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Pancreat/o pancreas
Choledoch/o bile duct
Cholangi/o bile vessel
Chol/e bile; gall
Gloss/o tongue
Lingu/o tongue
Bucc/o cheek
Cheil/o lip
Labi/o lip
Dent/o teeth
Odont/o teeth
Gingiv/o gums
Sial/o salivary gland
Esophag/o esophagus
Pharyng/o pharynx
Gastr/o stomach
Pylor/o pylorus
Jejun/o jejunum
Ile/o ileum
Append/o appendix
Appendic/o appendix
Colon/o colon
Col/o colon
Sigmoid/o sigmoid
Rect/o rectum
An/o anus
Proct/o rectum, anus
Cholecyst/o gallbladder
Hepat/o liver
Celi/o abdomen
Lapar/o abdomen
Abdomin/o abdomen
Peritone/o peritoneum
Diverticul/o diverticulum
Herni/o hernia
Polyp/o small growth
Cholelith/o gallstone
Glomerul/o glomerulus
Nephr/o kidney
Ket/o ketone bodies
Keton/o ketone bodies
Colp/o vagina
Vagin/o vagina
Episi/o vulva
Vulv/o vulva
Ren/o kidney
Urin/o urine, urinary tract
Galact/o milk
Lact/o milk
Pyel/o renal pelvis
Andr/o male
Gynec/o woman, female
Cyst/o bladder
Balan/o glans penis
Hyster/o uterus, womb
Metr/o uterus, womb
Vesic/o bladder
Orch/o testes
Orchi/o testes
Orchid/o testes
Test/o testes
Trigon/o trigone
Leiomy/o smooth muscle
Meat/o opening, meatus
Gonad/o gonads, sex glands
Prostat/o prostate gland
Ureter/o ureter
Urethr/o urethra
Men/o menses, menstruation
Spermat/o spermatozoa, sperm cells
Sperm/o spermatozoa, sperm cells
Ur/o urine, urinary tract
Vas/o vessel, vas deferens duct
Albumin/o albumin
Oophor/o ovary
Ovari/o ovary
Perine/o perineum
Salping/o tube
Azot/o nitrogenous compounds
Kal/i potassium
Cervic/o cervix uteri, neck
Mast/o breast
Mamm/o breast
Nat/o birth
Aliment/o nutriment; food
Or/o mouth
Stomat/o mouth
Duoden/o duodenum
Intestin/o intestines
Enter/o intestines
Amni/o amnion (amniotic sac)
-phasia speech
-pepsia digestion
-phagia swallowing, eating
-metry act of measuring
-osis abnormal condition, increase
-megaly enlargement
-gram record, writing
-graph instrument for recording
-dynia pain
-plasia formation, growth
-rrhexis rupture
-ac pertaining to
-al pertaining to
-ar pertaining to
-ary pertaining to
-eal pertaining to
-ic pertaining to
-ical pertaining to
-ile pertaining to
-ory pertaining to
-ose pertaining to
-ous pertaining to
-tic pertaining to
-lysis separation, destruction, loosening
-cele hernia, swelling
-penia decrease, deficiency
-rrhagia forth
-algia pain
-stomy forming an opening
-scope instrument to view or examine
-iasis abnormal condition
-iatry medicine, treatment
-ase enzyme
-desis binding, fixation
-ia condition
-ism condition
-y condition
-trophy development, nourishment
-plasm formation, growth
-ectasis dilation, expansion
-pexy suspension, fixation
-emia blood condition
-stenosis narrowing, stricture
-lucent to shine, clear
-plasty surgical repair
-rrhea discharge, flow
-tripsy crushing
-scopy visual examination
-oma tumor
-meter instrument for measuring
-clasis to break
-emesis vomiting
-rrhage bursting
-centesis surgical puncture
-lith stone, calculus
-edema swelling
-toxic poison
-tomy incision
-ectomy excision, removal
-rrhaphy suture
-spasm involuntary contraction, twitching
-graphy process of recording
-itis inflammation
-ician specialist
-ist specialist
-malacia softening
-pathy disease
-opaque obscure
Post- after, behind
Peri- around
Dys- bad, painful, difficult
Circum- around
Poly- much, many
Sub- under, below
Dia- through, across
Para- near, beside, beyond
An- without, not
a- without, not
hypo- under, below
post- after, behind
hyper- excessive, above normal
supra- above, excessive
Mastication The chewing, tearing, and grinding of food by the teeth.
