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BLOOD VESSELSAROUND

BLOOD VESSELS STUDY GUIDE

QuestionAnswer
BLOOD VESSELS a series of connected, hollow tubes that begin and end in the heart
PULMONARY CIRCULATION carries unoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs and back to the left atrium of the heart.
SYSTEMIC CIRCULATION larger circulation. provides the oxygenated blood supply to the rest of the body. carries oxygen & other nutrients to the cells and picks up carbon dioxide and other waste.
ARTERY called conductance vessels because they carry oxygenated blood from the heart to the arterioles. Branch into smaller & smaller vessels.
ARTERIOLE Called resistance vessels because the contraction and relaxation of the muscle changes vessel diameter, which alters resistance to blood flow.
CAPILLARY smallest & most numerous of all blood vessels. called exchanged vessels because nutrients, gases, and wastes exchange between the blood and interstital fluid. thinnest walls
VEINS blood vessels that carry blood back to the heart. Veins from head/feet to the heart.
VENULES smallest of the veins. small venules converge to form fewer but larger veins. drain & get larger. the largest veins empty the blood into the right atrium of the heart. Veins are blue because they transport unoxygenated blood.
BLOOD VESSEL WALLS 1. tunica intima 2. tunica media 3. tunica adventitia
TUNICA INTIMA inner most layer, an endothelium. froms a slick, shiny surface
TUNICA MEDIA middle layer. thickest layer composed of elastis tissue and smooth muscle.
TUNICA ADVENTITIA outer layer. composed of tough connective tissue. support and protect.
CONDUCTANCE VESSELS large arteries. conduct blood from the vessel to the arteries. the wall is so tough, thick & elastic because of the high pressure of the blood pumped from the ventricles.
RESISTANCE VESSELS changing their diameter, the arterioles affect resistance to the flow of blood. a narrow(constricted)vessel offers an increased resistance to blood flow;a wider(dilated vessel offers less resistance.
VASO CONSTRICTION arteries
VENO CONSTRICTION veins
CAPACITANCE VESSELS another name for veins. because they store blood.
AORTA "Mother of all arteries" originates in the heart's left ventricle. extends upward from the left ventricle curbs in an archlike fashion and then decends thru the thorax.
ASCENDING AORTA, ARCH OF THE AORTA AND THE DESCENDING AORTA the aorta is divided in the systemic circulation as....
BODY CAVITIES OF AORTA THORACIC AORTA & ABDOMINAL AORTA
RIGHT & LEFT CORONARY ARTERIES branch from the ascending aorta. coronary arteries are distributed thru out the heart and supply oxygenated blood to the myocardium.
BRANCHES OF THE AORTA ARCH Brachiocephalic atery, left common carotid artery, and left and right subclavian arteries.
BRACHIOCEPHALIC ARTERY large artery on right side of the body. supplies blood to the right side of the head & neck, right shoulder & upper extremity.
LEFT COMMON CAROTID ARTERY EXTENDS UPWARD FROM HIGHEST PART OF THE AORTIA ARCH & SUPPLIES THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HEAD & NECK.
LEFT AND RIGHT SUBCLAVIAN ARTERIES supply blood to the shoulders and upper arms.
THORACIC AORTA upper portion of the descending aorta. extends from the aorta arch to the diaphragm.
INTERCOSTAL ARTERIES arise from the aorta and supply the intercostal muscles between the ribs.
ABDOMINAL AORTA extends from the thoracic aorta to lower abdomen.
BRANCHES OF THE ABDOMINAL AORTA celiac trunk, gastric artery, splenic artery & hepatric artery
CELIAC TRUNK short artery that further divides into three smaller arteries.
GASTRIC ARTERY supplies the stomach
SPLENIC ARTERY supplies the spleen
HEPATIC ARTERY supplies the liver
SUPERIOR MESENTERIC ARTERY supplies blood to most of the small intestine
RENAL ARTERIES supplies blood to the right and left kidneys
DISTAL ABDOMINAL AORTA SPLITS INTO RIGHT AND LEFT COMMON ILIAC ARTERIES THAT SUPPLY THE PELVIC ORGANS, THIGH, AND LOWER EXTREMITIES. MAJOR ARTERIES OF THE THIGH AND LEG ARE INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL ILIAC ARTERIES, FEMORAL, POPLITEAL, ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERIES.
