulation Circulation of blood from the body organs to the heart and back again.
ventricle Lower chamber of the heart.
pathogens Any disease-producing agent or microorganism.
erythrocyte a mature red blood cell. The main function is to carry oxygen.
hyperuricemia An abnormal amount of uric acid in the blood.
interstitial Pertaining to the space between cells, as in interstitial fluid.
leukocyte A white blood cell. They are the primary effector cells against infection and tissue damage.
osmosis The passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates solutions of different concentrations.
osmotic pressure Force under which a solvent, usually water, moves from a solution of lower solute concentration to a solution of higher solute concentration when the solutions are separated by a semipermeable membrane.
pH Symbol for degree of acidity of alkalinity of a substance.
aneurysm A localized dilation of the wall of a blood vessel, usually an artery, due to a congenital defect or weakness in the vessel wall.
angina pectoris Severe pain around the heart caused by a deficiency of oxygen supply to the heart muscle.
arrhythmia Any deviation from the normal pattern of the heartbeat.
flutter A rapid vibration or pulsation, especially of the heart, that may interfere with normal function.
fibrillation Rapid, inefficient, random contractions of the heart that disrupt the normal sinus rhythm of the heart.
arteriosclerosis A common arterial disorder characterized by the thickening, hardening, and loss of elasticity in the arterial walls.
atherosclerosis The most common form of arteriosclerosis, marked by cholesterol-lipid-calcium deposits in arterial linings.
cardiomyopathy Any disease that affects the structure and function of the heart.
coarctation A stricture or contractions of the walls of a vessel.
congestive heart failure Abnormal condition that reflects impaired cardiac pumping.
coronary artery disease Any one of the abnormal conditions that may affect the heart’s arteries and produce carious pathological effects, especially the reduced flow of blood and nutrients to the myocardium.
coronary artery spasm Intermittent constriction of the large coronary arteries.
deep vein thrombosis A disorder involving a thrombus in one of the deep veins of the body, most commonly the lower leg.
embolus A mass of undissolved matter, more commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque or air bubble, which travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel.
endocarditis Abnormal condition that affects the endocardium and heart valves and is characterized by lesions caused by a variety of diseases.
heart block A condition in which the conductive tissue of the heart fails to conduct impulses normally from the atrium to the ventricles, which results in an alteration of the rhythm of the heartbeat.
hemostasis The termination of bleeding by mechanical or chemical means, or by the coagualtion process of the body.
hyperlipidemia Excessive amounts of lipids in the blood.
hypertension High blood pressure.
ischemia Decreased supply of oxygenated blood to a body part or organ.
mitral valve prolapse A common and occasionally serious condition in which a cusp or cusps of the mitrial valve prolapse into the left atrium during systole.
murmurs Abnormal sounds heard on auscultation of the heart and adjacent large blood vessels.
myocardial infarction Necrosis of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more of the coronary arteries.
patent ductus arteriosus An abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the ductus arteriosus to close after birth.
palpitations A pounding or racing of the heart.
pericardial effusion A buildup of fluid in the pericardial space that is a common complication of pericarditis, and other various causes.
peripheral arterial disease A systemic form of atherosclerosis in which blood flow is restricted by an intra-arterial accumulation of soft deposits of lipids and fibrin that harden over time.
Raynaud phenomemon Numbness in fingers or toes due to attacks of vasoconstriction of arterioles in the skin.
rheumatic heart disease Damage to heart muscle and heart valves caused by episodes of rheumatic fever.
septal defect An abnormal, usually congenital defect in the wall separating the two chambers of the heart.
tetralogy of Fallot Congenital anomaly that consists of four defects: pulmonary artery stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of the aorta so that it arises from the septal defect or right ventricle, and right ventricular hypertrophy.
thrombus An aggregation of platelets, fibrin, clotting factors, and the cellular elements of the blood attached to the interior wall of a vein or artery, sometimes occluding the lumen of the vessel.
thrombophlebitis Inflammation of a vein in conjunction with the formation of a thrombus.
varicose veins A twisted, dilated vein with incompetent valves, most commonly found in the saphenous veins of the lower leg.
anemia (various types) A deficiency in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of blood is reduced.