deglutition Swallowing of food
peristalsis The wavelike muscular contractions of the alimentary canal or other tubular structures by which contents are forced onward toward the opening
bolus Ball of food that has been swallowed
lumen a lumen can also be the inside space of a cellular component or structure, such as the endoplasmic reticulum.
fundus upper part of the stomach
rugae longitudinal folds formed when the stomach collapses inward
villi microscopic, finger-like projections on the small intestine where food absorption takes place.
metabolism The sum of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism.
bilirubin The Orange-yellow pigment of bile, formed principally by the breakdown of hemoglobin in red blood cells (RBCs) after termination of their normal lifespan.
cholecystokinin A hormone, produced by the mucosa of the upper intestine, that stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of pancreatic enzymes.
chyme The semi-fluid, homogenous, creamy paste produced by gastric digestion of food.
defecation The elimination of feces from the digestive tract through the rectum.
Distension The state of being distended, swollen, or stretched out.
emulsification The breakdown of large fat globules into smaller, uniformly distributed particles.
hydrochloric acid An acid that is normally present in gastric juices.
lipid Any of a group of fats or fat-like substances that are insoluble in water (i.e. fats and cholesterol) but soluble in fat solvents such as alcohol, ether, and chloroform.
mucous membrane A type of epithelial tissue that lines body surfaces and excretes a thick substance (i.e. the lining of the mouth, the digestive tube, the respiratory passages, and the genitourinary tract.)
pepsin The principal digestive enzyme of gastric juice that begins protein digestion.
dental caries A plaque disease caused by the complex interaction of food, especially starches and sugars, with bacteria that form dental plaque; tooth decay.
leukoplakia A pre-cancerous, slowly developing change in the mucous membrane characterized by thickened, white, firmly attached patches that are slightly raised and sharply circumscribed.
periodontal disease A disease of the supporting structures of the teeth (the periodontium) including the gums and bone structure to which the teeth are anchored.
thrush An infection of the mouth or throat, especially in infants and young children, caused by Candida albicans.
esophageal varices Tortuous (twisted) dilatation of esophageal veins situated at the distal end of the esophagus, especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhage.
achalasia An abnormal condition characterized by inability of a muscle to relax, particularly cardiac sphincter of the stomach.
gastroesophageal reflux a backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus; often the result of incompetence of the lower esophageal sphincter.
pyloric stenosis A narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach, causing an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine.
ulcer A lesion or erosion of the mucous membrane; the major forms are gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
emesis vomiting
celiac disease An inborn error of metabolism characterized by the inability to hydrolyze peptides contained in gluten.
Crohn disease A chronic inflammation, usually of the ileum, although it may affect any portion of the intestinal tract.
diverticula; diverticulum small pouch-like herniations in the intestinal wall
dysentery Inflammation of the intestine, especially of the colon, which may be caused by chemical irritants, bacteria, protozoa, or parasites.
