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Sociology Final

social institution organized patterns of beliefs and behaviors centered on basic social needs [family, religion, education, politics, economy]
family a social institution that unites people in cooperative groups for purposes of reproduction and mutual care
kinship social bond based on blood, marriage, and/or adoption
nuclear family parents and children living together sharing house
extended family more than nuclear family living in the same house
serial monogamy multiple spouses- one at a time
polygamy the uniting of 3 or more people by marriage
patrilineal descent tracing kinship through father’s relatives
matrilineal descent tracing kinship through mother’s relatives
bilateral descent tracing kinship through both the father and the mother
patriarchy men dominate decision making
matriarchy women dominate family decision making
egalitarian family men and women equally share family decision making
endogamy practice of marrying within one’s social category or group
exogamy practice of marrying outside of one’s social category or group
religion a social institution that provides a general explanation of existence, including the terms of exchange
religious belief statements to which members of a particular religion adhere
religious ritual religious ritual-practices required or expected of members of a faith [songs, prayers, offerings, sacrifices]
religious experience feeling of perception of being in contact with the supernatural [senses of peace, speaking in tongues, convulsions]
education social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure [public, private, home]
tracking practice of assigning students to different types of educational programs
hidden curriculum subtle socialization of pupils into dominant ideology of society
teacher-expectancy effect a teacher’s expectations influence the actual achievements of the student
politics social institution through which power is acquired and exercised
monarchy single family rules from generation to generation
authoritarianism system that denies popular participation in government
totalitarianism highly centralized system with extensive regulation of people’s lives
democracy power given to people as a whole
economy social institution through which goods and services are produced, distributed, and consumed
capitalism private ownership of property, pursuit of personal profit, competition and consumer choice
socialism collective property ownership, pursuit of collective goals, gov controls the economy
power ability to exercise one’s will over others
force actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others
influence exercise of power through a process of persuasion
authority institutionalized power perceived as legitimate by the people
traditional authority legitimate power conferred by custom and accepted practice
charismatic authority power made legitimate by people’s belief in the exceptional personal qualities of a leader
rational legal authority-power made legitimate by law
pluralist model power in political systems is widely dispersed throughout many competing interest groups
elite model power in political systems is concentrated in the hands of a small group of elites in the masses and the relatively powerless
power elite small ruling elite of military, business, and government leaders who control the fate of the US
social change transformation of culture and social institutions over time [sources- technology, demographic shifts, ideas]
political socialization process by which individuals learn political attitudes, values, and behavior
crowd behavior people in the same place behaving in a similar way but without organized direction [mobs, riots, panics]
mass behavior collective behavior among people spread out over a wide geographic area
social movement an organized group that acts consciously to promote or resist change through collective action [features of a social movement-goals, strategic tactics, longevity]
stages of a social movement emergence, coalescence, institutionalization, decline
relative deprivation theory social movement arise among people who feel deprived of something [people may feel they have a right to their goals, the disadvantaged group must perceive that it cannot attain its goals through conventional means]
resource mobilization theory to succeed, social movements must mobilize key resources [members, leadership, money, legitimacy]
new social movement theory Social movements in post modern society are motivated less by economic concerns than by concerns regarding values/ideology, identity, and quality-of-life issues
Created by: baylorbear