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Patho1Muscles

Patho1 Muscles Barry

QuestionAnswer
What are muscles and what do they do? They are contractile fibers and their job is to contract.
What are the three types of muscle? Striated, smooth, and cardiac.
True or false: Skeletal muscles: they are attached to skeleton. They are histologically known as striated muscle. They are voluntary. Cholinergic and adrenergic. False. Skeletal muscles: They are attached to skeleton. They are histologically known as striated muscle. They are voluntary. CHOLINERGIC ONLY.
True or false. Skeletal muscles: they are attached to skeleton. They are histologically known as voluntary muscle. Cholinergic. False. Skeletal muscles: they are attached to skeleton. They ARE voluntary, but they are HISTALOGICALLY known as striated muscle. Cholinergic.
True or false: Skeletal muscles: they are attached to skeleton. They are histologically known as striated muscle. They are voluntary. Cholinergic. True.
What are all the types of striated muscle? Voluntary and cardiac.
True or false: Smooth muscle: no striations. In the internal organs usually as the middle layer of organ. Involuntary. Cholinergic. Smooth muscle is stronger than skeletal muscle. They are regulated by ANS. False. Smooth muscle: no striations. In the internal organs usually as the middle layer of organ. Involuntary. CHOLINERGIC OR ADRENDERGIC depending on the organ. Smooth muscle is stronger than skeletal muscle. They are regulated by ANS.
True or false: Smooth muscle: no striations. In the internal organs usually as the middle layer of organ. Involuntary. Cholinergic or adregenergic depending on the organ. Smooth muscle is weaker than skeletal muscle. They are regulated by ANS. False. Smooth muscle: no striations. In the internal organs usually as the middle layer of organ. Involuntary. Cholinergic or adregenergic depending on the organ. Smooth muscle is STRONGER than skeletal muscle. They are regulated by ANS.
True or false: Smooth muscle: no striations. In the internal organs usually as the middle layer of organ. Involuntary. Cholinergic or adregenergic depending on the organ. Smooth muscle is stronger than skeletal muscle. They are regulated by ANS. True.
Tendon connects... Muscle to bone.
Describe the components of muscle from largest to smallest. Muscle contains fascicles. Fascicles contain muscle fibers(cells). Muscle fibers(cells) contain myofibrils. Myofibrils contain myofilaments.
Describe the connective tissue wrappings in the muscle. Muscle is wrapped in epimysium. Fascicles are wrapped in perimysium. Muscle fibers(cells) are wrapped in endomysium.
Define muscle: Consists of hundreds to thousands of muscle cells plus connective tissue wrappings, blood vessels, and nerve fibers. Covered in epimysium.
Define fascicle: Discrete bundle of muscle cells, segregated from the rest of the muscle by a connective tissue sheath. Covered in perimysium.
Define muscle fiber(cell): Elongated multinucleate cell, has a banded (striated) appearance. Covered in endomysium.
What is a triad? Has 3 components. Two terminal cisterna on either side of one transverse tubule (T tubule).
What purpose do triads serve? To allow Ca++ to enter the cell.
What is the sarcoplasmic reticulum? The endoplasmic reticulum of the muscle cell.
What is the sarcolemma? The cell membrane of a muscle cell.
True or false: the two types of myofibrils are actin and myosin. False. The two types of MYOFILAMENTS are actin and myosin.
Actin and myosin are made of... Protein.
Where does the Ca++ enter the cell? At the triad.
<Blank> and <blank> are the essential components of the functional unit of the muscle which is known as the sarcomere. Actin and myosin.
What is the functional unit of the muscle? The sarcomere.
What are the limits of the sarcomere? From one Z-disk to the next.
True or false: Sarcomere is from one Z-disk to another. Attached to the Z-disk are the actin myofilament and the myosin filament. False. Sarcomere is from one Z-disk to another. Attached to the Z-disk is the actin myofilament. Myosin is NOT attached to the Z-disk.
True or false: Sarcomere is from one Z-disk to another. Attached to the Z-disk is the actin myofilament. Myosin is not attached to the Z-disk. True.
Actin myofilament contains a protein called actin, and also... Tropomyosin and troponin.
There are two types of troponin. One for all muscles and one specific to... Cardiac muscles.
Tropomyosin band covers certain... Points along the actin myofilament known as active sites.
