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4th Six Wk Test Rev

Force, Space and Energy

TermDefinition
force a push or pull on an object
gravity the force of attraction between objects that have mass; the strength of gravity depends on both mass and distance; the force that holds the solar system in balance
mass the measure of how much matter is in an object
centripetal force causes objects to move in a circular motion
friction the force that opposed motion between two surfaces that are touching
sliding friction the force when two objects slide against each other
friction types rolling, static, sliding and fluid (drag)
net force the combination of all the forces working on an object
balanced forces produce no change in the motion of an object; net force equals zero
unbalanced forces produce a change in the motion of an object; the net force is greater than zero
speed the distance traveled by an object in a certain amount of time; the ratio of distance to time; s = d/t
velocity an object's speed and direction at a certain moment
acceleration the change in an object's velocity over time
joules the measure of force also known as Newton-meters
work formula work = force x distance (W = F x d)
rolling friction created with wheels or spheres; usually less than sliding friction
static friction a friction force that keeps objects from moving
celestial a term that refers to objects we can see in the sky such as planets, comets, asteroids and the sun
ramp used to reduce the amount of force required to raise objects to a higher level; longer and flatter use less force than higher and shorter
pulley a system of wheels and ropes that reduce the amount of force required to lift an object
Jovian Planets also called gas giants; Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune
terrestrial planets rocky solid planets; much smaller than Jovian planets; Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars
asteroids small, leftover bits of the materials that formed the solar system; located between Earth and Jupiter; may be between Mercury and the Sun also
comets balls of dirt and ice that move through the solar system in elliptical orbits
composition what something is made of
satellites small objects that orbit around other objects in space - can be man-made or naturally occuring
Sputnik first satellite in space; launched by the Russians in 1957
International Space Station construction began in 1998; a permanently manned facility for research in space
probe an unmanned space vehicle sent out to collect data
potential energy stored or saved energy; examples are chemical and nuclear
kinetic energy energy in motion; examples are electrical, sound, light, thermal and wind
energy transformation when one type of energy is changed into another type of energy; all transformations include some change to thermal energy
energy the ability to do work
Law of Conservation of Energy energy can be neither created nor destroyed
conduction the transfer of thermal energy by direct contact
convection the transfer of thermal energy through moving currents
radiation the transfer of thermal energy through space
fossil fuels energy sources formed from decaying plants and animals; examples are petroleum (oil), natural gas and coal
non-renewable energy source energy sources that will get used up soon; includes fossil fuels and uranium
renewable energy source sources that last forever; also called inexhaustible; includes solar, wind, water and geothermal
conservation using less; reduce, reuse, recycle
RTQC Read the Question Carefully
TYT Take your time
Created by: bwilliamsscience on 2010-04-28



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