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neural basis final

Which of the following is true regarding the action potential (AP)? A) The AP is carried along the axon membrane. B) The AP is always of the same amplitude and duration in a given cell. C) The AP is an all-or-none signal. D) The AP is a brief electrical signal.
The time that it takes for a single action potential to occur from start to finish is in milliseconds
Match the correct function with the appropriate neuronal organelle. mitochondria; extraction/production of energy
Which of the following is NOT a function of glial cells? A) Provision of nutrition to the brain. B) Removal of physical debris from the brain. C) Physical support of neurons. D) Insulation of a nerve cell from other nerve cells. E) The conduction of action potentials.
Which of the following is true of neurons? neurons have a high metabolic rate.
Astrocytes perform which of the following functions? B) Provision of nourishment to neurons. C) Clean up of debris within the brain.
Which of the following is true of oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells? Oligodendrocytes are found within the brain. Schwann cells provide myelin for peripheral nerve cells. A single Schwann cell wraps a single segment of a peripheral nerve cell. A single oligodendrocyte can myelinate multiple segments of an axonal membrane
Which of the following was NOT a feature of action potentials? The movements of chloride ions during the action potential.
Movement of the axon membrane potential from -70 mV to -90 mV would be termed a(n) hyperpolarization
At +5 mV (inside relative to outside), the electrical gradient or electrical force acting on sodium is: toward the outside of the neuron
At +5 mv (inside relative to outside), the concentration gradient or force acting on sodium is: toward the inside of the neuron
The force of diffusion would tend to move ________ ions ________ the axon. sodium; into
In a resting neuron, which of the forces listed below will act to push sodium ions into the cell? A) Concentration gradient. B) Electrical gradient.
Which of the following events restores the membrane potential from the peak of the action potential back to the resting level? potassium ions move out of the cell
Ions enter and leave the membrane of a myelinated axon at the nodes of ranvier
In which portion of a neuron would you expect to find the largest number of vesicles? the axon terminal
Which of the following will produce an EPSP? opening a sodium channel
An autoreceptor is located on the ________ and is sensitive to ________. A) presynaptic membrane; the transmitter released by that neuron
Which of the following will neutralize the effect of an EPSP? opening a chloride channel
The process that usually terminates the postsynaptic potentials induced by most neurotransmitters is B) enzymatic degradation of the transmitter molecule.
A drug that inactivates acetylcholinesterase (AChE) would be expected to A) prolong the effects of acetylcholine (ACh) in the synapse.
Which effect is consistently associated with a “second messenger”? metabotropic
If you were interested in viewing the ultrastructure (very fine detail) of neurons, you would use a(n): electron microscope
A Nissl stain is best to view cell bodies (soma)
An experimenter can use the immune system to stain for a specific protein or receptor on single neurons true
One remarkable characteristic of the human brain, in comparison with the brains of other animals, is the great expansion of our _______. prefrontal cortex
Two structures that are on the same side of the body are said to be _____ to each other. ipsilateral
Which of the following would be found outside the CNS? ganglion
Activation of the parasympathetic nervous system increases A) Salivation. B) Airway constriction. C) Sexual arousal.
Early in development, the nervous system begins as A collection of cells surrounding a fluid-filled cavity.
Breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing, and sneezing are all controlled by the medulla
When a primitive neuron, which looks similar to most other cells in the body, begins to develop dendrites and an axon, the process is called _________. differentiate
In what way is “bregma” useful to brain researchers? It is a landmark on the skull that enables researchers to calculate the position of points in the brain.
Proliferation is the production of new cells
Which of the following is NOT part of the hindbrain? B) Hippocampus C) Basal ganglia
A ____ section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves. Sagittal
A(n) _____ view of the brain would be useful in visualizing the medial to lateral extent of a brain structure. A) Coronal B) Horizontal
When the brain matures into 5 divisions from an immature 3-division organization, what major brain division(s) does not change in name? midbrain
An injury to the posterior cortex would most likely affect which sensory system? vision (sight)
Injecting an animal with a dose of a chemical molecule that is a precursor for the synthesis of a synaptic neurotransmitter would be expected to Increase the rate of synthesis and release of that neurotransmitter.
Administration of a drug that binds at a postsynaptic site different from that of the neurotransmitter, and prevents the opening of ion channels would be termed a(n) Indirect antagonist.
A drug that blocks a presynaptic autoreceptor Increases the release of the neurotransmitter from the axon terminal.