What are the active sites on the actin myofilament? These sites are where the head of the myosin binds to form the cross bridge and have a contraction.
True or false: Tropomyosin band covers certain points along the actin myofilament knows as active sites. These sites are where the head of the troponin binds to form the crossbridge and have a contraction. False. Tropomyosin band covers certain points along the actin myofilament knows as active sites. These sites are where the head of the MYOSIN binds to form the cross bridge and have a contraction.
True or false: Tropomyosin band covers certain points along the actin myofilament knows as active sites. These sites are where the head of the myosin binds to form the cross bridge and have a contraction. True.
Myosin looks like a golf club with what two parts? Rod and head.
What part of the myosin molecule moves? The head.
True or false: The head of the myosin is moving and muscle contraction consists of attachment of the head of the myosin to active sites on the actin myofilament and when the head moves it drags the actin myofilament and that causes the muscle contraction. True.
True or false: It is impossible to attach the head of the myosin myofilament to the active site on the actin myofilament while the active sites are covered by the troponin. False. It is impossible to attach the head of the myosin myofilament to the active site on the actin myofilament while the active sites are covered by the TROPOMYOSIN.
The sarcomere is the <blank> unit of the muscle. Contractile.
True or false: The sarcomere is the contractile unit of the muscle. It goes from one Z-disk to another. It includes actin myofilaments and myosin myofilaments. True.
In the middle of the sarcomere is the M-line, which intersects... Nothing but the rod of the myosin myofilament.
H-zone will go from... The end of one actin myofilament to another.
H-zone contains... Nothing but the myosin myofilament.
True or false: H-zone will go from the end of one actin myofilament to another. H-zone contains nothing but the myosin myofilament. True.
Describe the H-zone. H-zone will go from the end of one actin myofilament to another. H-zone contains nothing but the myosin myofilament.
Describe the A-band: A-band goes from one end to the other of a myosin myofilament. A-band contains actin and myosin monofilaments.
True or false: A-zone goes from one end to the other of a myosin myofilament. A-zone contains actin and myosin monofilaments. False. A-BAND goes from one end to the other of a myosin myofilament. A-BAND contains actin and myosin monofilaments.
Describe the I-band: I-band goes from end of myosin myofiliment to the end of ANOTHER myosin myofilament in the NEXT sarcomere. I-band only contains actin myofilaments.
What is in the middle of the I-band? The Z-disk.
Usually tropomyosin covers... Active sites on the actin protein.
Muscles have to cross a <blank> in order to move the two body points. Joint.
Muscle contraction happens by the simultaneous contraction of many individual... Sarcomeres.
True or false: In sliding filament theory, the sarcomere gets shorter in a contraction but the filaments do not change in length. True.
In a contraction, where do the Z-disks move? Closer to each other.
In a contraction, the tropomyosin moves and exposes the active sites. The myosin heads attach to the actin active sites. This is known as... Crossbridge formation.
What is crossbridge formation? When the myosin heads attach to the actin active sites.
What happens upon crossbridge formation? The head of the myosin snaps and drags the filament that is attached to it.
All the receptors are <blank> in the skeletal muscle post-synaptic membrane Cholinergic.
What happens after ACh binds to the receptor in the post-synaptic membrane in the muscle? The action potential is reproduced and goes down the fiber and opens the Ca++ channels which allow extrinsic (extracellular) Ca++ to get into the sarcomere, into the fiber.
What happens after Ca++ from the outside enters the myofiber? It goes to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and releases the intrinsic Ca++ that was already there in the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
True or false: Upon stimulation of the post-synaptic receptors with ACh, extrinsic Ca++ enters the muscle cell through the triad and then interacts with the troponin, causing a muscle contraction. False. The extrinsic Ca++ has nothing to do with the troponin.
True or false: The Ca++ that is responsible for the contraction of the sarcomere is the Ca++ that is already inside. The Ca++ that comes from the outside has nothing to do with the contraction. True.
The only function of the extrinsic Ca++ is to... Release the intrinsic Ca++.
The intrinsic Ca++ binds to the... Head of the troponin.
What causes the troponin to move? Intrinsic Ca++ binding to the head of the troponin.
What happens once the intrinsic Ca++ binds to the head of the troponin? The troponin moves, causing the tropomyosin to move and expose the active sites on the actin.