Hirschsprung disease Congenital absence of autonomic ganglia (groups of nerve cells) in the smooth muscle wall of the colon, which causes poor or absent peristalsis in the involved segment of the colon, accumulation of feces, and dilation of the bowel (megacolon).
intestinal obstruction Partial of complete obstruction of the small or large bowel lumen.
intussusception The sliding of the inner segment of intestine into another segment.
irritable bowel syndrome Chronic or periodic diarrhea alternating with constipation.
polyposis coli A condition of multiple polyps in the large intestine.
volvulus A twisting of the bowel on itself, causing intestinal obstruction.
fistula An abnormal tube-like passage from a normal cavity or tube to a free surface or to another cavity.
hemorrhoids Dilated, tortuous (twisted) veins in the mucous membranes.
cirrhosis Chronic liver disease characterized by the destruction of liver cells; eventually leads to impaired lever function and jaundice.
achlorhydria Absence of hydrochloric acid in the gastric juice.
anorexia Lack or loss of appetite, resulting in the inability to eat.
ascites Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity.
borborygmus An audible abdominal sound produced by hyperactive intestinal peristalsis.
cachexia A state of ill health, malnutrition, and wasting. It may occur in chronic diseases, malignancies, and infections.
constipation A change in normal bowel habits characterized by decreased infrequent, difficult defecation or passage or hard, dry stools; sluggish action of the bowels.
diarrhea A change in bowel habits characterized by the frequent passage of loose, fluid, unformed stools.
dyspepsia A vague feeling of epigastric discomfort, felt after eating.
flatus Air of gas in the intestine that is passed through the rectum.
hernia A protrusion or projection of an organ or a part of an organ through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it.
jaundice A yellow discoloration of the skin, mucous membranes, and sclerae of the eyes, caused by higher than normal amounts of bilirubin in the blood.
melena Abnormal black tarry stool that has a distinctive odor and contains digested blood.
nausea Unpleasant wave-like sensation in the throat or abdomen, usually proceeding vomiting.
pruritus ani Itching of varying intensity of the skin around the arms.
steatorrhea Higher than normal amounts of fat in the feces.
Barium enema Radiographic examination of the rectum and colon following administration of barium sulfate into the rectum.
Barium swallow Radiographic examination of the esophagus, stomach, and small intestine following oral administration of barium sulfate.
Cholangiography Radiographic examination for outlining the major bile ducts by intravenous injection or direct instillation of a radiopaque contrast medium.
fluoroscopy A radiographic technique for visually examining a part of the body or the function of an organ with a fluoroscope.
endoscopy Visualization of the interior of organs and cavities of the body with an endoscope.
esophagoscopy Visualization of the esophagus with an endoscope.
gastroscopy Visual examination of the stomach.
colonoscopy Visualization of the colon with an endoscope.
stool guaiac Test performed on feces using the reagent gum guaiac to detect the presence of blood in the feces that is not apparent on visual inspection.
biopsy Removal of a small piece of living tissue for microscopic examination, usually to establish or confirm a diagnosis, estimate prognosis, or follow the course of a disease.
aspiration Removal of living tissue, for microscopic examination, by suction through a fine needle attached to a syringe.
anastomosis Surgical connection between two vessels; surgical joining of two ducts, blood vessels, or bowel segments to allow flow from one to another.
lithotripsy A procedure for eliminating a calculus in the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder.
paracentesis Surgical puncture of the peritoneal cavity to withdraw fluid.
gastric lavage Washing out of the stomach.
nasogastric intubation Insertion of a nasogastric tube through the nose into the stomach to relieve gastric distention by removing gas, gastric secretions, or food.
laparoscopic surgery the performance of surgical procedures with the assistance of a video camera and several thin instruments.
antacids Drugs that exert a therapeutic effect by neutralizing acid, especially in the stomach and duodenum.
antidiarrheals Drugs that relieve diarrhea either by absorbing the excess fluids that cause diarrhea or by lessening intestinal motility, allowing more time for absorption of water.
Antiemetics, antinauseants Drugs that prevent or relieve nausea and vomiting, mainly by acting on brain control centers to stop nerve impulses.
antiflatulents Drugs that reduce the feeling of gaseousness and flatulence accompanying indigestion.
bismuth compounds Agents that may be used for protective effects in ulcer disease and for mild to moderate diarrhea.
emetics Agents that induce vomiting, especially in cases of poisoning.