Aplastic anemia A deficiency of all of the formed elements of blood, representing a failure of the cell-generating capacity of bone marrow.
Hemolytic anemia A disorder characterized by chronic premature destruction of red blood cells.
Iron-deficiency Deficiency caused by a greater demand for stored iron than can be supplied.
Pernicious anemia A deficiency of erythrocytes due to inability to absorb vitamin B12 into the body.
Sickle cell anemia A chronic hereditary disorder of hemolytic anemia characterized by crescent or sickle-shaped erythrocytes.
polycythemia An increase in the number of RBCs that may be primary or secondary to pulmonary disease, heart disease, or prolonged exposure to high altitudes or me be idiopathic.
granulocytosis An abnormal increase in granulocytes in the blood.
leukemia A class of hematologic malignancies in which immortal clones of immature blood cells multiply at the expense of normal blood cells.
hemophilia A group of hereditary bleeding disorders characterized by a deficiency of one of the factors necessary for coagulation of blood.
disseminated intravascular coagulation A grave coagulopathy resulting from the overstimulation of clotting an anticlotting processes in response to disease or injury.
purpura Any of several bleeding disorders characterized by bleeding into the skin.
aortography Radiography of the aorta after the injection of an opaque contrast medium.
angiography Diagnostic or therapeutic radiography of the heart and blood vessels using a radioplaque contrast medium.
digital subtraction angiography A computer technique used to investigate arterial blood circulation.
Doppler ultrasonography Technique for detecting the movement of blood flow.
duplex scanning Visualizations of the venous system through an ultrasound machine.
echocardiography Use of ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures and motions of the heart.
transesophageal echocardiography Obtaining images through the chest wall by using a probe that is swallowed into the esophagus.
cardiac enzyme studies A battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage.
coagulation tests A group of tests performed to determine the clotting ability of blood for purposes of diagnosis of clotting disorders and monitoring anticoagulant therapy.
lipid profile A battery of tests to measure fatty substances, including cholesterol, triglycerides, and lipoproteins.
troponin I A blood test that measures protein that is released into the blood by damaged heart muscle and therefore is a highly sensitive and specific indicator of recent MI.
cardiac catheterization Insertion of a catheter through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm or leg; the catheter is threaded through the circulatory system into the heart.
electrocardiography The process of recording the electrical activity of the heart.
Holter monitor test The use of a portable device small enough to be worn by a patient during normal activity. It consists of an electrocardiograph and a recording system capable of storing up to 48 hours of the individual’s electrocardiogram record.
stress test A method of evaluating cardiovascular fitness.
angioplasty (various types) Any endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and restores forward blood flow.
Laser coronary angioplasty The use of laser energy to vaporize an atherosclerotic plaque in a diseased coronary vessel.
Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty A method of treating localized coronary artery narrowing.
anastomosis A surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one segment to the other.
AICD A surgically implanted device, about the size of a pacemaker, that automatically detects and corrects life-threatening dysrhythmias.
CABG A procedure to create a detour or bypass around blockages. It increases the blood flow to the myocardial muscle and involves bypass grafts to the coronary arteries that reroute the blood flow around the occluded coronary artery.
intraluminal stent placement Surgical insertion of a stent at the site of a blocked artery by a deflated balloon. Once the balloon is inflated, it expands and the stent opens up the blocked artery.
pacemaker Electrical device used to perform the function of the natural pacemaker of the heart.
valve replacement Replacement of a defective heart valve, especially a cardiac valve.
valvuloplasty (balloon) Insertion of a balloon catheter to open a stenotic heart valve. Inflating the balloon decreases the constriction.
vena cava filter Surgical placement of a filter into the inferior vena cava.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation The process of ventilating and circulating blood for a patient in cardiopulmonary arrest, usually by combining mouth-to-mouth ventilation with external chest compressions.