ANTERIOR & POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERIES give rise to arteries that supply the foot. Anterior tibial artery becomes dorsalis pedis artery in the foot(pedel pulse).
VENA CAVA largest vein(MAIN VEIN). divided into the superior vena cava(SVC) & interior vena cava(IVC).
VEINS DRAINING BLOOD FROM THE HEAD, SHOULDERS AND UPPER EXTREMITIES EMPTY INTO THE SVC. VEINS DRAINING THE LOWER PART OF THE BODY EMPTY INTO THE IVC. THE SVC & IVC EMPTY UNOXYGENATED BLOOD INTO THE RIGHT ATRIUM. ONLY TWO VEINS THAT GO TO THE HEAD.
BRACHIOCEPHALIC VEINS EMPTY DIRECTLY INTO THE SVC. AXILLARY VEIN DRAINS INTO THE SUBCLAVIAN VEIN, WHICH DRAINS INTO THE BRACHIOCEPHALIC VEIN, WHICH DRAINS INTO THE SVC. N/A
CEPHALIC VEIN superficial vein that drains the lateral arm region and carries blood to the axillary vein toward the svc.
BASILIC VEIN superfical vein that drains the medial arm region
MEDIAN CUBITAL VEIN cephalice & basilic veins are joined by the median cubital vein. Blood samples are often drawn from there.
SUBCLAVIAN VEINS receive blood from the axillary veins and from the jugular veins. blood is carried by these veins to the brachiocephalic veins.
EXTERNAL JUGULAR VEINS drain blood from face, scalp & neck
INTERNAL JUGULAR VEIN drain blood from the brain
IVC returns blood to the heart from all regions of the body below the diaphragm
TIBIAL VEINS & PERONEAL VEINS drain the calf and foot regions
POSTERIOR TIBIAL VEIN DRAINS INTO THE POPLITEAL VEIN(BEHIND THE KNEE) AND THEN THE FEMORAL VEIN(IN THE THIGH). THE FEMORAL VEIN ENTERS THE PELVIS AS THE EXTERNAL ILIAC VEIN AND EMPTIES INTO THE COMMON ILIAC VEIN. CONTINUES INTO THE IVC.
GREAT SAPHENOUS VEINS longest veins in the body. Location medial. merge with the femoral vein to become the external iliac vein.
VARICOSE VEINS distended and twisted veins, usually involving the superficial veins in the legs
JVD jugular vein distention (bad thing) right sided heart failure
2 ARTERIES THAT SUPPLY THE BRAIN carotid arteries & vertebral arteries
INTERNAL CAROTID ARTERIES extend to front part of the base of the brain(mostly supplies the brain).
EXTERNAL & JUGULAR VEINS two major veins that drain blood from the head and neck. posterior head and neck region. empty into the subclavian veins.
BLOOD SUPPLY TO THE HEAD AND BRAIN head is supplied by carotid and vertebral arteries. the circle of willis . venous drainage of the brain and head.
PORTAL VEIN large vein that carries blood from the organs of digestion to the liver.
HEPATIC ARTERY carries oxygen-rich blood to the liver.
HEPATIC VEIN drains unoxygenated blood from the liver and deliver it to the IVC.
ARTERIES carry oxygenated blood
VEINS carry unoxygenated blood.
BLOOD VESSELS PERFORM 5 IMPORTANT FUNCTIONS 1. acts as a delivery system. 2. regulate blood pressure. 3. engage in the exchange of nutrients and waste between the capillaries and cells. 4. redistribute blood in response to changing body needs. 5. help regulate body temperature.
ISCHEMIA lack of oxygen
OCCLUSION blockage
"5 COOL Ps" 1. PAIN 2. PULSELESSNESS 3. PALLOR(NO COLOR) 4. PARESTHESIA 5. PARALYSIS(LATE SIGN) 6. COOLNESS
THREE OTHER MECHANISMS RETURN VENOUS BLOOD TO THE HEART skeletal muscle action, respiratory movements and constriction of the veins
SKELETAL MUSCLES contract, squeeze the large veins. squirting blood toward the heart. contraction of the skeletal muscles of the legs assists with the return of venous blood to the heart-called skeletal muscle pump
RESPIRATORY MOVEMENTS the act of breathing is performed by the contraction and relaxation of the skeletal muscles of the chest. pressure in the chest cavity to change(decrease)
INCREASES IN THE THORACIC SIZE HAS TWO EFFECTS it decreases pressure within the thorax and increases pressure within the abdominal cavity. The increased abdominal pressure, in turn, compresses or squeezes the vena cava.
MORE PRESSURE IN ARTERIES THAN VEINS. N/A
SPIRAMETER gaged hit target of 1500 5-10 times per hour suck in as deep as u can
ARTERIOSCLEROSIS hardening, calcification of arterial walls causing blood pressure to increase.
Created by: Pooh_bear_pa on 2010-05-09



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