H2 blockers Drugs used to treat ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease by blocking the release of acid in the gastric parietal cells, which line the stomach.
mucosal protective agents Agents that act topically on the ulcer surface and bind directly to necrotic areas, forming a protective layer over the ulcer, allowing it to heal.
prostaglandins Substances that inhibit acid secretion and stimulate the production of protective mucus bicarbonate.
proton pump inhibitors Specifically inhibit acid production; used in the treatment of peptic ulcers and gastroesophageal reflux disease.
electrolyte A substance that, when dissolved in water, can be conduct an electric current.
enzyme A substance, usually a protein, that affects the rate of chemical changes; breakdown complex foods into simpler foods.
erectile tissue Vascular tissue that becomes erect or rigid when filled with blood, such as the clitoris, penis, or nipples.
filtrate The fluid that has been passed through a filter.
gamete A mature male or female reproductive cell; the spermatozoon or ovum.
gonads Primary reproductive organs
homeostasis A relative constancy or equilibrium in the internal environment of the body.
ions Electrically charged particles.
permeate To pass through the substance or mass of; to penetrate and spread through, as water will permeate blotting paper.
micturation The passing of urine
testosterone A naturally occurring androgenic hormone formed in greatest quantities by the testes.
testis (testes) Male gonads or testicles.
vascular Composed of or pertaining to a blood vessel .
vasoconstriction Narrowing of the blood vessels.
void To empty of evacuate, such as urine from the bladder.
anteversion A tipping forward of an organ as a while, without bending.
atrophy A wasting; a decrease in size of an organ or tissue due to disease or other influences.
CA 125 A glycoprotein found in the blood serum of patients with ovarian or other glandular cell carcinomas. Increasing levels of this antigen represent continuing tumor growth, which may indicate a poor prognosis.
carcinoma in situ A lesion characterized by cytological changes of the type associated with invasive carcinoma, but limited to a localized area without evidence of extension to adjacent structures.
fertilization The union of the male and female sex cells to produce a fertilized egg from which the embryo develops.
gestation The length of time from conception to birth.
graafian follicle A mature follicle of the ovary that ruptures during ovulation to release an ovum.
gravida A pregnant woman. The term is used with numerals to indicate the number of times a woman has been pregnant.
lactation The process of synthesis and secretion of milk from the breasts in nourishment of an infant or child.
menarche The first menstrual period, usually during puberty.
orifice The entrance or outlet of any anatomic structure, such as the mouth, vagina, or anus.
ovulation The periodic ripening and rupture of the mature graafian follicle and the discharge of the ovum from the ovary as part of a monthly cycle that leads to fertilization or menstruation.
para A woman who has produced a viable infant regardless of whether the infant is alive at birth.
parturition The process of giving birth.
retroversion A turning, or a state of being turned back; especially the tipping of an entire organ.
spermatozoa Mature male germ cells that develop in the testes.
glomerulonephritis an inflammatory disease of both kidneys
renal calculi kidney stones
urgency a sudden, compelling urge to urinate
incontinence any involuntary leakage of urine
end-stage renal disease The final phase of a kidney disease process.
interstitial nephritis Nephritis associated with pathological changes in the renal interstitial tissue that may be primary or due to a toxic agent such as a drug or chemical.
nephrotic syndrome A condition characterized by the presence of kidney stones, also called renal calculi, in which there are degenerative changes in the kidneys.
nocturia Excessive urination at night.
oliguria Diminished or scanty urination in relation to fluid intake.
polycystic kidney A hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain may cysts.
renal hypertension High blood pressure resulting form a kidney disease.