defibrillation An electrical device called a defibrillator delivers shocks at a preset voltage to the heart to convert fibrillation and life-threatening dysrhythmias back to a normal voltage.
thrombolytic therapy The administration of drugs to dissolve an arterial clot
activated partial thromboplastin time A timed blood test that determines the efficacy of various clotting factors.
activated clotting time A test that measures the time required to form a clot after the activating chemical has been added to the normal blood or plasma sample.
antiglobulin test A test that detects the presence of antibodies that coat and damage red blood cells as a result of any of several diseases.
bleeding time The time required form blood to stop flowing from a controlled skin puncture of the forearm.
complete blood count A routine series of tests that screen for abnormal conditions in the blood.
hematocrit Measures the percentage of packed RBCs in a volume of blood.
hemoglobin Measures the amount of Hgb in red blood cells.
platelet count measures the number of platelets in a cubic millimeter of blood.
red blood count Measures the number of RBCs per cubic millimeter of blood.
white blood count Measures the number of WBCs per cubic millimeter of blood.
white blood cell differential A test designed to determine the number of different types of WBCs in a stained blood smear.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate A test that measures the speed at which RBCs settle to the bottom of a narrow tube.
partial thromboplastin A test that detects coagulation defects of the intrinsic system by adding activated partial thromboplastin to a sample of test plasma and to a control sample of normal plasma.
prothrombin time A test that measures the ability of the blood to clot.
apheresis A procedure in which blood is temporarily withdrawn and one or more components are removed from it by means of a continuous-flow separator.
blood transfusion Intravenous administration fo blood, usually from a donor, into a patient.
analgesics Drugs that selectively suppress pain without producing sedation.
angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors Drugs used to treat hypertension and congestive heart failure; decrease blood pressure, pulmonary resistance, and heart size.
antianginals Drugs that relieve angina pectoris by vasodilation.
antiarrhythmics Drugs used to control irregular heartbeat.
anticoagulants Drugs that prevent clot formation.
beta-adrenergic Drugs that decrease the rate and force of heart contractions, among other effects.
calcium channel blockers Drugs that control the rate and force of the heart’s contractions by regulating the influx of calcium ions into the cells; they also cause dilation of blood vessels, making it easier for the heart to pump blood through the vessels.
cardiac glycosides, digitalis Drugs that slow and strengthen heart muscle contractions.
diuretics Drugs that eliminate fluid by increasing urine output by the kidneys.
thromboytics Drugs that dissolve clots.
thrombolytic enzymes Drugs used to dissolve blood clots that have already formed I the body.
CD4 One of a group of proteins on the surface of lymphocytes that enhance immune recognition.
gamma globulin also known as immunoglobulin.
immunocompromised Pertaining to an immune response that has been weakened by a disease or an immunosuppressive agent.
immunization The protection from specific diseases by vaccination or the injection of immunoglobulins.
immunoglobulins Antibodies, also known as gamma globulin, are proteins secreted by B lymphocytes in response to foreign invaders. Kinds of immunoglobulins are IgM, IgA, IgD, IdG, and IgE.
interstitial fluid Extracellular fluid that fills the spaces between most of the cells of the body and provides a substantial portion of the liquid environment of the body; formed by filtration through the blood capillaries, it is drained away as lymph.
Kupffer cells Specialized cells of the reticuloendothelial system lining the sinusoids of the liver. The function of the cells is to filter bacteria and other small foreign proteins out of the blood.
lysosomes Spherical membranous bags containing digestive enzymes that are abundant in phagocytes. They play an important role in disarming ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins.
macrophage A large phagocyte found in the lymph nodes and other tissues of the body. They are the major phagocytic cells of the immune system and have the ability to recognize and ingest all foreign antigens.
osteoclast A giant multinuculear cell formed in the bone marrow of growing bones. They aid in absorbing and removing excess bone tissue in the remodeling of growing bones, or in the repair of damaged or fractured bones.
natural killer cell A lymphocyte that is capable of binding to and killing virus-infected and some tumor cells by releasing cytotoxins. It is found in the bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen. Its cytotoxic activity is not antibody dependent.
pathogen Any disease-producing agent or microorganism.
phagocyte A cell that has the ability to ingest and destroy particulate substances such as bacteria, protozoa, other cells and cellular debris, dust particles, and colloids.