A shift of the dose-response curve to the right denotes tolerance
A drug that hyperpolarizes the postsynaptic membrane, similar to what occurs at a synapse that usually generates an IPSP is a(n) agonist
Multiple drugs can bind to the same postsynaptic receptor protein true
Which of the following techniques would be used to trace efferent axons from a brain region to other brain regions? An anterograde labeling method.
Single unit recordings Indicate that neuron activity is silent during specific behavioral tasks.
Immunocytochemistry techniques take advantage of the specific affinity of antibodies for a protein molecule
Efferent is to afferent as PHA-L is to fluorogold
Sensory information terminates (neuronal terminals) in the _____ of the spinal cord. dorsal horn
Researchers who wish to determine which neurotransmitters are released during a behavioral activity, and in what amounts, will most likely use: microdialysis
Which area of the brain does not contain part of the reticular formation? tectum
Auditory receptors are located in the A. Olfactory epithelium B. Ossicles C. Tenacious membrane D. Middle ear E. NONE
Which of the following is not true? B.Rods have a greater sensitivity to dim light than cones C.Cones contribute to color vision D.Rods depolarize in the presence of light Rods depolarize in the presence of light
_______ is an example of a(n) ________. Light; zeitgeber
Simple cells in the visual cortex A. Respond best to bars of light in a particular orientation B. Were first discovered by Hubel and Wiesel C. Have smaller receptive fields than complex cells
The utricle and saccule are designed to transduce information about: A. Long wavelengths B. High frequency sounds C. Sound localization D. Color constancy E. NONE
The optic nerve is formed by axons that arise from the _____ retinal cells ganglion
The primary function of the Pacinian corpuscle is to detect rabid vibration
A mutation in which inner hair cells are lost in the cochlea would be expected to result in A. The inability to detect differences in sound intensity. B. Impairment of hearing. C. A difficulty in locating the source of a sound. D. The inability to detect differences between different musical instruments.
Lateral inhibition a.in the visual system is usually associated with primary visual cortex b.is a way to sharpen contrast c.is created when activity from one cell inhibits activity of a neighboring cell d.helps in the visual detection of borders
A high frequency tone would be expected to produce a maximal bending of the ____ nearest the _____. Basilar membrane; oval window
Sudden changes in the rotation of the head are sensed by the Semicircular canals
The cutaneous senses signal information about stimuli that interact with the external surface of the skin
Papillae are found: A. In slow wave sleep B. Attached to tendons C. Near the ventricles D. In the nose E. NONE
Olfactory receptors are located in the Olfactory epithelium
A person whose brain waves contain high-amplitude delta waves is most likely in stage 3 or 4 sleep
All of the following are characteristics of REM sleep EXCEPT Alternating delta and beta EEG activities.
A full day of tourist activities at Disneyland would be expected to Increase the amount of time spent that night in slow-wave sleep.
Damage to the ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPA) would be expected to produce insomnia
Activation of adenosine receptors may increase sleep by Inhibition of neurons that normally inhibit the VLPA.
Damage to the rat SCN would be expected to disrupt circadian rhythms related to A. Timing of sleep cycles. B. Activity levels. C. Drinking. D. Hormone secretion. E. ALL
To maintain proper fluid balance, the body contains two sets of receptors, one that measures volume of the _____ and the other records the volume of the ______. blood; cells
Osmoreceptors are specialized neurons that detect Changes in solute concentration of the interstitital fluid.
The key function of instrumental conditioning is to allow an organism to Adjust behavior according to its consequences.
Intense electrical stimulation of axons within the hippocampal formation results in Long-term potentiation of postsynaptic neurons.
Simple perceptual learning involves Our recognition of particular stimuli or categories of stimuli.
Patient H.M. was treated for severe epilepsy by bilateral removal of his temporal lobes
From what we learned in lecture and covered in the book, which fluid compartments are most likely to be regulated within precise limits? intravascular; intracellular
Neurotrophins A. are transported retrogradely through projecting axons B. mediate competition of presynaptic cells for targets C. pair a sufficient number of projection neurons with a corresponding number of targets D. are secreted from postsynaptic sites
Which of the following is true of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? A. Most ALS cases are not genetic in origin. B. ALS is a degenerative disease. C. The cause of death in ALS is failure of respiration. D. Spinal cord and cranial motor neurons are destroyed in ALS.
Created by: lindseylinz