Wilms tumor Rapidly developing, malignant kidney tumor that usually occurs in children.
benign prostatic hyperplasia A non-malignant enlargement of the prostate due to excessive growth of prostatic tissue.
epispadias A congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the upper side of the penis, near the glans penis, instead of at the tip.
hydrocele An accumulation of fluid in any sac-like cavity or duct, particularly the scrotal sac or along the spermatic cord.
hypospadias A congenital defect in which the male urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis instead of at the tip.
polydipsia Excessive thirst.
impotence The inability of a man to achieve or maintain an erection.
phimosis Stenosis of perpetual orifice in which the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis.
prostatic cancer A malignant neoplasm of the prostate tissue, creating pressure on the upper part of the urethra.
prostatism any condition of the prostate gland that interferes with the flow of urine from the bladder.
chlamydial infection An infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
genital wart A wart of the genitalia caused by human papillomavirus (HPV).
gonorrhea An infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
herpes genitalis An infection of the genital and anorectal skin and mucosa caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV).
syphilis An infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum and characterized by lesions that may involve any organ or tissue.
trichomoniasis An infection of the vagina, urethra, or prostate caused by the bacterium Trichomona vaginalis.
varicocele Swollen, enlarged, herniated veins near the testis.
premenstrual syndrome A syndrome of nervous tension, irritability, weight gain, edema, headache, mastalgia, dysphoria, and lack of coordination occurring during the last few days of the menstrual cycle before the onset of menses.
fibrocystic breast disease The presence of single or multiple cysts that are palpable in the breasts.
fibroma, fibroid A benign neoplasm consisting of fibrous, encapsulated connective tissue.
hydatidiform mole An intrauterine polycystic mass in which the chorionic villi have undergone cystic degeneration causing a rapid growth of the uterus with hemorrhage.
ovarian cyst A globular sac filled with fluid or semidolid material that develops in or on the ovary.
dermoid cyst Cyst lines with various cell types and containing fatty material, hair, teeth, and bits of bone and cartilage.
follicle cyst Cyst that originates in an unruptures graafian follicle.
luteal cyst Cyst that develops when the corpus luteum fails to regress.
carcinoma Malignant neoplasm.
candidiasis Infection of the skin or mucous membrane with any species of Candida, but chiefly C. albicans.
pelvic inflammatory disease Infection of the uterus, ovaries, fallopian tubes, and adjacent pelvic structures.
toxic shock syndrome A rare and sometimes fatal disease caused by toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus.
abruptio placentae Premature detachment of a normally situated placenta after the 20th week of gestation.
breech presentation Intrauterine position of the fetus in which the buttocks or feet present first.
eclampsia The gravest form of pregnancy-induced hypertension.
ectopic pregnancy Implantation of the fertilized ovum outside of the uterine cavity.
placenta previa A placenta that is abnormally implanted in the uterus so that it impinges on or covers the internal os of the uterine cervix.
pre-eclampsia A complication of pregnancy characterized by hypertension, proteinuria, and edema.
Down syndrome Chromosomal abnormality that results in mild to severe mental retardation and other abnormalities.
hyaline membrane disease Respiratory condition that primarily occurs in the premature neonate.
kernicterus An abnormal toxic accumulation of bilirubin in the central nervous system tissues caused by high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream of a neonate.
pyloric stenosis A congenital defect in which narrowing of the pyloric sphincter at the outlet of the stomach causes an obstruction that blocks the flow of food into the small intestine.
intravenous pyelogram Procedure in which a contrast medium is injected intravenously and serial x-ray films are taken to provide visualization and important information of the entire urinary tract: kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra.
renal scan An imaging procedure that determines renal function and shape.
voiding cystourethrogram Radiography of the bladder and urethra after the introduction of a contrast medium and during the process of voiding urine.
blood urea nitrogen A test that measures the amount of urea normally excreted by the kidneys into the blood.
prostate-specific antigen Blood test to screen for prostate cancer.
urinalysis A physical, chemical, and microscopic analysis of the urine.