Human immunodeficiency virus A retrovirus that causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
metastasis The process by which tumor cells spread to different parts of the body.
mutation An unusual change in genetic material occurring spontaneously or by induction. The alteration changes the original expression of the gene.
precursor One that precedes and indicates the approach of something else.
AIDS-dementia complex A neurologic effect of brain inflammation experienced by nearly one-third of all AIDS patients.
AIDS-wasting syndrome A category of AIDS. Signs and symptoms may include weight loss, fever, malaise, lethargy, oral thrush, and immunologic abnormalities characteristic of AIDS.
anaphylaxis An exaggerated, life-threatening allergic reaction to a previously encountered antigen characterized by a rapid drop in blood pressure, breathing difficulties, hives, and abdominal cramps.
cytomegalovirus A member of a group of large species-specific herpes-types virus with a wide variety of disease effects.
elephantiasis A chronic condition marked by a pronounced hypertrophy of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from obstruction of the lymphatic system.
Epstein-Barr virus A member of the herpes virus family that causes infectious mononucleosis, Burkitt lymphoma, and other lymphoproliferative disorders, especially in transplantation patients.
HIV-positive Referring to a state of health characterized by a presence of human immunodeficiency virus or antibodies to HIV in the blood.
hypersensitivity Abnormal condition characterized by an exaggerated response of the immune system to a foreign substance causing symptoms such as rash, runny nose, swelling; commonly referred to as allergy.
hypersplenism Any of a group of conditions in which the cellular components of the blood or platelets are removed at an abnormally high rate by the spleen, resulting in low circulating levels.
hypogammaglobulinemia A lower than normal concentration of gamma globulin in the blood, usually the result of increased protein catabolism or loss of protein in the urine.
immunodeficiency An abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate and resistance to infection is decreased.
Kaposi sarcoma A vascular malignancy that is often first apparent in the skin or mucous membranes by may involve the viscera.
lymphangioma A benign yellowish-tan tumor on the skin, composed of mynphatic vessels.
lymphedema A condition characterized by the accumulation of lymph in soft tissue and the resultant swelling caused by inflammation, obstruction, or removal of lymph channels.
lymphoid aplasia An abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate and resistance to infection is decreased.
lymphoma (various types) A type of neoplasm of lymphoid tissue that originates in the reticuleondothelial and lymphatic systems.
Burkitt lymphoma A highly differentiated lymphoblastic lymphoma that involves sites other than the lymph nodes and reticuloendothelial system.
Hodgkin disease A malignant disorder characterized by painless, progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, lymphoid tissue, and spleen.
Mycosis fungoides A chronic T-cell variation of the disease affecting the skin and internal organs.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma Any of a group of malignant tumors involving lymphoid tissue.
mononucleosis An abnormal increase in the number of mononuclear leukocytes in the blood.
opportunistic infection Any infection that results from a defective immune system that cannot defend against pathogens normally found in the environment.
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia An acute interstitial plasma cell pneumonia marked by slight, if any fever, nonproductive cough, tachypnea, and dyspnea.
systemic lupus erythematosus A chronic autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multiple body systems and marked by periods of exacerbation and remission.
sarcoidosis A chronic multisystemic disease of unknown etiology characterized by infiltration of the affected organs by T lymphocytes, mononuclear phagocytes, and granulomas that alter the tissue architecture.
choriocarcinoma An epithelial malignancy of fetal origin that develops from the chorionic portion of the products of conception.
leukemia (various types) A malignant disease white blood cells, which affects all age groups.
Acute lymphocytic leukemia A type of leukemia that involves abnormal growth of the lymphocyte precursors.
Acute myelocytic leukemia A leukemia of uncontrolled proliferation of immature granulocytes.