What happens when the tropomyosin moves and exposes the active sites on the actin? This allows the heads of the myosin to bind to the active sites on the actin forming a crossbridge and the myosin snaps and slides and drags the actin and forms a contraction.
True or false: ATP is required for the head of the myosin to snap, contracting the sarcomere. False. ATP is not required for contraction.
When is ATP required by sarcomeres? ATP is required to release the head of the myosin from the active site on the actin.
True or false: If you don’t have ATP you cannot release the myosin and the sarcomere cannot relax. As long as you have Ca++ and energy you can keep contracting the muscles. True.
True or false: actin and myosin myofilaments shorten during contraction. False. Actin and myosin myofilaments slide over each other but do not change in length.
True or false: the sarcomere shortens during a muscle contraction. True.
What happens to the H-zone during a contraction? It shrinks or even disappears as the actin myofilaments meet at the middle of the sarcomere (the M-line).
What happens to the I-bands during a contraction? They shrink.
Acetylcholine is broken down in the synaptic space by <blank> into <blank> and <blank>. Acetylcholinesterase, into acetic acid and choline.
Choline is absorbed into the presynaptic membrane and combined with... Acetic acid to make more acetylcholine.
What are some examples of circular muscles? Orbicularus Oculi (around the eyes) and Orbicularus Orus (around the mouth).
What is an example of a convergent muscle? Pectoralis Major (chest muscle).
What are some examples of parallel muscles? Biceps Brachii (upper arm), and Sartorius (thigh).
What is an example of a bipennate muscle? Rectus Femorus (thigh).
What is an example of a unipennate muscle? Extensor Digitorum Longus.
From the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers innervated by it are called... A motor unit.
What is a motor unit? From the anterior horn cell, its axon, and the muscle fibers innervated by it.
From the anterior horn cell of the spinal cord, the axons of the motor nerves branch out to innervate a specific group of muscle fibers. Each motor neuron innervates a specific group of muscle fibers. A motor unit.
True or false: Fine movements require fewer motor units. False. Fine movements require fewer FIBERS per motor unit.
True or false: Fine movements require fewer fibers per motor unit. The more discriminating and fine the movement, the fewer fibers per motor unit. Gross movements can have more fibers per motor unit. True.
Which movements have more fibers per motor unit: fine or gross? Gross.
True or false: The motor unit behaves as a single entity and contracts as a whole when it receives an electrical impulse. True.
The number of motor units per individual muscle varies greatly. In the calf, for example, one motor axon will innervate approximately <blank> muscle fibers, out of a total of 1,200,000 muscle fibers. 2,000.
About how many muscle fibers are in the calf? About 1,200,000.
All muscles have <blank> and <blank> and they will go across a joint. Origin and insertion.
What is a sphinchter? A circular muscle that regulates opening and closing of a body cavity.
What are the two types of muscle contraction? Isometric and isotonic.
Define isometric contraction: Isometric contraction(static or holding contraction) maintains a constant length while the tension is increased.
What kind of contraction is this: the arm or leg is pushed against an immovable object. The muscle contracts, but the limb does not move. Isometric contraction.
What happens in isotonic contraction? Isotonic contraction, the muscle maintains a constant tension as it moves.
True or false: in isotonic contraction, the muscle becomes shorter. False. In isotonic contraction, the muscle can increase OR decrease in length.
What is the best exercise for the heart? Isotonic.
What are the two types of isotonic contractions? Isotonic contractions can be eccentric (lengthening) or concentric (shortening).
True or false: Isotonic contractions can be eccentric (shortening) or concentric (lengthening). False. Isotonic contractions can be eccentric (LENGTHENING) or concentric (SHORTENING).
Positive work is accomplished during <blank> contraction, and <blank> is released to exert force or lift a weight. Concentric, energy.
When is positive work accomplished? During isotonic concentric contractions.
When is energy released to exert force or lift a weight? During isotonic concentric contractions.
What happens during eccentric contraction? During an eccentric contraction the muscle lengthens and absorbs energy.
What does the muscle do with energy during eccentric contraction? It absorbs energy.
True or false: during isometric eccentric contraction, the muscle lengthens and absorbs energy. False. During an ISOTONIC eccentric contraction the muscle lengthens and absorbs energy.
Created by: Chelsea Leigh Jones Chelsea Leigh Jones on 2010-04-21



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