catheterization Insertion of a catheter into a body cavity or organ to instill a substance or to remove a fluid.
digital rectal examination Insertion of a finger into the male rectum to palpate the rectum and prostate.
percutaneous renal biopsy Obtaining renal tissue for analysis by use of a needle inserted through the skin.
extracorporeal shock-wave A non-invasive procedure to break up kidney stones. The shock waves are focused on the stones, disintegrating them and permitting their passage in the urine.
lithotripsy A procedure for eliminating a calculus in the renal pelvis, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder.
stent placement Use of a device to hold open vessels, tubes, or an obstructed ureter.
hemodialysis A method of providing the function of the kidneys by circulating tubes made in semipermeable membranes.
peritoneal dialysis Dialysis in which the lining of the peritoneal cavity is used as the dialyzing membrane.
breast biopsy Obtaining a tissue sample for microscopic analysis to detect the presence of carcinoma.
chorionic villus sampling A procedure for withdrawing bits of the chrionic villi from the placenta for examination.
Papanicolaou test Microscopic analysis of cells taken from the cervix and vagina to detect the presence of carcinoma.
breast reconstruction Plastic surgical procedure performed following mastectomy.
conization Excision of a cone of tissue, such as the mucous membrane of the cervix, for biopsy.
cryosurgery The use of subfreezing temperature to destroy tissue.
dilation & curettage Dilation of the uterine cervix canal of the uterus and scraping of the endometrium of the uterus.
lumpectomy Surgical excision of a tumor, such as a breast tumor, without removing large amounts of surrounding tissue.
tubal ligation Sterilization procedure that involves blocking both fallopian tubes by cutting or burning them and typing them off.
abortion The termination of pregnancy before the fetus reached the stage of viability; may be spontaneous or induced.
cesarean section Removal of the fetus by abdominal incision into the uterus.
cauterization The use of chemicals or an electrically heated instrument to burn and destroy abnormal tissue.
cerclage An obstetric procedure in which a non-absorbable suture is used for holding the cervix closed to prevent spontaneous abortion in a woman who has an incomplete cervix.
epidural anesthesia Pain management by injection of an anesthetic into the epidural space, usually in the lumbar area, during labor.
intrauterine device Contraceptive device that consists of a bent strip of radioplaque plastic with a fine monofilament tail that is inserted into the uterus by a gynecologist.
analgesics Drugs that relieve pain without affecting consciousness.
antibiotics Drugs that combat bacterial infection and have the ability to inhibit or kill foreign organisms within the body.
antispasmodics Drugs that relieve spasms and act to relax the smooth muscle in the wall of the urethra, bladder, and intestine, allowing normal urination.
diuretics Substances that increase the rate of secretion.
potassium supplements Supplements used concurrently with many diuretics to counteract the potassium-depletion effect.
sulfonamides Substances used to treat UTIs.
urinary alkalinizers Substances that inhibit stone formation by reducing urine acidity.
uricosurics Substances used to treat gout because they increase urinary excretion of uric acid.
estrogen hormones Substances that suppress gonadotropic and testicular androgenic hormones in men.
gonadotropins Hormonal preparations used to raise sperm count in infertility cases.
spermicidals Substances that destroy sperm and are often used within the woman’s vagina for contraception.
antiestrogens Agents used to prevent the recurrence of breast cancer and to treat metastatic breast cancer.
antifungals Agents used to treat fungal infections.
oral contraceptives Birth control pills that exert a hormonal influence to prevent pregnancy.
oxytocins Agents that stimulate the uterus to contract, thus inducing labor.
progestins A large group of synthetic drugs that have a progesterone-like effect on the uterus; used to treat abnormal uterine bleeding due to hormonal imbalance.
selective estrogen receptor modulators Drugs that function like estrogen in some tissues but block the effect of estrogen in others; have estrogen-like effects on bone, increasing bone mineral density and decreasing cholesterol levels.
Created by: dmg