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia A leukemia characterized by an excessive number of lymphocytes found in the marrow, spleen, and lymph nodes.
Chronic myelocytic leukemia A leukemia characterized by a proliferation of granular leukocytes and, often, of megakaryocytes in the marrow and bloodstream.
meningioma slow-growing tumor of the membranes enveloping the brain and spinal cord.
mesothelioma A rare malignant tumor of the mesothelium of the pleura, pericardium, or peritoneum.
multiple myeloma A neoplastic disease characterized by the infiltration of bone and bone marrow by myeloma cells, forming multiple tumor masses that lead to pathological fractures.
retinoblastoma A malignant glioma of the retina, usually unilateral, that occurs in young children and usually is hereditary.
bone marrow aspiration biopsy Removal of living tissue, usually taken from the sternum or iliac crest, for microscopic examination of bone marrow tissue.
antiglobulin test A test for the presence of antibodies that coat and damage RBCs as a result of any of several diseases or conditions.
antinuclear antibody titer Blood test to measure the amount of autoantibody directed against components of cell nuclei.
CD4 cell count Test to measure the amount of helper T cells present in the blood.
ELISA a laboratory technique for detecting specific antigens or antibodies, using enzyme-labeled immunoreactants and a solid phase-binding support such as a test tube.
tissue typing Technique for determining the histocompatibility of tissues to be used in grafts and transplants with the recipient’s tissues and cells.
Western blot A test to confirm the presence of HIV antibodies in a patient’s blood.
transplantation Surgical procedure to transfer an organ or tissue from one person to another or from one body part to another to replace a diseased structure, restore function, or change appearance.
bone marrow transplantation Transplantation of bone marrow from healthy donors to stimulate production of formed blood cells.
chemotherapy Treatment of a disease by means of chemical agents.
immunization A process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or augmented.
immunosuppression Suppression of a patient’s immune responses.
immunotherapy The application of immunological knowledge and techniques to prevent and treat disease.
vaccination Any injection of attenuated microorganisms, such as bacteria, viruses, or rickettsiae, that is administered to induce immunity or to reduce the effects of associated infectious diseases.
apheresis A procedure in which blood is temporarily withdrawn and one or more components are removed from it by means of a continuous-flow separator.
biopsy Obtaining a representative tissue sample for microscopic examination, usually to establish a diagnosis.
bone marrow biopsy The extraction of a small amount of bone marrow tissue from the bone marrow cavity through a needle.
exfoliative cytology Microscopic examination of cells for diagnostic purposes.
acid phosphatase Detects enzyme concentration in the blood; an elevated level is found in men with prostate caner.
alpha-fetoprotein Elevated level of AFPs are found in the serum of patients with testicular and liver cancer.
beta-HCG Specific test to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin.
CA-125 Blood test to detect the presence of cell surface protein produced by ovarian cancer cells.
carcinoembryonic antigen Blood test to measure carcinoma- associated embryonic proteins.
human chorionic gonadotropin Specific test to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin.
prostate-specific antigen test Blood test to screen for prostate cancer.
AIDS cocktail A combination of drug therapy to suppress levels of the AIDS virus.
anabolic steroids Prescribed for AIDS patients to counteract the wasting syndrome.
antibiotics Antimicrobial agents, derived from cultures of a microorganism or produced semisynthetically, used to treat infections.
antibody reagents May be used as immunosuppressives.
antifungals Drugs used to treat fungal infections.
antivirals Drugs used to treat various viral infections/conditions such as herpes infection, chickenpox, and influenza A or to provide temporary immunity.
corticosteroids Hormonelike preparations used mainly as anti-inflammatories or immunosuppressants because they suppress the immune response.
cytotoxic drugs Drugs that kill or damage cells.
immunosuppressants Drugs that prevent or reduce the body’s normal reactions to invasion by disease or foreign tissues.
interferons Antivirals proteins secreted by T cells.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug Any of a group of drugs having antipyretic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory effects.
antiemetics Drugs that prevent vomiting.
Created by: dmg